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THE JOURNAL OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL 
INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 






archaeological %n$titutt of America 



AMERICAN 



JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY 



THE JOURNAL OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL 
INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

( 

VOLUME VI 

el- 
t ' 

1902 




NORAVOOD, MASS. 

PUBLISHED FOK THE INSTITUTE BY 

2Ti)e Nortoooti Press 

NEW YORK: THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 
LONDON: MACMILLAN & CO., LTD. 




American Journal of Archaeology 

SECOND SERIES 

THE JOURNAL OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

Vol. VI, 1902 

(^tutorial 3l5oarD 

Editor-in-Chief 
JOHN HENRY WRIGHT, 

Professor in Harvard University. 

Associate Editors 

J. R. S. STERRETT (for the American School at Athens), 
Professor in Cornell University. 

ALLAN MARQUAND (for the American School in Rome) , 
Professor in Princeton University. 

HAROLD N. FOWLER, 

Professor in Western Reserve University. 

HENRY W. HAYNES, 

Late Professor in the University of Vermont. 

Honorary Editors 

JOHN WILLIAMS WHITE (President of the Institute), 
Professor in Harvard University. 

JAMES R. WHEELER (Chairman of the Managing Committee 
of the School at Athens), 

Professor in Columbia University. 

ANDREW F. WEST (Chairman of the Managing Committee 
of the School in Rome), 

Professor in Princeton University. 

Business Manager 
CLARENCE H. YOUNG, 

Adjunct Professor in Columbia University. 

faUttortal Contributors 

Miss MARY H. BUCKINGHAM, Professor ELMER T. MERRILL, 

Classical Archaeology. Roman Archaeology. 

Professor HARRY E. BURTON, Dr. GEORGE N. OLCOTT, 

Roman Archaeology. Numismatics. 

Professor JAMES C. EGBERT, JR., Professor JAMES M. PATON, 

Roman Epigraphy. Classical Archaeology. 



CONTENTS' 



PAGE 

Council of the Archaeological Institute of America . . . . xiii 

Officers of the Affiliated Societies xvi 

Managing Committee of the School at Athens . xxi 

Managing Committee of the School in Rome xxiii 

Managing Committee of the School in Palestine .... xxvi 
Foreign Honorary Members of the Institute .... xxviii 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA : 

Some Problems in North American Archaeology. FRANZ BOAS . 1 
Architectural Refinements in Italian Churches. 

WILLIAM H. GOODYEAR 166 
Investigations at Assos .......... 340 

The Stage Entrances of the Small Theatre at Pompeii. 

FRANCIS W. KELSEY 387 
Etruscan Horseshoes from Corneto (Plate XIV). 

WILLIAM NICKERSON BATES 398 
Numismatic Notes: I. A Hoard of Roman Coins from Tarquinii. 

GEORGE N. OLCOTT 404 

On the "Mourning Athena" Relief. ARTHUR FAIRBANKS . . 410 

The Argive Heraeum .......... 417 

THE CRETAN EXPEDITION OF THE INSTITUTE : 

XXI. Gortyna. ANTONIO TARAMKLLI 101 

AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES AT ATHENS: 
A Series of Colossal Statues at Corinth (Plates I- VI). 

RUFUS B. RICHARDSON 7 
An Ancient Fountain in the Agora at Corinth (Plates VII-X). 

RUFUS B. RICHARDSON 306 
The"Ywm0pos Kpyvrj of Pireiie (Plates XT, XII). 

RUFUS B. RICHARDSON 321 
The Origin of the Red-figured Technique in Attic Vases. 

MAY LOUISE NICHOLS 327 



iv CONTENTS 

PAGE 

AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES AT ATHENS Continued: 
Various Statues from Corinth (Plates XV, XVI). 

.JAMES TUCKER, JR. 422 

The Lechaeum Road and the Propylaea at Corinth (Plates XVII, 
XVIII). JOSHUA M. SEARS, JR. . . . . . . 439 

AMERICAN SCHOOL OF CLASSICAL STUDIES IN ROME : 

Studies in the Lives of Roman Empresses : I. Julia Domna. 

MARY GILMORE WILLIAMS 259 

AMERICAN SCHOOL OF ORIENTAL STUDY AND RESEARCH IN PAL- 
ESTINE : 

Remains of a Mediaeval Christian Church at Zer'in (Plate XIII). 

G. SCHUMACHER 338 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS AND DISCUSSIONS (July, 1901-June, 1902) 
H. N. FOWLER, Editor: 

NOTES OF RECENT EXCAVATIONS AND DISCOVERIES ; OTHER NEWS 55, 343 

Oriental, Classical, and Christian Archaeology: General and Mis- 
cellaneous, 55, 343 ; Egypt, 57, 345 ; Babylonia, 60, 348 ; Syria 
and Palestine, 61, 348; Arabia, 350; Asia Minor, 63, 350; 
Thrace, 66 ; Thrace and Scythia, 354 ; Greece, 66, 355 ; Italy, 
f 74, 362; Spain, 368; France, 82, 368; Germany, 83, 370; 
Austria, 86; Great Britain, 86, 372; Africa, 88, 373; United 
States, 375. 

Byzantine, Mediaeval, and Renaissance Art: General and Mis- 
cellaneous, 90, 379 ; Palestine, 91 ; Italy, 92, 380 ; Spain, 384 ; 
France, 95 ; France and Belgium, 384 ; Germany, 97, 384 ; 
Holland and Belgium, 97; Great Britain, 98; Austria, 385; 
England, 385. 

SUMMARIES OF ARTICLES CHIEFLY IN RECENT PERIODICALS . 197,455 

Oriental, Classical, and Christian Archaeology: General and Mis- 
cellaneous, 197, 455; Egypt, 458; Asia, 200, 459; Greece, 202, 
462 (Architecture, 202, 462; Sculpture, 203, 463; Vases and 
Painting, 206, 469; Inscriptions, 210, 472; General and Mis- 
cellaneous, 212, 475); Italy, 216, 478 (Architecture, 216, 478; 
Sculpture, 216, 479; Vases and Painting, 217, 481; Inscrip- 
tions, 217, 481 ; Coins, 482 ; General and Miscellaneous, 218, 
482); France, 221, 484; Germany, 222; Africa, 486; Great 
Britain, 487. 



CONTENTS V 

PAGE 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS AND DISCUSSIONS Continued: 

Christian, Byzantine, and Mediaeval Art: General and Miscel- 
laneous, 223, 487; Italy, 224, 490; France, 225, 491; Spain, 
226, 491; Germany, 227; Germany and Austria, 492; Great 
Britain and Ireland, 228 ; Africa, 229 ; England, 492. 

Renaissance Art: Italy, 229, 493; France, 233, 501; Nether- 
lands, 234 ; Germany, 235 ; Spain, 236 ; England, 502. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL BOOKS (1901). 

-H. N. FOWLER, Editor 237 
General and Miscellaneous ......... 237 

Egyptian Archaeology 241 

Oriental Archaeology 241 

Classical Archaeology .......... 242 

Greek and Roman :......... 242 

Greek, 244 (I, General and Miscellaneous, 244 ; II, Architecture, 
247 ; III, Sculpture, 247 ; IV, Vases and Painting, 247 ; V, In- 
scriptions, 248 ; VI, Coins, 248) 244 

Roman, 248 (I, General and Miscellaneous, 248 ; II, Architecture, 
251 ; III, Sculpture, 252 ; IV, Vases and Painting, 222 ; V, In- 
scriptions, 252 ; VI, Coins, 252) 248 

Christian and Later Art 252 

(I, General and Miscellaneous, 252 ; II, Byzantine and Mediaeval, 
254 ; III, Renaissance, 256.) 

Abbreviations used in the News, Discussions, and Bibliography . . 99 



GENERAL MEETING OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMER- 
ICA, NEW YORK, December 26-28, 1901 23 

PROCEEDINGS, WITH TITLES AND BRIEF ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS 
AND ADDRESSES: 

Address. JULIUS SACHS 24 

A Cylix in the Style of Duris. J. C. HOPPIN 24 

An Ancient Herm from Trachones. F. C. BABBITT .... 24 

The Reciprocal Influence of the Doric and Ionic Styles in Greek Archi- 
tecture. T. W. HEERMANCE ........ 25 

Robbia Pavements. ALLAN MARQUAND ...... 25 

Notes: (1) On the DVENOS Inscription ; (2) On the so-called Sena- 
tusconsultum de Bacchanalibus ; (3) On the Sanction in Legal 

Inscriptions. E. S. SHUMWAY 26 



vi CONTENTS 

PAGE 

On the "Mourning Athena" Relief. ARTHUR FAIRBANKS . . 26 

Some Statues from Corinth. JAMES TUCKER, JR 26 

The so-called Restoration of the Parthenon now in Progress. 

E.P.ANDREWS 27 
The Sanctuary of Zeus Madbachos on the Djebel ShSkb Berekat in 

Syria. W. K. PRENTICE 27 

Explorations in Mississippi. CHARLES PEABODY .... 28 

Some Illustrations of Dorpfeld's Ithaca-Leucas Theory. E. D. PERRY 29 

An Ancient Fountain in the Agora of Corinth. R. B. RICHARDSON . 29 
Newly Discovered Facts in Regard to the Different Series of Orna- 
ment Attached to the Architrave of the Parthenon. 

E. P. ANDREWS 30 

Concerning the Two Temples of Hera at Argos. E. L. TILTON . . 32 
Some Names found on Coan Inscriptions. ERNST RIESS . . .32 
(1) A Recently Discovered Phoenician Temple Ruin ; (2) A Hoard of 

Ancient Phoenician Silver Coins. C. C. TORREY .... 33 
" Calynthus" or Calainis: a Note on Paus. X, 13, 10. 

ALICE WALTON 34 

(1) A Babylonian Deed of Gift from the Sixth pre-Christian Millen- 
nium ; (2) The Haverford Library Collection of Cuneiform Tablets. 

G. A. BARTON 35 

The Dead who are not Dead. LUCIA C. G. GRIEVE .... 37 

Ancient Sacrifice among Modern Semites. S. I. CURTISS ... 38 

Some Archaeological Memoranda made in India. A. V. W. JACKSON 38 

Symbols of Babylonian Gods. W. H. WARD 39 

The Origin of the Red-figured Technique in Attic Vases. 

MAY LOUISE NICHOLS 39 

Some Terra-cotta Types from the Heraeum. G. H. CHASE . . 40 

Address. E. Y. HINCKS 41 

Some Problems of American Archaeology. FRANZ BOAS ... 41 

The Hittite Lituus. W. H. WARD 41 

Figurines from Tell Sandahannah. T.F.WRIGHT .... 42 
Report of the Board of Managers of the American School in Palestine. 

T. F. WRIGHT 43 
Report on the Endowment Fund for Exploration and Excavation under 

the Direction of the School in Palestine. J. B. NIES ... 44 

The Civilization of Canaan in the Fifteenth Century B.C. L. B. PATON 44 

Some Aspects of the Work of Heinrich Brunn. J. H. WRIGHT . . 44 
New Observations on Architectural Refinements in Italian Churches. 

W. H. GOODYEAR 44 

Four Early Palmyraean Inscriptions. ENNO LITTMANN ... 44 
Fragment of a Treasure-List found in the Acropolis Wall of Athens. 

C. N. BROWN 45 
The Place of Classical Archaeology in the Secondary School. 

ERNST RIESS 46 
A Canard, a Quarry, a Query. K. P. HARRINGTON .... 46 

Notes on the Greek Alphabet. M. L. EARLE 46 

The Credibility of Xenophon's Anabasis. FITZGERALD TISDALL . 47 



CONTENTS vii 

PAGE 

Report on the Establishment of the Travelling Fellowship in American 

Archaeology. F. W. PUTNAM . 48 

Mycenaean Discoveries at Gournia, in the Neighborhood of Kavonsi, 

Crete. HARRIET A. BOYD ........ 48 

The Pottery at Gournia. BLANCHE E. WHEELER .... 49 

Roman Church Mosaics of the First Nine Centuries. W. W. BISHOP 49 
The Language and Style of the Preamble of Diocletian's Edict De 

pretiis Venalium Eerum. J. C. ROLFE 50 

The Runic Inscription on the Anglo-Saxon Sword found on the Isle of 

Wight. GEORGE HEMPL ........ 51 

The Draped Female Figures from the Acropolis. An Attempt at 

Classification. EDMUND VON MACH ...... 51 

Studies in the Life of a Roman Empress. MARY GILMORE WILLIAMS 52 

Heracles Alexicacus. J. R. WHEELER . 53 

The Maidens' Race on Attic Vases. J.W.KYLE .... 53 

Descent reckoned wrpbeev.J. R, S. STERRETT . 53 

Etruscan Horseshoes from Corneto. W. N. BATES .... 53 

Titles of Papers withdrawn .......... 54 



PLATES 



PAGE 

I. Colossal Male Figure from Corinth 11 

II. Second Colossal Male Figure from Corinth : Head . . . .11 

II a. Second Colossal Male Figure from Corinth 11 

- III. Colossal Female Heads from Corinth 11 

IV. Series of Colossal Statues from Corinth : Proposed Foundation for 

Porch 11 

V. Plaque of Coffered Ceiling : Helios and Selene . . . .11 

VI. Series of Colossal Figures from Corinth . . . . . .11 

VII. Ancient Fountain at Corinth : View of the Eastern Side . . 307 

VIII. Ancient Fountain at Corinth : View from the South . . . 307 

IX. Ancient Fountain at Corinth : Colors of the Triglyphon , . 307 

X. Ancient Fountain at Corinth : Elevation of Interior . . . 307 

XI. Pirene in 1901 : Ground Plan of Quadrangular Basin . . .321 

XII. Pirene in 1901 : Quadrangular Basin ...... 321 

XIII. A Mediaeval Church at Zer'ln (Jezreel) : Ground-Plan , . . 339 

XIV. Etruscan Horseshoes from Corneto ...,.. 398 
XV. Colossal Female Figure from Corinth ....... 430 

XVI. Second Colossal Female Figure from Corinth 431 

XVII. The Lechaeuui Road and Propylaea at Corinth : Ground-Plan . 439 

XVIII. The Lechaeum Road at Corinth : View looking South . . .439 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT 



Fragment of Colossal Male Figure from Corinth . .8 

Fragment of Colossal Male Figure 9 

Corinthian Capital , 10 

Abacus of a Corinthian Capital 10 

Corner Architrave Block . . 11 

Architectural Mouldings 13 

Base for Colossal Figure 14 

Base for Colossal Figure . . . .15 

Architrave Block ... 18 

ix 



X ILL USTEA TIONS 

PAGE 

Cornice Block 19 

General Plan of Gortyna 102 

Tournefort's View of Gortyna and Acropolis . . . . . . 104 

The Acropolis of Gortyna : General Plan 106 

Theatre at Gortyna, near the Lethaeus 109 

Theatre near the Lethaeus at Gortyna : Section .110 

Theatre near the Pythion at Gortyna : Ground-Plan . . . . . 114 

Theatre near the Pythion at Gortyna : Section 115 

Bronze Clamps from a Wall near the Pythion 117 

Reservoirs for Water, near the Theatre on the Acropolis . . . .119 

Probable Course of the Aqueduct of Gortyna 121 

The Caput Aquae : Ground-Plan . .123 

The Caput Aquae : Section 124 

The Caput Aquae : Section 124 

Aqueduct between Zaro and Gortyna : Water Channel .... 126 

Channel of Aqueduct from Zaro to Gortyna 127 

Fountains near a Roman Villa 128 

The Route of the Aqueduct near the Acropolis 129 

Section of the Aqueduct (Upper) 131 

Section of the Aqueduct (Lower) 132 

Plan of the Siphon in the Aqueduct near the Lethaeus .... 133 

The Aqueduct on Level Ground 135 

Plan of a Ruined Byzantine Church near the Lethaeus .... 136 

Well into the Aqueduct near the Acropolis 138 

View of the Polygonal Bastion (from the North) 142 

Section of the Circuit Wall of the Acropolis 145 

Fragments from the Wall of the Acropolis of Gortyna 149 

Plan of the Fort of Koummeh in Egypt 152 

Fort of Korn-Ombo in Egypt 153 

Plan of the Kdo-rpo on the Summit of the Acropolis 155 

Section of the Walls of the Kdvrpo on the Acropolis 156 

Tomb of Roman Times on the Acropolis 159 

Roman Tomb at Gortyna : Plan and Sections 161 

Cloister of the Celestines at Bologna : Horizontal Curves in Plan . . 169 

Cloister of the Celestines at Bologna : Horizontal Curves in Plan . . 170 
Cloister of S. Zeno at Verona : Horizontal Curves in Plan . . . .171 
Delicate Vertical Curves in the Pilasters of Chapel Walls in the Cathedral 

of Vicenza 179 

The Outward Spread of the Piers in St. Mark's at Venice .... 180 

S. Agostino at Orvieto 182 

Right Aisle of S. Ambrogio, Milan 184 

Right Aisle of S. Eustorgio, Milan, looking toward the Fa$ade . . . 185 

The Leaning Faade of Pisa Cathedral 187 

The Leaning Fa9ade of S. Michele, Pavia 188 

The Leaning Facade of S. Michele, Pavia 189 

The Leaning Facade of S. Ambrogio, Genoa 191 

The Leaning Faade of S. Ambrogio, Genoa ... ... 192 

Detail of the Fa$ade of St. Mark's, Venice 193 



ILLUSTRATIONS xi 

PAGE 

Ancient Fountain at Corinth : Ground-Plan 307 

Ancient Fountain at Corinth : Elevation and Profile of the Triglyphon . 309 

Ancient Fountain : Ground-Plan of Earlier Portion . . . . 313 

Limestone Plaque in Front of South Face of Triglyphon .... 317 

Lion's Head from the Ancient Fountain 319 

Bronze Statue from Ephesus 352 

Head of Bronze Statue from Ephesus 353 

Plan of the Palace at Cnossus 358 

Plan of the Small Theatre at Pompeii 388 

View of the Small Theatre at Pompeii. From the Inner End of the Left 

Parodos 390 

Exterior of the Basilica at Pompeii, as restored by Professor Mau . . 392 

Detail of the Right End of the Stage with a Periaktos in Position . . 396 

The "Mourning Athena" Stele 412 

Lekythos in the National Museum at Athens, with Athena .... 413 
Two Lions' Heads from the Fountain of Glauce, in Corinth ; A Late Male 

Portrait Head 423 

Roman Portrait Statue of a Woman, from Corinth 424 

Figure, from Corinth : Fragments 428 

Torso of Aphrodite, from Corinth 437 

Roman Coins of Corinth, showing Hermes and the Ram .... 442 

Lechaeum Road : Remains of Eastern Podium 445 

Lechaeum Road : Wall to the West of the Platform 447 

Roman Imperial Coins, representing the Propylaea at Corinth . . . 450 

Mirror-case from Corinth, showing the Propylaea at Corinth . . . 453 



archaeological gingtitute of 



COUNCIL OF THE INSTITUTE 

1902-1903 



President 

PROFESSOR JOHN WILLIAMS WHITE, PH.D., LL.D., LITT.D., Harvard Uni- 
versity, of the Boston Society. 

Honorary Presidents 

PROFESSOR CHARLES ELIOT NORTON, LITT.D., LL.D., D.C.L., Harvard 

University, of the Boston Society. 
HON. SETH LOW, LL.D., New York, of the New York Society. 

Vice-Presidents 

MR. CHARLES P. BOWDITCH, A.M., Boston, of the Boston Society. 

PRESIDENT DANIEL C. OILMAN, LL.D., Baltimore, of the Baltimore Society. 

PROFESSOR W. J. McGEE, LL.D., Bureau of American Ethnology, of the 
Washington Society. 

MR. MARTIN A. RYERSON, LL.B., Chicago, of the Chicago Society. 

PROFESSOR THOMAS DAY SEYMOUR, LL.D., Yale University, of the Con- 
necticut Society. 

Secretary 

PROFESSOR FRANCIS W. KELSEY, PH.D., University of Michigan, of the 
Detroit Society. 

Treasurer 

MR. JAMES H. HYDE, A.B., 120, Broadway, New York, of the New York 
Society. 

Editor-in-Chief of the Journal 

PROFESSOR JOHN HENRY WRIGHT, LL.D., Harvard University, of the Bos- 
ton Society. 

Business Manager of the Journal 

PROFESSOR CLARENCE H. YOUNG, PH.D., Columbia University, of the New 
York Society. 



xiv ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 



Other Members of the Council 

MR. CYRUS ABLER, PH.D., Smithsonian Institution, of the Washington 
Society. 

MR. GEORGE A. ARMOUR, A.B., Princeton, of the Chicago Society. 

PROFESSOR FRANK COLE BABBITT, PH.D., Trinity College, of the Con- 
necticut Society. 

MR. SELDEN BACON, A.M., LL.B., New York, of the Wisconsin Society. 

HON. SIMEON E. BALDWIN, LL.D., Yale University, President of the New 
Haven Society. 

PROFESSOR F. O. BATES, Detroit, of the Detroit Society. 

MR. GEORGE W. BATES, A.M., Detroit, President of the Detroit Society. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM N. BATES, PH.D., University of Pennsylvania, of the 
Pennsylvania Society. 

PROFESSOR MITCHELL CARROLL, PH.D., The Columbian University, of 
the Washington Society. 

PROFESSOR WALTER DENNISON, PH.D., University of Michigan, of the 
Detroit Society. 

PROFESSOR MARTIN L. D'OOGE, PH.D., LL.D., LITT.D., University of Michi- 
gan, of the Detroit Society. 

MR. HOWARD P. EELLS, A.B., Cleveland, President of the Cleveland Society. 

PROFESSOR ARTHUR FAIRBANKS, PH.D., Iowa State University, President 
of the Iowa Society. 

HON. JOHN W. FOSTER, LL.D., Washington, President of the Washington 
Society. 

PROFESSOR HAROLD N. FOWLER, PH.D., Western Reserve University, of 
the Cleveland Society. 

PROFESSOR ARTHUR L. FROTHINGHAM, JR., PH.D., Princeton Univer- 
sity, of the Baltimore Society. 

PROFESSOR BASIL L. GILDERSLEEVE, PH.D., LL.D., D.C.L., Johns Hop- 
kins University, President of the Baltimore Society. 

MR. WILLIAM FEN WICK HARRIS, A.M., Harvard University, of the 
Boston Society. 

PROFESSOR JOSEPH CLARK HOPPIN, PH.D., Bryn Mawr College, President 
of the Pennsylvania Society. 

MR. CHARLES L. HUTCH INSON, LL.D., Chicago, of the Chicago Society. 

MR. JAMES LOEB, A.B., New York, of the New York Society. 

REV. WALTER LOWRIE, A.M., Philadelphia, of the Pennsylvania Society. 

PROFESSOR J. H. T. MAIN, PH.D., Iowa College, of the Iowa Society. 

PROFESSOR W. G. MANLY, A.M., University of Missouri, President of the 
Missouri Society. 

MR. THEODORE MARBURG, Baltimore, of the Baltimore Society. 

PROFESSOR ALLAN MARQUAND, PH.D., L.H.D., Princeton University, of 
the New York Society. 

Miss ELLEN F. MASON, Boston, of the Boston Society. 

PROFESSOR GEORGE F. MOORE, D.D., Harvard University, of the Boston 
Society. 

PROFESSOR EDWARD DEL A VAN PERRY, PH.D., Columbia University, of 
the New York Society. 



COUNCIL OF THE INSTITUTE XV 

MR. FREDERIC J. DE PEYSTER, A.M., LL.B., New York, of the New 

York Society. 
PROFESSOR SAMUEL BALL PLATNER, PH.D., Western Reserve University, 

of the Cleveland Society. 

MR. EDWARD ROBINSON, A.B., Boston, -of the Boston Society. 
PROFESSOR JULIUS SACHS, PH.D., New York, President of the New York 

Society. 
PROFESSOR F. W. SHIPLEY, PH.D., Washington University, of the Missouri 

Society. 
PROFESSOR CHARLES FORSTER SMITH, PH.D., University of Wisconsin, 

President of the Wisconsin Society. 
PROFESSOR FRANK B. TARBELL, PH.D., University of Chicago, President 

of the Chicago Society. 
PROFESSOR FITZGERALD TISDALL, PH.D., College of the City of New 

York, of the New York Society. 

PROFESSOR CHARLES C. TORREY, PH.D., Yale University, of the Connecti- 
cut Society. 

PROFESSOR ALICE WALTON, PH.D., Wellesley College, of the Boston Society. 
PROFESSOR ANDREW F. WEST, PH.D., LL.D., Princeton University, of the 

New York Society. 
PROFESSOR JAMES R. WHEELER, PH.D., Columbia University, of the New 

York Society. 

MRS. H. WHITMAN, Boston, President of the Boston Society. 
PROFESSOR THEODORE F. WRIGHT, PH.D., Cambridge, of the Boston 

Society. 



Sffiliatrt Societies 
of tie archaeological 
Institute of america 



OFFICERS OF THE SOCIETIES 

1902-1903 



BOSTON SOCIETY 

President 
MRS. H. WHITMAN. 

Vice-President 
PROFESSOR HENRY W. HAYNES, A.M. 

Secretary 
MR. ERNEST JACKSON, A.M. 

Treasurer 
MR. GARDINER M. LANE, A.B. 



NEW YORK SOCIETY 

President 
PROFESSOR JULIUS SACHS. 

Vice-Presidents 

DR. MORRIS K. JESUP. 

REV. JOHN P. PETERS, PH.D., Sc.D., D.D. 
RT. REV. HENRY C. POTTER, S.T.D., LL.D. 
PROFESSOR WILLIAM R. WARE, LL.D. 
MR. HORACE WHITE, LL.D. 

Secretary 
PROFESSOR NELSON G. McCREA, PH.D. 

Treasurer 

MR. EDWARD L. TILTON. 
xvi 



OFFICERS OF THE AFFILIATED SOCIETIES xvii 

BALTIMORE SOCIETY 

President 
PROFESSOR BASIL L. GILDERSLEEVE, PH.D., LL.D., D.C.L. 

Vice-Presidents 

MR. MENDES COHEN. 
Miss ALICE C. FLETCHER. 
PRESIDENT DANIEL C. OILMAN, LL.D. 
MR. WILLIAM W. SPENCE. 

Secretary 
PROFESSOR KIRBY F. SMITH, PH.D. 

Treasurer 
MR. EDGAR G. MILLER. 



PENNSYLVANIA SOCIETY 

President 
PROFESSOR JOSEPH CLARK HOP PIN, PH.D. 

Vice-Presidents 

MRS. CORNELIUS STEVENSON, Sc.D. 

PROFESSOR HERMAN V. HILPRECHT, PH.D., D.D., LL.D. 

Secretary and Treasurer 
PROFESSOR WILLIAM N. BATES, PH.D. 



CHICAGO SOCIETY 

President 
PROFESSOR FRANK BIGELOW TARBELL, PH.D. 

Vice-Presidents 

MR. JOHN J. GLESSNER. 

HON. FRANKLIN MACVEAGH, A.B., LL.B. 

Secretary 
PROFESSOR CLARENCE F. CASTLE, PH.D. 

Treasurer 
PROFESSOR EDWARD CAPPS, PH.D. 



xviii ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

DETROIT SOCIETY 

President 
MR. GEORGE WILLIAMS BATES, A.M. 

Vice-Presidents 

PROFESSOR MARTIN L. D'OOGE, PH.D., LL.D., LITT.D. 
COL. FRANK J. HECKER. 
HON. WILLIAM E. QUINBY. 

Secretary and Treasurer 
MR. PERCY IVES. 



WISCONSIN SOCIETY 

President 
PROFESSOR CHARLES FORSTER SMITH, PH.D. 

V ice-President 
Miss ALICE G. CHAPMAN. 

Secretary and Treasurer 
PROFESSOR MOSES STEPHEN SLAUGHTER, Pn.D. 



CLEVELAND SOCIETY 

President 
MR. HOWARD P. EELLS, A.B. 

Vice-President 
MR. MALCOLM S. GREENOUGH, A.B. 

Secretary and Treasurer 
PROFESSOR HAROLD NORTH FOWLER, P H .D. 



OFFICERS OF THE AFFILIATED SOCIETIES xix 

CONNECTICUT SOCIETY 

President 
HON. SIMEON E. BALDWIN, LL.D. 

Vice-Presidents 

PROFESSOR TRACY PECK, A.M. 
PROFESSOR JAMES M. PATON, Pn.D. 

Secretary and Treasurer 
PROFESSOR HORATIO M. REYNOLDS, A.M. 

MISSOURI SOCIETY 

President 
PROFESSOR W. G. MANLY, A.M. 

Vice-Presidents 

HON. GARDNER LATHROP, LL.B. 
PROFESSOR F. W. SHIPLEY, PH.D. 

Secretary 
MR. C. E. MILLER. 

Treasurer 
PROFESSOR W. E. GRUBE, A.M. 



WASHINGTON SOCIETY 

President 
HON. JOHN W. FOSTER, LL.D. 

Vice-Presidents 

RT. REV. THOMAS J. CON AT Y, D.D. 
PRESIDENT SAMUEL H. GREENE, D.D., LL.D. 
PROFESSOR WILLIAM HENRY HOLMES. 
PRESIDENT CHARLES W. NEEDHAM, LL.D. 
MRS. ELIZABETH J. SOMERS, M.A. 

Secretary 
PROFESSOR MITCHELL CARROLL, Pn.D. 

Treasurer 
MR. JOHN B. LARNER, LL.B. 



XX 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

IOWA SOCIETY 

President 
PROFESSOR ARTHUR FAIRBANKS, PH.D. 

Vice-Presidents 

PROFESSOR J. H. T. MAIN, PH.D. 
PROFESSOR W. H. EBERSOLE, A.M. 

Secretary and Treasurer 
MRS. MAX MAYER. 



American Scijool 
of Classical Studies 
at 



MANAGING COMMITTEE 

1902-1903 



Chairman 
PROFESSOR JAMES R. WHEELER, PH.D., of Columbia University. 

Secretary 
PROFESSOR HORATIO M. REYNOLDS, A.M., of Yale University. 

Treasurer 
MR. GARDINER M. LANE, A.B., of Boston. 

PROFESSOR H. M. BAIRD, D.D., LL.D., of New York University. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM N. BATES, PH.D., of the University of Pennsylvania. 

PROFESSOR A. C. CHAPIN, A.M., of Wellesley College. 

PROFESSOR EDWARD B. CLAPP, PH.D., of the University of California. 

PROFESSOR MARTIN L. D'OOGE, PH.D., LL.D., LITT.D., of the University 
of Michigan. 

PROFESSOR EDGAR A. EMENS, A.M., of Syracuse University. 

PROFESSOR HAROLD N. FOWLER, PH.D., of Western Reserve University. 

PROFESSOR ABRAHAM L. FULLER, PH.D., of Adelbert College of West- 
ern Reserve University. 

PROFESSOR HENRY GIBBONS, PH.D., of the University of Pennsylvania. 

PROFESSOR BASIL L. GILDERSLEEVE, PH.D., LL.D., D.C.L., of Johns 
Hopkins University. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM W. GOODWIN, PH.D., LL.D., D.C.L., of Harvard 
University. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM GARDNER HALE, LL.D., of the University of Chi- 
cago. 

PROFESSOR ALBERT HARKNESS, PH.D., LL.D., of Brown University. 

PROFESSOR JOHN H. HEWITT, LL.D., of Williams College. 

PROFESSOR JOSEPH CLARK HOPPIN, PH.D., of Bryn Mawr College. 

PROFESSOR GEORGE E. HOWES, PH.D., of the University of Vermont. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM A. LAMBERTON, LITT.D., of the University of 
Pennsylvania. 

PROFESSOR ABBY LEACH, A.M., of Vassar College. 

PROFESSOR GEORGE DANA LORD, A.M., of Dartmouth College. 

xxi 



xxii AMERICAN SCHOOL AT ATHENS 

Miss ELLEN F. MASON, of Boston. 

PROFESSOR GEORGE F. MOORE, D.D. (ex officio, as Chairman of the Man- 
aging Committee of the School in Palestine), of Harvard University. 
PROFESSOR CHARLES ELIOT NORTON, LITT.D., LL.D., D.C.L., of Harvard 

University. 

PROFESSOR BERNADOTTE PERRIN, PH.D., LL.D., of Yale University. 
PROFESSOR EDWARD DELAVAN PERRY, PH.D., of Columbia University. 
MR. FREDERIC J. DE PEYSTER, A.M., LL.B., of New York. 
PROFESSOR WILLIAM CAREY POLAND, A.M., of Brown University. 
PROFESSOR W. K. PRENTICE, PH.D., of Princeton University. 
PROFESSOR LOUISE F. RANDOLPH, of Mt. Holyoke College. 
PROFESSOR RUFUS B. RICHARDSON, PH.D. (ex officio, as Director of the 

School), of Athens. 

PROFESSOR H. N. SANDERS, A.B., of Bryn Mawr College. 
PROFESSOR THOMAS DAY SEYMOUR, LL.D., of Yale University. 
PROFESSOR PAUL SHOREY, PH.D. of the University of Chicago. 
PROFESSOR H. DsF. SMITH, A.M., of Amherst College. 
PROFESSOR HERBERT WEIR SMYTH, PH.D., of Harvard University. 
PROFESSOR J. R. SITLINGTON STERRETT, PH.D., of Cornell University. 
PROFESSOR FRANK B. TARBELL, PH.D., of the University of Chicago. 
PROFESSOR FITZGERALD TISDALL, PH.D., of the College of the City of 

New York. 

PROFESSOR HENRY M. TYLER, A.M., of Smith College. 
PROFESSOR WILLIAM R. WARE, LL.D., of Columbia University. 
PROFESSOR ANDREW F. WEST, PH.D., LL.D. (ex officio, as Chairman of 

the Managing Committee of the School in Rome), of Princeton University. 
PRESIDENT BENJAMIN IDE WHEELER, PH.D., LL.D., of the University 

of California. 
PROFESSOR JOHN WILLIAMS WHITE, PH.D., LL.D., Lrrx.D. (ex officio, as 

President of the Institute) , of Harvard University. 

PROFESSOR SAMUEL ROSS WINANS, PH.D., .of Princeton University. 
PROFESSOR JOHN HENRY WRIGHT, LL.D. (ex officio, as Editor-in-Chief 

of the Journal of the Institute), of Harvard University. 



American Scijool 
of Classical StuWe* 
in Home 



MANAGING COMMITTEE 

1902-1903 



Chairman 
PROFESSOR ANDREW F. WEST, PH.D., LL.D., of Princeton University. 

Secretary 

PROFESSOR SAMUEL BALL PLATNER, PH.D., of Western Reserve Univer- 
sity. 

Treasurer 
MR. C. C. CUTLER, A.B., of New York. 

PROFESSOR FRANK FROST ABBOTT, PH.D., of the University of Chicago. 

MRS. WILLIAM F. ALLEN, of Madison. 

MR. ALLISON V. ARMOUR, A.B., of New York. 

MR. GEORGE A. ARMOUR, A.B., of Princeton. 

PROFESSOR SIDNEY G. ASHMORE, L.H.D., of Union University. 

MR. ROBERT BACON, A.B. (ex officio, as Trustee of the School), of New 
York. 

PROFESSOR G. E. BARBER, A.M., of the University of Nebraska. 

PROFESSOR H. J. BARTON, A.M., of the University of Illinois. 

PROFESSOR CHARLES E. BENNETT, A.B., of Cornell University. 

MRS. EMMONS ELAINE, of Chicago. 

PROFESSOR D. BONBRIGHT, LL.D., of Northwestern University. 

PROFESSOR J. EVERETT BRADY, PH.D., of Smith College. 

MR. WILLIAM H. BUCKLER, of Baltimore. 

PROFESSOR HENRY F. BURTON, A.M., of the University of Rochester. 

PROFESSOR J. S. CLARK, A.B., of the University of Minnesota. 

RT. REV. MGR. THOMAS J. CONATY, D.D., Rector of the Catholic Univer- 
sity of America. 

MR. FREDERIC R, COUDERT, J.U.D., LL.D., of New York. 

PROFESSOR W. L. COWLES, A.M., of Amherst College. 

PROFESSOR A. N. CURRIER, LL.D., of the State University of Iowa. 

HON. HORACE DAVIS, LL.D., of San Francisco. 

PROFESSOR S. C. DERBY, A.M., of the Ohio State University. 

PROFESSOR JAMES H. DILLARD, LITT.D., of Tulane University. 

RT. REV. WILLIAM C. DOANE, D.D., LL.D., Bishop of Albany. 

PROFESSOR MORTIMER LAMSON EARLE, PH.D., of Barnard College. 

xxiii 



xxiv AMERICAN SCHOOL IN ROME 

PROFESSOR JAMES C. EGBERT, JR., PH.D., of Columbia University. 

MR. LOUIS R. EHRICH, A.M., of Colorado Springs. 

PROFESSOR ALFRED EMERSON, PH.D., of the University of California. 

PROFESSOR HENRY P. EMERSON, A.M., of Buffalo. 

PROFESSOR HAROLD N. FOWLER, PH.D., of Western Reserve University. 

PROFESSOR ARTHUR L. FROTHINGHAM, JR., PH.D., of Princeton Uni- 
versity. 

His EMINENCE CARDINAL JAMES GIBBONS, of Baltimore. 

MR. SAMUEL S. GREEN, A.M., of Worcester. 

PROFESSOR ALFRED GUDEMAN, PH.D., of Cornell University. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM GARDNER HALE, LL.D., of the University of 
Chicago. 

PROFESSOR ALBERT G. HARKNESS, A.M., of Brown University. 

PROFESSOR KARL POMEROY HARRINGTON, A.M., of the University of 
Maine. 

PROFESSOR SAMUEL HART, D.D., D.C.L., of the Berkeley Divinity School. 

PROFESSOR ADELINE BELLE HA WES, A.M., of Wellesley College. 

PROFESSOR G. L. HENDRICKSON, A.B., of the University of Chicago. 

PROFESSOR CHARLES G. HERBERMANN, PH.D., LL.D., of the College of 
the City of New York. 

PROFESSOR JOHN H. HEWITT, LL.D., of Williams College. 

RABBI EMIL G. HIRSCH, PH.D., LL.D., of Chicago. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM A. HOUGHTON, A.M., of Bowdoin College. 

MR. CHARLES L. HUTCHINSON, LL.D., of Chicago. 

MR. JAMES H. HYDE, A.B. (ex officio, as Trustee of the School), of New 
York. 

PROFESSOR GEORGE E. JACKSON, A.M., of Washington University. 

PROFESSOR H. W. JOHNSTON, PH.D., of the Indiana University. 

PROFESSOR J. C. JONES, PH.D., of the University of Missouri. 

RT. REV. MGR. J. J. KEANE, D.D., Archbishop of Damascus. 

PROFESSOR FRANCIS W. KELSEY, PH.D., of the University of Michigan. 

CHANCELLOR J. H. KIRKLAND, PH.!)., of Vanderbilt University. 

HON. ERNEST B. KRUTTSCHNITT, A.M., of New Orleans, La. 

COMMENDATORE PROFEssoRE RODOLFO LANCIANI, of the University of Rome. 

MR. GARDINER M. LANE, A.B., of Boston. 

MR. ELLIOT C. LEE, A.B. (ex officio, as Trustee of the School), of Boston. 

REV. CHARLES STANLEY LESTER, D.D., of Milwaukee. 

PROFESSOR T. B. LINDSAY, PH.D., of Boston University. 

PROFESSOR GONZALEZ LODGE, PH.D., of the Teachers' College, New York 
City. 

PROFESSOR JOHN K. LORD, PH.D., of Dartmouth College. 

PROFESSOR ARTHUR C. McGIFFERT, D.D., of Union Theological Seminary. 

PROFESSOR ALLAN MARQUAND, PH.D., L.H.D., of Princeton University. 

PROFESSOR WILLIAM A. MERRILL, PH.D., L.H.D., of the University of 
California. 

PROFESSOR GEORGE F. MOORE, D.D. (ex officio, as Chairman of the Man- 
aging Committee of the School in Palestine), of Harvard University. 

PROFESSOR J. LEVERETT MOORE, PH.D., of Vassar College. 

REV. R. J. NEVIN, D.D., Rector of the American Church in Rome. 



MANAGING COMMITTEE XX V 

MR. CLEMENT NEWBOLD (ex officio, as Trustee of the School), of Phila- 
delphia. 
PROFESSOR RICHARD NORTON, A.B. (ex officio j as Director of the School), 

Rome, Italy. 

RT. REV. MGR. O'CONNELL, Bishop of Portland. 
PROFESSOR E. M. PEASE, PH.D., of Washington. 
PROFESSOR TRACY PECK, A.M., of Yale University. 
PROFESSOR W. E. PETERS, LL.D., of the University of Virginia. 
PROFESSOR JOHN WINTHROP PLATNER, D.D., of Andover Theological 

Seminary. 

PROFESSOR EDWIN POST, PH.D., of De Pauw University. 
RT. REV. HENRY C. POTTER, D.D., LL.D., Bishop of New York. 
HON. WILLIAM POTTER, of Chestnut Hill. 

PROFESSOR JOHN C. ROLFE, PH.D., of the University of Pennsylvania. 
HON. J. G. SCHMIDLAPP, of Cincinnati. 

PROFESSOR EDWIN R. A. SELIGMAN, LL.B., PH.D., of Columbia University. 
PROFE.SSOR EDGAR S. SHUMWAY, PH.D., of Brooklyn. 
PROFESSOR M. S. SLAUGHTER, PH.D., of the University of Wisconsin. 
PROFESSOR FRANK SMALLEY, PH.D., of Syracuse University. 
PROFESSOR CLEMENT L. SMITH, LL.D., of Harvard University. 
PROFESSOR KIRBY F. SMITH, PH.D., of Johns Hopkins University. 
PROFESSOR W. O. SPROULL, PH.D., LL.D., L.H.D., of Cincinnati. 
MR. GEORGE R. STETSON, of Washington. 
MRS. CORNELIUS STEVENSON, Sc.D., of Philadelphia. 
MR. WALDO STORY, A.M., of Rome. 

PROFESSOR LEWIS STUART, A.M., of Lake Forest University. 
MR. THOMAS THACHER, A.B. (ex officio, as Trustee of the School), of 

New York. 

PROFESSOR HENRY VAN DYKE, D.D., of Princeton University. 
COMMENDATORE PROFEssoRE ADOLFO VENTURI, Director-General of the 

National Galleries of Italy. 

REV. MARVIN R. VINCENT, D.D., of the Union Theological Seminary. 
PROFESSOR ARTHUR T. WALKER, A.M., of the University of Kansas. 
PROFESSOR WILLIAM R. WARE, LL.D., of Columbia University. 
PROFESSOR MINTON WARREN, PH.D., LL.D., of Harvard University. 
HON. II. B. WENZEL, A.B., LL.B., of St. Paul. 

PROFESSOR ARTHUR L. WHEELER, PH.D., of Bryn Mawr College. 
PROFESSOR JAMES R. WHEELER, PH.D. (ex officio, as Chairman of the 

Managing Committee of the School at Athens), of Columbia University. 
PROFESSOR JOHN WILLIAMS WHITE, PH.D., LL.D., LITT.D. (ex officio, 

as President of the Institute), of Harvard University. 
MRS. HENRY WHITMAN, of Boston. 

VICE-CHANCELLOR B. L. WIGGINS, A.M., of the University of the South. 
PROFESSOR MARY G. WILLIAMS, PH.D., of Mt. Holyoke College. 
PROFESSOR JOHN HENRY WRIGHT, LL.D. (ex officio, as Editor-in-Chief 

of the Journal of the Institute), of Harvard University. 



American School 

for rtental Stutig anti 

in ^Palestine 



MANAGING COMMITTEE 

1902-1903 



Chairman 
PROFESSOR GEORGE F. MOORE, D.D., of Harvard University. 

Secretary 
PROFESSOR THEODORE F. WRIGHT, PH.D., of Cambridge. 

REV. JOHN P. PETERS, PH.D., Sc.D., D.D., of New York. 
PROFESSOR CHARLES C. TORREY, PH.D., of Yale University. 
REV. WILLIAM HAYES WARD, D.D., LL.D., of New York. 
PROFESSOR JOHN WILLIAMS WHITE, PH.D., LL.D., Lixx.D. (ex officio, 
as President of the Institute), of Harvard University. 

BOARD OF COUNCILLORS 

REPRESENTATIVES OF THE FOLLOWING INSTITUTIONS : 

ANDOVER THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

AUBURN THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

BOSTON UNIVERSITY. 

BROWN UNIVERSITY. 

BRYN MAWR COLLEGE. 

COLGATE UNIVERSITY. 

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY. 

CORNELL UNIVERSITY. 

EPISCOPAL THEOLOGICAL SCHOOL, Cambridge. 

GENERAL THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, New York. 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY. 

HEBREW UNION COLLEGE, Cincinnati. 

JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY. 

McCORMICK THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

NEW YORK UNIVERSITY. 

PRINCETON THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. 

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY. 

TRINITY COLLEGE. 

UNION THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY, New York. 

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. 

YALE UNIVERSITY. 

xxvi 



MANAGING COMMITTEE xxvii 

AND THE FOLLOWING INDIVIDUALS: 

PRESIDENT JAMES B. ANGELL, D.D., LL.D., of the University 

of Michigan. 

REV. E. T. BARTLETT, D.D., of Philadelphia. 
MR. JAMES C. CARTER, LL.D., of New York. 
HON. T. JEFFERSON COOLIDGE, A.M., of Boston. 
Miss MARIA L. CORLISS, of Providence. 
PRESIDENT DANIEL C. OILMAN, LL.D., of Baltimore. 
MR. JAMES LOEB, A.B., of New York. 
MR. J. PIERPONT MORGAN, of New York. 
MR. M. TAYLOR PYNE, A.M., LL.B., of Princeton. 
REV. EDWARD S. ROUSMANIERE, A.M., of Providence. 
MR. JACOB H. SCHIFF. LL.D., of New York. 



Institute 
of America 



FOREIGN HONORARY MEMBERS 



PROFESSOR ALEXANDER CONZE, PH.D., German Imperial Archaeological 
Institute, Berlin. 

PROFESSOR WILHELM DORPFELD, PH.D., LL.D., German Imperial Archaeo- 
logical Institute, Athens. 

PROFESSOR PERCY GARDNER, LITT.D., University of Oxford. 

SIR RICHARD JEBB, LITT.D., D.C.L., LL.D., M.P., University of Cam- 
bridge. 

PROFESSOR GASTON MASPERO, D.C.L., College de France, Paris. 
PROFESSOR THEODOR MOMMSEN, Pii.D., J.U.D., University of Berlin. 



xxviii 



CONTENTS 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA: 

SOME PROBLEMS IN NORTH AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY 

Franz Boas 1 
AMERICAN SCHOOL AT ATHENS : 

A SERIES OF COLOSSAL STATUES AT CORINTH (Plates I-VI) 

Rufus B. Richardson 7 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA : 

PROCEEDINGS OF THE GENERAL MEETING, New York, De- 
cember 26-28, 1901 23 

PLATES 

I. Colossal Male Figure from Corinth. 
II. Second Colossal Male Figure from Corinth ; Head. 
II A. Second Colossal Male Figure from Corinth. 

III. Colossal Female Heads from Corinth. 

IV. Series of Colossal Statues from Corinth. (From the drawing 

by Hjalvor Bagge. ) 

V. Plaque of Coffered Ceiling : Helios and Selene. 
VI. Series of Colossal Figures from Corinth. 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS (July-December, 1901) 

Harold N. Fowler, Editor . 55 

NOTES OP RECENT EXCAVATIONS AND DISCOVERIES ; OTHER NEWS : 
Oriental, Classical, and Christian Archaeology : General and Mis- 
cellaneous, 55 ; Egypt, 57'; Babylonia, 60 ; Syria and Palestine, 
61 ; Asia Minor, 63 ; Thrace, 66 ; Greece, 66 ; Italy, 74 ; France, 
82 ; Germany, 83 ; Austria, 86 ; Great Britain, 86 ; Africa, 88. 
Byzantine, Mediaeval, and -Renaissance Art : General and Miscel- 
laneous, 90 ; Palestine, 91 ; Italy, 92 ; France, 95 ; Germany, 97 ; 
Holland and Belgium, 97 ; Great Britain, 98. 



Archaeological 
Institute 
of America 



SOME PROBLEMS IN NORTH AMERICAN 
ARCHAEOLOGY. 



IN the study of American archaeology we are compelled to 
apply methods somewhat different from those used in the 
archaeology of the Old World. While the archaeology of the 
Mediterranean country and of a large portion of Asia deals 
with the early remains of peoples who possessed a literature, 
and whose history is partly known from literary sources, we 
find in America, almost exclusively, remains of people un- 
familiar with the art of writing, and whose history is entirely 
unknown. The problem, therefore, with which we are dealing 
is allied to the problem of the prehistoric archaeology of the 
Old World. The method that is pursued in dealing with the 
ancient remains of the lake-dwellers, of the kitchen-middens, 
and of other prehistoric sites, of which we have no literary 
knowledge, must be pursued in investigations in American 
archaeology. But even in this case the conditions are not 
quite comparable. The ancient culture of the people who left 
their remains in Europe has completely disappeared, and has 
given way to civilization of modern type. It seems probable 
that the remains found in most of the archaeological sites of 
America were left by a people similar in culture to the present 
Indians. For this reason, the ethnological study of the Indians 
must be considered as a powerful means of elucidating the sig- 
nificance of archaeological remains. It is hardly possible to 
understand the significance of American archaeological remains 
without having recourse to ethnological observations, which 
frequently explain the significance of prehistoric finds. 

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 1 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. VI (1902), No. 1. 



2 FRANZ BOAS 

It is only in Central America, and, to a certain extent, in 
western South America, that the archaeological remains have 
a character similar to those of the Mediterranean area. Only 
in these regions do we find ruined buildings and monuments 
that bear inscriptions that may, perhaps, serve to explain their 
significance. 

The problems of American archaeology deal principally with 
the earliest history of the inhabitants of this country. In 
some cases the results of archaeological investigation indicate 
to us fundamental changes in the state of culture prevailing 
in certain areas, and even demonstrate the migrations of cer- 
tain tribes. I wish to call the reader's attention in this article 
to some problems of this character that are met with on the 
Pacific Coast of our continent. 

At the present time the Pacific Coast of North America is 
inhabited by an enormous number of tribes, diverse in culture. 
The present distribution of languages suggests that, in early 
times, extensive migrations must have taken place. The most 
remarkable fact that we observe in the distribution of lan- 
guages is the occurrence of a number of isolated points in 
which Athapascan dialects are spoken. Athapascan is the 
prevailing language of the whole interior of Alaska and of 
the Mackenzie basin. It occupies the whole northwestern 
part of our continent, as far south as a line drawn west from 
Hudson Bay to the Rocky Mountains. 

South of this line a large number of small tribes are met 
with, speaking Athapascan dialects. All of these are located 
near the Pacific Coast, in British Columbia, Washington, 
Oregon, and California. In the far south we meet, again, 
with a large body of Athapascan tribes, consisting principally 
of the Navaho and Apache. This peculiar distribution of the 
Athapascan language, in connection with the irregular distri- 
bution of other languages, makes it quite certain that great 
disturbances must have taken place in that area. In regard 
to culture we may distinguish four fundamental types on 
the Pacific Coast, the Eskimo of the Arctic, the Indian of 



PROBLEMS IN NOETH AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY 3 

Alaska and British Columbia, the type of culture of Columbia 
River, and that of California. I will not enter into a detailed 
description of these types of culture. The line between the 
Eskimo type in the north and the Alaskan Indian type is quite 
sharp, while the other groups gradually merge into each other. 

The distribution of physical types also proves the great 
diversity in the origin of the tribes of the North Pacific Coast. 
It is not possible at present to affiliate each type definitely with 
other known types, but the diversity of form found in the 
Coast types between Alaska and Southern California is so great 
that we must suppose that the diversity is a very ancient one. 

It is possible to follow, to a certain extent, the history of 
this area by ethnological methods. When we find certain cus- 
toms distributed over a definite continuous area, and absent 
in others, we may suppose that they originated among the 
people inhabiting this district. In this manner, the study of 
the ethnological distribution of customs and beliefs may, to a 
certain extent, clear up the history of tribes. 

The study of the beliefs and traditions of the Eskimo of 
Alaska shows that the fundamental features of their beliefs 
are common to them and to the Eastern Eskimo, and makes 
it quite certain that these beliefs must have been the ancient 
property of the Eskimo. The culture of the Alaskan Eskimo 
shows, however, certain remarkable differences from the cul- 
ture of the Eastern Eskimo tribes. All of these features can 
be explained as due to the influence of the Indians of Alaska, 
so that we are justified in drawing the inference, in this case, 
that the whole Eskimo culture has been modified by a later 
influence. When we follow the Pacific Coast southwest, we 
find that a sudden change in customs, beliefs, and folklore 
takes place near the central part of the coast of British Colum- 
bia, and that particularly the Tsimshian, of the tribes of this 
area, show a great many features that differentiate them from 
other neighboring tribes, so that we may conclude that they 
are, practically speaking, new arrivals in this district. It can 
also be shown that the Columbia River must have been one 



4 FRANZ BOAS 

of the great routes along which Eastern influences were im- 
ported on the Pacific Coast. The mythology of the tribes 
living at the mouth of the Columbia River shows a very great 
number of elements which can have had their origin only east 
of the Rocky Mountains. Evidently an old connection between 
the Pacific Coast and the East has existed here for a very long 
time. Naturally it is impossible to utilize historical traditions 
of the tribes for the construction of their history, because all 
of them are more or less of a mythical character. It is pos- 
sible to reconstruct the history only by a comparative study 
of all the elements of their culture. 

The study of the ethnology of this region shows, therefore, 
clearly, that there have been great changes in the distribution 
of the tribes, but it seems impossible to unravel the early his- 
tory of these changes. The question, accordingly, arises, In 
how far can archaeological methods supplement ethnological 
information ? There are two places particularly at which these 
investigations seem to give promising results. The distribu- 
tion of languages and customs in Southern British Columbia 
makes it clear that here important dislocations must have 
taken place. I pointed out before that the Columbia River 
must have been the course along which Eastern culture was 
imported to the Pacific Coast. And finally we may seek by 
archaeological methods a solution of the question regarding 
the early influence of the Indian upon the Eskimo, 

The archaeology of Southern British Columbia, the first of 
the areas which I mentioned here, has been investigated in 
some detail. This work has been done for the Jesup North 
Pacific Expedition of the American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, under the direction of Mr. Harlan I. Smith, His mves 
tigations prove clearly, that not only have the customs of the 
people undergone material changes, but also that in early 
times an entirely different type of man inhabited the area in 
question. At present the Indians bury their dead in boxes, 
which are either placed in trees or deposited in caves. In 
olden times the method of burial was to construct large stone 



PROBLEMS IN NORTH AMERICAN ARCHAEOLOGY 5 

cairns with a central chamber for the bodies. The peculiar 
style of carving found in prehistoric remains is in some respects 
similar to the style of carving found on the plateaus of British 
Columbia. Pipes are found here which in their type are 
identical with those of the inland and of the plateaus farther 
to the south. It is difficult to identify the prehistoric type of 
this district with any other known type of the Pacific Coast, 
but its affiliations are decidedly more with the people of the 
interior and of the Columbia River than with the present 
inhabitants of the coast of British Columbia. 

It would seem from all this, that in early times the affiliation 
between the coast and the interior was very much closer than 
it is now, and this fact is in accord with the distribution of 
languages in this area. One and the same linguistic stock 
inhabits the interior of British Columbia and Washington, and 
the coasts of Washington and of Southern British Columbia. 
Although the stock is divided into a great many different 
languages, their affinities are quite clear. The archaeological 
finds make it probable that this stock was in later times assim- 
ilated by the northern coast tribes in bodily form as well as in 
culture. 

The archaeology of Alaska offers a problem that is no less 
interesting. If it is true that the ancient culture of the 
Eskimo of this district has been affected by the Indians, the 
question arises, whether the Eskimo were the original inhabi- 
tants of this district. There are weighty reasons which seem 
to favor the theory that in former times this country was 
inhabited by different tribes. A study of the ethnology of the 
tribes of Northeastern Siberia seems to reveal the fact that 
these tribes are more closely associated in culture and in physi- 
cal form with the Indians of the North Pacific Coast than with 
the Eskimo of Alaska. If this is true, the inference seems 
justifiable that the Eskimo are recent intruders in this district. 
It is not probable that the Eskimo tribes of Alaska can be con- 
sidered as Eskimo of pure descent, because in them the most 
characteristic physical features of that type are much weak- 



6 FRANZ BOAS 

ened. The height of skull, length of skull, and width of face 
which must be considered the fundamental characteristics 
of the Eskimo tribe are not as marked here as they are 
farther to the east. 

Attention may also be called to the curious distribution of 
the art of pottery in this area. At the present time, pottery 
is made only by the Athapascan and Eskimo tribes of the 
Yukon River. On no other part of the North Pacific Coast 
is pottery known. It is also unknown to the present inhabi- 
tants of Northeastern Siberia. Archaeological investigations 
made on the northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk show, how- 
ever, the existence of pottery among the prehistoric people of 
that district. Since this is the only place on the whole Pacific 
Coast, from the Amur River in Siberia northward to Bering 
Strait, and along the American coast south to California, 
where pottery is found, it seems to me to speak for an early 
connection between the inhabitants of these districts. 

The problem of the earliest inhabitants of Alaska can cer- 
tainly be solved by the archaeological investigations. The 
implements of the Eskimo and their physical type are so 
characteristic that they cannot be mistaken for anything else. 
If the most ancient shell-mounds of the east coast of Bering- 
Sea, of which there are a great number, should reveal a type 
different from the Eskimo and a culture different from that of 
the Eskimo, we should have a distinct proof of a population 
preceding the present inhabitants of Alaska. All the evidences 
we find seem to make it probable that such a change of culture 
and of type may be found here, and I consider the investiga- 
tion of this area as one of the important problems of American 
archaeology. 

We may expect that if archaeology in America is applied 
hand in hand with ethnological and linguistic methods, it will 
be a most powerful help in unravelling the history of our 
continent. 

FRANZ BOAS. 



American School 
of Classical Studies 
at 



A SERIES OF COLOSSAL STATUES AT CORINTH 



[PLATES I-VI] 

ONE of the conspicuous results of the excavations at Corinth 
in 1900 was the discovery of a series of colossal statues of 
Parian* marble just inside the Agora, a little southwest of the 
west buttress of the Propylaea. The series consists of at least 
four members, only one of which is so well preserved that it 
can be accurately measured. The upper part is given in 
PLATE I. It is in three large pieces, and practically nothing 
is lacking. 1 The only important parts which are lost are the 
nose, which was a separate piece set in, either originally or 
after an accidental break ; the right forearm, and a part of the 
left calf. The right foot, from the instep to the tips of the 
toes, was found a year later about 20 m. to the northwest. 
This statue will ultimately be set up and appear as a whole ; 
but since this has not yet been done, it must make its im- 
pression piecemeal or by the aid of a drawing. It has a height 
of 2.57 m. 

That it was an architectural statue was at once evident. At 
its back is a pilaster which extends from the plinth to about 
the height of the top of the forehead. The figure is, as it were, 
a high relief hewn out of the pilaster. In the upper end of 
the pilaster is a dowel hole. Near by was found an irregularly 
quadrangular Corinthian capital (Fig. 3) with an iron dowel 
firmly fixed in it. When the dowel of the capital is inserted in 
the hole on the top of the pilaster, the head of the statue comes 

1 A view of the other two parts is shown in Figs. 1 and 2. All three fragments 
are here reproduced on nearly the same scale. 

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 7 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. VI (1902), No. 1. 



8 



RUFUS B. RICHARDSON 



up snug against the capital, both the head and some of the 
acanthus leaves of the capital being cut away to effect the fit- 
ting. The abacus of this capital has a peculiar shape, as given 
in the annexed cut (Fig. 4) ; the dotted line indicates the place 
of the head of the statue, and the side a is fitted to be the sup- 
port of a curved architrave block. While we have the com- 
plete block for the corner at the left of the curve (Fig. 5), of 




FIGURE 1. FRAGMENT OF COLOSSAL MALE FIGURE. 

the block which would fit this abacus only a small portion is 
preserved (Fig. 6). Among the cornice pieces discovered was 
early found one with a straight face on one side and a curved 
face around its left corner which corresponds to the curve in 
the architrave block. This gave the certainty that our figure 
stood at a point where an entablature which it supported, after 
extending to this point from the right, made an inward curve. 
At this corner the figure stood as a pseudo-Caryatid, not 



A SERIES OF COLOSSAL STATUES AT CORINTH 9 

actually bearing the entablature, as do the maidens of the 
Erechtheuin, but propping up the capital on which the entab- 
lature rested. To give the semblance of effort, the figure, 
though in other .respects entirely in repose, with the right 




FIGURE 2. FRAGMENT OF COLOSSAL MALE FIGURE. 

elbow resting upon the left hand, has the head bent forward 
under its burden. 

This figure has its head turned slightly to the left (our left). 
A second figure practically a duplicate of this, preserved only 
down to a little way below the hips, but with its face perfectly 



10 



RUFUS B. RICHARDSON 



intact, has its head turned slightly to the right (PLATES II, 
II A 1 ). We were clearly warranted in placing this figure at the 




FIGURE 3. CORINTHIAN CAPITAL. 



left of the other at the corner where the entablature reemerging 
from its curve proceeds to the left in a straight line. Not only 




FIGURE 4. ABACUS OF A CORINTHIAN CAPITAL 

do the two figures incline their heads toward each other, but 
their elbows on these approaching sides are supported on their 

1 PLATE II A is repeated from Plate III in the Supplement to Vol. IV (1900) 
of this JOURNAL. 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES VOL. VI (1902) PLATE I 




COLOSSAL MALE FIGURE FROM CORINTH 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES VOL. VI (1902) PLATE I! 




SECOND COLOSSAL MALE FIGURE FROM CORINTH: HEAD 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES VOL. VI (1902) PLATE II A 




SECOND COLOSSAL MALE FIGURE FROM CORINTH 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES VOL. VI (1902) PLATE III 




AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY. 








SERIES OF COLOSSAL STATUES FROM CORINTH 
(From the drawing by Hjalvor Bagge) 



VOL. VI (1902) PLATE IV 




AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES VOL. VI (1902) PLATE V 




AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES VOL. VI (1902) PLATE VI 



-o 

1 

8. (/> 



<rq' O 

z c 



*8 

s 

O- 

5 S 

8 




A SERIES OF COLOSSAL STATUES AT CORINTH 11 

other hands. That there is an appropriateness in this arrange- 
ment is felt if we conceive of the positions as being reversed 
and the heads averted. In the actual arrangement we seem to 
have a companionship in labor. 

Two bases were found at the same time and place (Figures 7, 
8), with ornamentation similar to that of the architrave and cor- 
nice blocks; and as the plinth of the statue, the feet of which 
are preserved, fits into the socket at the top of one of them, we 




FIGURE 5. CORNER ARCHITRAVE BLOCK. 

clearly have the material for restoring a whole system from the 
stylobate up to the cornice. The height of the system may be 
computed as follows: base, 0.87 m.; figure, 2.57 m.; height of 
the capital above the base, 0.30 m.; architrave, 0.64 m.; cor- 
nice, 0.30 m. making a total height of 4.68 m. 

Two other heads (PLATE III), also of colossal proportions, 
were subsequently found close by the others, and were recog- 
nized as belonging to the same system, from the fact that their 
backs were cut away in the same way as the others. It now 
becomes clear that the building with which we were dealing 



12 EUFUS B. RICHARDSON 

had a considerable extent. A square Corinthian capital with 
the acanthus leaves hewn away as on the one mentioned before, 
made it probable that the figures to which these heads belonged 
stood to the right and left of the others at points where the 
entablature ran 1 straight. 

A restoration of a portion of the system is here given in 
PLATE IV from the drawing by a Danish draughtsman, Hjal- 
vor Bagge, and while the final treatment of the architectural 
part is still difficult, yet along with the treatment of the statues 
at least a provisional treatment of it must be essayed. 

Assuming now that we have practically all of the material, 
the total length of the cornice pieces found is about 15 m. 
which would, then, be the minimum length of the building. 
The architrave blocks fail to afford clear evidence as to the 
extent. Enough pieces were found mixed up with the cornice 
blocks and statues to make a considerably greater length than 
15 m. But they vary so much in their size and ornamentation 

1 It is possible that in two battered torsos we have parts of the bodies to 
which these heads belong, although one of the torsos was found at a considerable 
distance to the east. 

While we have pieces both of architrave and cornice to fit both ends of the 
curve, one unexpected result comes out of a study of our material, viz. one of 
the two curved architrave blocks which has, like the other, the elaborate orna- 
mentation in six bands, a twisted roll, a bead ornament, a leaf-and-tongue orna- 
ment, a broad band of anthemia, then another bead ornament, and at the very 
top an egg-and-dart moulding, is succeeded on the left by a straight piece with 
none of this ornamentation but with plain mouldings (Fig. 5), while the other 
one is succeeded on the right by a straight piece with all the ornamental bands 
(Fig. 6). If there was but a single curve in the entablature, this difference 
would make a striking asymmetry. We may, therefore, have to admit the 
possibility of a second curve, which would reduce this asymmetry. This would 
of course imply the loss of a good deal of the material with which we are dealing. 
While this is possible, it is perhaps safer to reckon only with what we have, and 
to suppose that there was only one curve, accepting the asymmetry. 

What we have called a curve is not a complete curve ; the blocks that begin 
it from either side run back into a wall, as is shown by their formless butt ends. 
Figure 5 gives the parts around the corner to the left, viewed from below. The 
companion curved block, which conies in from the right, could never have made 
a joint with the one to the left, as both butts are equally rough hewn. A piece 
of indeterminate size was certainly set in to mediate between the two inner ends 
of these curved blocks. Some ornament, as a medallion, may have served 'for 
this purpose. The radius of the curve is 1.65 m. 



A SERIES OF COLOSSAL STATUES AT CORINTH 



13 



that there remains considerable doubt as to how many of them 
can be placed in the same line. The two curved blocks with 
the anthemion ornament have a height of 0.64 m. and so of 
course the straight piece which joins one of them on the left. 1 
The two whole straight blocks, each 3 m. long, and several 
pieces, all haying the same ornament as the curved blocks, have 
a height of 0.72 m., and so can hardly have been in the same 




FIGURE 6. BLOCK FOR ABACUS. 

line with the others. Two other blocks, also 3 m. long, have a 
height of 64 m. and lack the peculiar ornamentation. They 
lack also the band of myrtle leaves on the under side which all 
the others have. 2 

1 The curve and the anthemion ornament begin on the end of the plain 
straight block, which is made into a little curve for the curved blocks to take 
up and continue. 

2 These two plainer blocks bear letters, mason's marks, upon them as none of 
the others do. One has I on one end and K on the other. The second has T 



14 EUFUS B. RICHARDSON 

My first impression was that the system under discussion 
must find its place on the Propylaea, for the following reasons : 
(1) The massive foundations of the Propylaea were the only 
ones in the vicinity which seemed capable of bearing such a 
weight. (2) The statues and the architecture were all found 




FIGURE 7. BASE FOR COLOSSAL FIGURE. 

within 12 *m. of the west end of the Propylaea, a little to the 
southwest, in a bunch which could be circumscribed by a radius 

and V. Since the letters can hardly have had any other purpose than to mark 
the joints, the same letter would probably be applied on each side of the joint, 
and there would be as many blocks as letters. This would make at least nine- 
teen blocks, and supposing them to be of equal length, about 60 m. of that 
one kind of blocks. This great extent is enough to make one separate them 
from the rest. In the work of 1901 there were found stylobates of two long 
porches, one east of the temple hill, and bordering the road to Lechaeum, and 
the other west of the same hill, bordering the Agora on its north side. It is to 
this latter that these pieces might with considerable probability be assigned, on 
account of its proximity to the spot where they were found. Foundations to 
go with the other pieces must be sought elsewhere. 



A SERIES OF COLOSSAL STATUES AT CORINTH 



15 



of 5 m. Furthermore, a few scattered pieces were found close 
up against the Propylaea on the side toward the Agora. 
(3) The colossal figures, two of which represent barbarian 
captives, as well as the reliefs on the bases, appeared to be 
appropriate ornaments of what Pausanias calls the " Propylaea," 




FIGURE 8. BASE FOR COLOSSAL FIGURE. 

but which was, as we know from coins of the imperial times 
from Domitian to Commodus, 1 nothing more nor less than a 
Roman triumphal arch. But between the hope of ultimately 
placing the figures on the Propylaea and the difficulty of doing 
so satisfactorily, the publication of them has been already too 
long delayed. 

I have at last, however, fully abandoned the hope of bringing 
the system into connection with the Propylaea because by no 
possibility can we connect it with that building without doing 

1 Imhoof-Blumer and P. Gardner, Numismatic Commentary on Pausanias, 
pi. F, nos. 97-100. 



16 EUFUS B. RICHARDSON 

violence to its structure as shown by the coins and by our 
excavations. All the architrave blocks which we can assign to 
the system have mouldings on both sides, which implies that 
they stood out free, a position irreconcilable with a triumphal 
arch. 1 Furthermore, any horizontal architecture could not be 
allowed to cross and interrupt the arch or arches of the 
Propylaea ; and our statues could not lift their entablature to 
a height above these arches unless their bases were set upon a 
very high pedestal, whereas these bases with their broad pro- 
jecting band at the bottom are clearly not meant to be so 
placed. Lastly, our architrave blocks are not long enough to 
span the distances which they would have to span in order to 
reach from buttress to buttress of the Propylaea. 2 

But in order not to leave the system absolutely without 
foundations, hovering in mid air, I venture to give it a sub- 
structure on which it may be adjusted. The line of the 
Propylaea buttresses is prolonged to the west by what we at 
first called a wall. It appears in PLATE VI, in the right back- 
ground under the pillar of earth. But this is no mere wall. 
It is 4.10 m. wide, and should be called a platform rather. It 
is made up of large and small stones bonded by mortar, a mix- 
ture often called opus incertum. Its top was very level, and 
probably once had stone blocks upon it, to form a stylobate. 
In fact, at the end next to the Propylaea it has a layer of good 
quadrangular blocks of poros. Of the solidity of this core of 
opus incertum we had ample proof when, turning the flank of 
the Propylaea, we forced our way through it, in order to get our 
track into the Agora. At its western end it ran over the top of 
the ancient Greek fountain, and in order to clear the latter 
of the incumbrance we had to operate upon the mass with dyna- 

1 It is true that there are projections in front of the two great buttresses of 
the Propylaea ; but these probably supported columns, which one plainly sees on 
the coin of Hadrian. 

2 It may be added that we have a plaque of a coffered ceiling, representing in 
two of its coffers Helios and Selene (PLATE V), which may with some probability 
be assigned to our system, but which could by no possibility find a place on an 
arch. 



A SERIES OF COLOSSAL STATUES AT CORINTH 17 

mite, and had still more convincing proof of its solidity. Its 
supporting power being conceded, its length of at least 25 m. 1 
gives room and a pleasing freedom to deploy upon it the figures 
and their entablature. 

The strongest reason for supposing that it carried them is 
that they were all, with a few insignificant exceptions, found 
close by it. If 12 feet seem too shallow for any building, it 
may be said in the first place that this was simply an ornamental 
border of the Agora. It is almost a matter of course that the 
figures faced toward the Agora; and this assumption is corrobo- 
rated by the circumstance that they were all found where they 
would naturally lie if they had simply fallen forward from the 
southern edge of the platform. The side toward the north was 
perhaps closed by a wall which would break the north wind, 
and so make the porch, as far as its capacity went, a pleasant 
resort in the winter. 

The concavity in the fagade of the porch is such a striking 
feature that one naturally looks for parallels. One finds these, 
to compare small things with great, in buildings like the 
Septizonium at ,, Rome 2 and in the Nymphaea of Side and 
Aspendus, 3 which are simply facades with no more depth than 
the proscenium of a theatre. These buildings are called by 
Lanckoronsky 4 " Scheinpalaste." Our building probably 
never had, like them, a second story, although it is possible 
that it had. All three of the buildings just referred to are 
supposed to have been fountain fagades. In the case of the 
Septizonium the Capitoline plan of the city shows quite plainly 
the periphery of a water basin, 5 and it is universally so restored. 
If it should be deemed necessary to bring our fagade into line 
with these buildings as a fountain fagade, it would not be diffi- 

1 At its western end, when it became broken up in ancient times, it probably 
once continued beyond where we now trace it, and joined at a very obtuse angle 
the stylobate of the porch before mentioned, which is also badly broken at its 
eastern end. 

2 Baumeister, Denkmaler des Klass. Alt., Abbild. 1707, 1708. 

3 Lanckoronsky, Stadte Pamphyliens und Pisidiens, I, Taf. xix, xxx, xxxi. 

4 Op. cit. I, p. 144. 5 Loc. cit. 



18 



RUFUS B. RICHARDSON 



cult to do so. The foundations run right across those of the 
ancient Greek fountain fagade before referred to (p. 16). 
Water was once delivered in considerable quantity in this 
region. In Roman times it may have been brought to a higher 
level than in Greek times. But not to press too far the curve 
as a proof of similar use, it is perhaps safer to treat our build- 
ing as a simple ornament of the Agora. It had a height of 
about 15 feet above its stylobate, and may have been suffi- 
ciently imposing. The fact it was a sort of extension of the 
Propylaea might make the features adapted to a triumphal arch, 
viz. the captive barbarians, especially appropriate. 




FIGURE 9. ARCHITRAVE BLOCK. 

It has been repeatedly assumed in the description that the 
building in question belonged to the Roman city. Both the 
ornamentation of the blocks and the style of the statues exclude 
all doubt on that point. The carving on the most elaborately 
ornamented architrave blocks (Fig. 9) suggests the work on the 
Erechtheum ; but one must not observe too closely, or the illu- 
sion will pass away. The carving looks elaborate only at a dis- 
tance. The cornice blocks show a striving after effect in that a 
great variety in the forms of the rosettes is introduced (Fig. 10). 

But it is the sculptural element that gives the most convinc- 
ing proof, if any were needed, that the building is not only 
Roman, but at least as late as the second century of our era. The 



A SERIES OF COLOSSAL STATUES AT CORINTH 



19 



two colossal figures are not without expression. The one with 
the perfectly preserved face has, in spite of a certain coldness, 
some dignity. Its companion would perhaps be just as effec- 
tive if it had not lost its nose. But the two heads to which we 
have not yet attached bodies with any certainty are as expres- 
sionless as some heads that are to-day affixed to fagades in 
Athens and New York. 

As to the style of the reliefs on the two bases, one can hardly 
use the word " style " without a smile. The representation is 




FIGURE 10. CORNICE BLOCK. 

absolutely uncouth. Its shabbiness cannot be adequately 
explained by calling it the work of a "'prentice hand." Such 
work could hardly have been tolerated in an age when taste for 
the beautiful was still alive. 

It is time, however, to turn away from the temptation to 
vituperate, and to discuss what is represented by the figures 
and the reliefs. To begin with the figures : 

That barbarian captives are here represented is obvious. 
The type is one which appears on Roman triumphal arches, 1 

1 E.g. Arch of Septimius Severus, Baumeister, Denkmaler, Abbild., 1985 ; 
Arch of Constantine, ibid., no. 1968, where the figures of captive Dacians are 
taken from the earlier Arch of Trajan. 



20 RUFUS B. RICHARDSON 

and is abundantly represented in museums. 1 That most of the 
museum figures came from triumphal arches is probable; and 
in certain cases, as in the Lateran Museum, no. 710, 2 it is cer- 
tain that they were supporting some part of the architecture, 
inasmuch as the back of the head is cut away as in ours. 

Our second figure, however, is so youthful in appearance, 
like so many representations of Mithras, 3 that on its discovery 
we declared, half in jest, that we must be approaching a Mithras 
temple. 

The sex of the figures, in spite of the rather feminine appear- 
ance of the faces, can hardly be doubtful. The lack of the- 
development of the breast, and the dress, particularly the 
pointed cap and the trousers, are certain tokens, and need not 
be enlarged upon. So familiar do the figures seem that we 
might almost imagine some young barbarian captives to have 
slipped from their places on one of the well-known triumphal 
arches. 

The hand raised to support the chin and propped upon the 
other arm, from its frequent recurrence, appears to indicate 
dejection and also that the arms were bound. 

The two heads without bodies are clearly female. They 
probably also represent captives, although they lack all expres- 
sion of pain like that which throbs in the features of the well- 
known " Thusnelda " in Florence. 

It might be possible from minute study of details to ascertain 
to just what nation these captives belong. The pointed cap, 
at any rate, known under the name of the Phrygian cap, points 
to an Asiatic nation. 

The subject of the reliefs (Figures 7, 8) is plain enough. In 
the centre of one of them is a trophy consisting of a suit of 

1 Clarac, Musee de Sculpture, nos. 2163, 2164, 2162, 2161 A, 2161 B, 2161 C, 
2161 G, 2161 F. Nos. 2162 and 2161 A show an arrangement of the arms similar 
to that of our figures. 

2 Helbig, Fuhrer durch die Sammlungen Klass. AUertiimer in Rom, p. 476. 
Mitchell, Hist, of Ancient Sculpture (Fig. 285). 

8 Clarac, Musee de Sculpture, nos. 1191 A, 1194, 1191, 1190. Most similar to 
our figure, except in position, is no. 2085 (Paris). 



A SEKIES OF COLOSSAL STATUES AT CORINTH 21 

armor set up on a tree trunk. A Victory rushes and flies toward 
it from the right, in order to deposit upon it a wreath. The 
cramped position of her legs and the monstrous wings make it 
probable that we have lost one monstrosity more by the break- 
ing off of the head. To the left is a captive Asiatic with pointed 
cap, and arms bound. Thus we have brought close together the 
glory of the victor and the woe of the vanquished. 1 

This relief in a measure helps to interpret the other. In the 
centre may be recognized an enormous helmet standing stiffly 
on its cheek pieces, crushing down two diminutive crossed 
shields, a trophy of a different shape from the other. My first 
thought was that the man on the right was the victor thanking 
God in a sort of boastful humility for his victory ; the face had 
a suggestion of Christian art. But it is almost certain that he 
is also a captive with his hands bound. With this agree his 
exceedingly meek looks. 

He may be an Asiatic, like the others, with his cap doffed. 
He is bearded probably because he is represented as the father of 
a family. The suggestion has been made that he is a German ; 
but we must leave his nationality doubtful, although it would 
be highly satisfactory to find in a provincial city a memento of 
the wars of Marcus Aurelius with the Marcomanni. The 
group on the left is very interesting. A diminutive figure, 
probably a boy, with the same pointed cap and trousers as the 
large statues on the bases, leans his head on his hand, support- 
ing his elbow on a woman's knee. It is an attitude of dejec- 
tion. The woman, alone of all the figures, has a touch of 
dignity which has suggested to one good critic of sculpture 
that she might on this account be intended to represent a 
divinity, Rhea Cybele for example. But this would be depart- 
ing from the sphere in which both reliefs seem to fall. I take 
her to be either a simple captive woman or perhaps the repre- 
sentative of a captured country. It has been noted that con- 

1 The left corner is in a very crumbling condition, and the figure of the cap- 
tive was split off. It was necessary to hold it in position while the photograph 
was taken. 



22 EUFUS B. RICHARDSON 

quered nations were often represented by the Romans as women 
with one or more children at their knees. 1 Were it not for the 
pointed cap, one might be tempted to see here also Germany. 

RUFUS B. RICHARDSON. 

ATHENS, 
June 24, 1901. 

1 Bienkowski, De Simulacris Barbararum Gentium apud Romanos, p. 10 : 
" In Gestalt einer einsamen, hb'chstens von einem oder zwei Kindern begleiteten 
Frau, welche unter einem Tropaeon oder inmitten von Waffen sitzt." 



Institute 
of America 



GENERAL MEETING OF THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL 
INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

DECEMBER 26-28, 1901 



THE Archaeological Institute of America held its third 
annual meeting for the reading and discussion of papers at 
Columbia University, in New York, December 26, 27, 28, 1901. 
The meetings were presided over by the President of the Insti- 
tute, Professor John Williams White, except Thursday evening, 
when Professor James R. Wheeler presided, and Friday morn- 
ing, when Professor Thomas D. Seymour occupied the chair. 
Friday afternoon the Institute met in joint session with the 
Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis. At the meeting 
of Friday evening, December 27, the Acting President (now 
President) of Columbia University, Professor Nicholas Murray 
Butler, delivered an address of welcome, after which Professor 
Thomas D. Seymour delivered the Annual Address before the 
Institute, on The First Twenty Years of the American School of 
Classical Studies at Athens. After this session, President and 
Mrs. Butler held a reception. 

A resolution was passed thanking the authorities of Colum- 
bia University for their hospitality and expressing thanks 
to President and Mrs. Butler for the reception of Friday 
evening. 

There were five sessions at which papers, many of which 
were illustrated by means of the stereopticon, were pre- 
sented. Brief abstracts of the papers, prepared by the 
authors, follow. 

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 23 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. VI (1902), No. 1. 



24 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

THURSDAY, DECEMBER 26. 2.30 P.M. 

Address of welcome by Dr. Julius Sachs, President of the 
New York Society of the Institute. 

1. Professor Joseph Clark Hoppin, of Bryn Mawr College, 
A Cylix in the Style of Duris. (Read by Dr. George H. Chase.) 

This cylix was acquired by me in Athens in 1896 and was said to 
have been found near Naples. Form, that commonly used by the mas- 
ters of the Euphronian cycle. Height 6 inches, diameter 14 inches. 
On the interior a Silenus and a nymph. On the exterior a thiasus ; 
Dionysus and Sileni and Maenads on one side, and on the other 
Sileni and Maenads, five figures in each group. Inscription on the 
interior. 

The resemblance of this cylix to other vases with the signature 
of Duris is too marked for any doubts to exist as to whether the 
vase should be attributed to him. The exterior is almost a duplicate 
of the cylix signed by Duris in Boston (TARBELL, Am. J. Arch. 1900, 
pp. 183 if.). Other features characteristic of Duris are the drapery 
with its fine lines, the profiles, maeander and cross pattern around 
the central picture, exergue and employment of five figures in each 
group. The style of the figures on the interior is slightly better 
than those of the exterior. The representation of a thiasus is rather 
rare in the work of Duris, and the use of the feminine form of 
inscription is not found on any of the vases signed by him. On the 
whole the vase is in point of execution as good as any other vase 
attributed to him, if not better. 

2. Professor Frank Cole Babbitt, of Trinity College, An 
Ancient Herm from Trachones. (Presented in abstract by Pro- 
fessor John H. Wright.) 

In the spring of 1896, at Athens, Professor George D. Lord, of 
Dartmouth College, called my attention to an ancient Herm, which 
is at Trachones, a village near Athens, in the house of Mr. George 
Petousi, Deputy of Thebes. The Herm, in its present state, is a 
rude quadrangular slab of the native poros stone, about 30 inches 
high. Projections on either side with unfinished surface indicate 
that it was probably set in a wall. The back also is unfinished. 
The head has been broken off, but on the front there still remain 
the membrum virile and traces of the working of the hair. On the 
front is also an inscription in the old Attic alphabet, in letters of 
about 560-550 B.C., as follows : 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1901 25 

rdi/Se 



Doubtless the inscription was meant to form an hexameter line. 
The poetic order suggests this, and examples like, rdSe KvXwi/ and 
KdAAwvos l make rdi/Se KaAt'as (sic) far from impossible. 



3. Dr. T. W. Heermance, of Yale University, The Reciprocal 
Influence of the Doric and Ionic Styles in Greek Architecture. 

The influence of the Ionic on the Doric style is chiefly shown : 
(1) by the sporadic and experimental use of Ionic mouldings in 
place of Doric from the latter part of the sixth century ; (2) by the 
enrichment of Doric architectural members by means of Ionic 
mouldings, either alone, or in conjunction with Doric mouldings 
(the Lesbian kymation under the horizontal geison alone becomes 
a permanency); (3) by the assimilation to the Ionic of the Doric 
raking geison in form and the horizontal geison in position. 

Corresponding influences of Doric on Ionic are insignificant, but a 
triglyph frieze or a complete Doric entablature is used with Ionic 
(or Corinthian) columns in Hellenistic work in the second century. 
The mixture is first made at Pergamon. 

Remarks were made by Professor Allan Marquand. 

4. Professor Allan Marquand of Princeton University, 
Robbia Pavements. 

The history of the pavements made by various members of the 
Delia Kobbia school is usually limited to the brief statements made 
by Vasari. Our knowledge of this subject may be amplified by a 
study of the designs used by this school especially for ceilings and 
for the backgrounds and subsidiaiy decoration of large sculptured 
monuments. Several of these pavements still exist, a fine example 
by Andrea della Robbia now decorating a chapel in the Collegiata 
at Empoli. Others of similar pattern are found at S. Fiora, at 
Montevarchi, and at S. Gimignano. 

The pavement made by Luca della Robbia the younger for the 
Loggia of the Vatican no longer exists in situ. But a few tiles, pre- 
served in a case in the Sala Borgia, and a drawing made in 1745 by 
a Spanish painter Francesco La Vega, enable us to reconstruct its 
general character. One of the rooms of the Vatican still contains 
in good condition a Robbia pavement bearing the insignia of Leo X, 

1 F. D. Allen, On Greek Versification in Inscriptions (Papers of the American 
School at Athens, Vol. IV), pp. 74 and 79. 



26 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

and other tiles of similar character are preserved at the Pantheon 
and especially in the chapel of Era Mariano in the Church of 
S. Silvestro al Quirinale. 

5. Dr. Edgar S. Shumway, of the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, Notes: (7) On the DVENOS Inscription; (2) On the 
so-called Senatus consultum de Bacchanalibus ; (5) On the Sanc- 
tion in Legal Inscriptions. 

[No abstract of this paper has been received.] 

6. Professor Arthur Fairbanks, of Iowa State University, 
On the So-called Mourning Athena Relief. 

An examination of the relief makes it probable that the artist is 
reproducing some statue of about the middle of the fifth century B.C. 
The pillar is to be interpreted as the meta of a palaestra, in which 
case the relief represents Athena looking down with favor upon 
men offering her worship at the palaestra. On an early white 
lecythus in the Museum at Athens is seen an Athena in the same 
attitude and much the same dress ; it is not improbable that both 
vase-painter and relief sculptor drew their inspiration from the 
same source. 

7. Mr. James Tucker, Jr., lately of Providence, Some 
Statues from Corinth. (The author of this paper, a promising 
and beloved member of the School at Athens in 1899-1900, was 
drowned in the Nile, March 24, 1900. This paper was read by 
Professor John H. Wright.) 

The marble statuary found in the course of the American excava- 
tions at Corinth is almost wholly of Koman date. Among the 
exceptions are two vigorously rendered lion's-head spouts, which 
were found in the fountain-house of Glauce ; they are earlier in date 
than those of the Tholos of Epidaurus and not far removed from 
those of the Parthenon, plainly belonging to the period of the 
Hellenic constructions of Pirene. Of Roman date may be mentioned 
a portrait statue of the type of the Polyhymnia of the British 
Museum ; two colossal female statues, not unlike the Artemisia from 
the Mausoleum and the Canephorae of the Villa Albani, respectively ; 
a beautiful torso of a small nude Aphrodite, of the Capitoline type ; 
a seated god (probably Dionysus), with a panther at his side, not 
unlike the figure on the choragic monument of Thrasyllus in Athens ; 
and a male portrait head of a familiar type. Each of these objects 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1901 27 

was fully described in the paper, and numerous analogues for all 
in Graeco-Roman art, as also in some cases in earlier art, were 
pointed out. 

8. Mr. Eugene P. Andrews, of Cornell University, The So- 
called Restoration of the Parthenon now in Progress. 

[Mr. Andrews showed stereopticon views and commented on the 
work of " restoration."] 

THURSDAY, DECEMBER 26. 8 P.M. 

1. Professor William K. Prentice, of Princeton University, 
The Sanctuary of Zeus Madbachos on the Djebel Sh$kh Berekdt 
in Syria. 

The Djebel Shekh Berekat is a mountain peak about halfway 
between Antioch and Aleppo. On its summit is the sanctuary of 
two gods known as Zeus Madbachos and Selamanes. In November, 
1899, three members of an American archaeological expedition 
visited this sanctuary. An account of the results of their investi- 
gations, together with the text and a discussion of ten inscriptions 
found there, is expected to appear shortly. These inscriptions were 
originally on the face of the temenos wall, and show that the 
temenos was constructed at the end of the first and the beginning of 
the second century after Christ, by various persons, at their own 
expense, in fulfilment of vows. It also appears that the Eoman 
system of measures was employed, but that the local units, a cubit 
of 412.5 mm. and a foot of 275 mm. were retained, and finally that 
the cost of the masonry was 5^ drachmae per square cubit of sur- 
face, or about 22 cents per English cubic foot. 

One of the two gods worshipped at this sanctuary, Selamanes, has 
been identified by C. Clermont-Ganneau and Georg Hoffmann with 
the Assyrian god Shalmanu. The name of the other, Madbachos, is 
derived from the Syriac word Madhbah : " altar." This explanation 
of the name, which was suggested by M. Clermont-Ganneau, is 
proved by an inscription found by this expedition at Burdj Bakirba, 
on the gateway of the temenos of " Zeus Bomos." Both here and 
on the Djebel Shekh Berekat there was an ancient altar, traces of 
which still exist. Each shrine was a "high place" of ancient 
Semitic worship, where in Roman times a temple and a temenos 
were built. And yet in neither case was any name given to the 
local divinity other than "Zeus Bomos" or Zeus "Madbachos," the 



28 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

"Altar-god" of that locality. Strangely enough, however, on 
the Djebel Shekh Berekat the foreign god Selamanes was associated 
with the purely local deity. 

2. Dr. Charles Peabody, of Phillips Academy, Andover, 
Explorations in Mississippi. 

Under the auspices of the Peabody Museum of Harvard Univer- 
sity, explorations in Mississippi were undertaken in May, 1901. 

The first mound opened is on the plantation of Mr. Ellerton 
Dorr, Jr., in Clark sdale, Coahoma County. In ground plan it is 
oval; the dimensions are: height, 9 ft. 6^ inches; length from north 
to south 90 feet; breadth from east to west 60 feet. It was cut 
away down to the surface of the surrounding field in sections five 
feet in thickness, the earth of one section being thrown into the 
space left by that preceding. The entire mound was thus cut 
through and put back ; the work was begun on May 11 and com- 
pleted May 18. Both recent and older burials were discovered; 
traces of eleven of the former and of sixty of the latter were 
counted; the older bones were in poor preservation. In addition, 
pottery, shells, and lead ore were taken out. Of note are a vase 
with circular rim and triangular base and a second vase with con- 
vex circular base and concave, in-sloping sides ; this one is broken 
and incomplete. 

Another mound situated on the plantation of Mr. P. M. Edwards, 
at Oliver, Coahoma County, was opened and excavations made 
through nearly one-half of its material. The dimensions are : length, 
from north to south, 195 feet; breadth, east to west, 180 feet; 
height, 25 feet; the ground plan is oval. There were no recent 
burials, but sixteen older skeletons were discovered in fairly good 
preservation. Most of these were buried in the so-called " bundle " 
form, the bones being carefully laid, the long ones side by side and 
the skull often toward the north or the east. Pottery, bone, and 
stone implements, beads of glass and shell, a brass bell, ashes, char- 
coal, bark, and numerous shells were found. The pottery is usually 
decorated with incised lines, but many fragments are stamped or 
worked into ridges with thumb and finger. In the vicinity of this 
mound hundreds of arrow and other points were picked up in frag- 
ments or complete ; these are of flint-like stone and in nearly all 
cases chipped with very great skill and delicacy. Scrapers of a 
similar type were abundant. 

Both mounds had originally been surrounded by other smaller 
mounds, the presence of which is now proven by slight uneven- 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1901 29 

nesses of surface and by the numerous pottery fragments to be seen 
at these places. While part of these mounds are almost necessarily 
post-Columbian, some time may have elapsed between the beginning 
and completion of the works. It is impossible to set an absolute 
date. 

Work was suspended on June 28, 1901. 

3. Professor E. D. Perry, of Columbia University, Some 
Illustrations of Dorpfeld's Ithaca-Leucas Theory. 

As the title indicates, this paper was chiefly a commentary and 
explanation of some lantern-slides from photographs taken at Leu- 
cas and the neighboring island of Arkoudi. Dorpfeld's arguments, 
as already given by Professor Smyth in The Nation (August 16, 
1900), were briefly summarized, and one or two considerations added 
which seem to favor Dorpfeld's theory ; e.g. in Odyssey XIV, Odys- 
seus, inventing a tale to account to Eumaeus for his arrival at 
Ithaca, says the king of the Thesprotians sent him away on a ship 
bound for Dulichium ; but as soon as the ship was well away from 
shore the crew seized and bound him, in order to sell him into 
slavery. At evening evidently of the same day they reached 
Ithaca, which is here spoken of as if it had been the first port acces- 
sible. Now a day's sailing, with a northwest or west wind, would 
just about bring a vessel from a Thesprotian port to Leucas. This 
is not in itself much of an argument, but may be of some weight in 
connection with others. 

The island of Arkoudi answers extremely well to the Homeric 
Asteris, if Leucas be assumed as Ithaca, as was shown by the views 
exhibited. On the whole, however, Dorpfeld's theory is still far 
from proven, and is probably not susceptible of satisfactory proof. 

4. Professor R. B. Richardson, Director of the American 
School at Athens, An Ancient Fountain in the Agora of Corinth. 
(This paper was read by Professor Wright.) 

In the spring of 1901 was completed the excavation of the 
Ancient Fountain in the Agora, which lies about 25 m. west of the 
western end of the Propylaea. It ranks with Pirene and the temple 
of Apollo as one of the most interesting monuments of the ancient 
city. It consists of two parts, the fountain chamber proper, and a 
painted Doric frieze of triglyphs and metopes that encloses it. The 
latter consists of a long east front and a short southerly front, 
which meet at an obtuse angle ; on this frieze the original stucco 
and painted decoration, which conform strictly to the laws of Doric 



30 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

polychromy (FENGER, Taf. vii), are still preserved. Back of this 
triglyphou, and on a level with its upper surface, was anciently con- 
structed a platform on which stand statue-bases of Roman date, and 
evidences of statue-bases of an earlier date, which are in part in line 
with the triglyphon. The triglyphon itself is pierced on the east 
front by a passageway, from which descends inward a flight of 
seven steps to the original level of the fountain-chamber, about 
7 feet below the level of the top step ; on the front of the low wall 
opposite are openings of water-pipes into two bronze lion's-head 
spouts, still in situ, while along the base of this wall are gutters. 
At some time before the erection of the transverse triglyphon 
this fountain-chamber was more open to approach on its original, 
lower level (this appears from certain constructions beneath and 
in front of the triglyphon), and appears to have been quadrangular 
in shape. This ancient fountain-chamber, with its lion's-head 
spouts, dates apparently from about 500 B.C. Subsequently, but 
probably not later than in the last third of the fourth century B.C., 
the triglyphon was erected ; some filling-in was done behind it to 
the level of its top, and the flight of stairs constructed, the fountain 
being evidently still in use. At about the same time a street pave- 
ment, ascending from the east, was laid along part of the southern 
line of the triglyphon. These dates are attested, not only by gen- 
eral architectural considerations, but especially by the presence of 
certain statue-bases that are bedded on the triglyphon, or in line 
with it, two of which are inscribed with the name of Lysippus. At 
a very much later time, doubtless early in the Koman period, fur- 
ther filling-in took place ; a platform was constructed flush with 
the top of the triglyphon over the whole fountain-chamber, includ- 
ing the steps, and new statue-bases were set up, which disregarded in 
part* the lines of the triglyphon. Again, in Byzantine times, when 
the process of the accumulation of earth upon this platform had 
long gone on, a new platform was constructed, of poor marble slabs, 
which is about 4 feet above that of the Koman period. This exca- 
vation affords an interesting example of archaeological geology: a 
Byzantine level, a Koman level, a Greek construction not later than 
the fourth century B.C., and a more ancient Greek level. It is a 
wonderful chance that has preserved this early fifth-century foun- 
tain intact to our times. 

5. Mr. Eugene P. Andrews, of Cornell University, Newly 
Discovered Facts in Regard to the Different Series of Ornament 
Attached to the Architrave of the Parthenon. 



GENERAL MEETING^ DECEMBER, 1901 31 

With the aid of photographs, Mr. Andrews described briefly the 
traces left on the architrave of the Parthenon, by decoration which 
has been affixed to it at various times. 

The traces are holes cut into the marble and shallow ruts in arcs 
of circles. The holes are either rectangular or round. Traces of 
some sort occur on the architrav.es of all four sides and on the 
blocks on the ground from the north and from the south architrave. 
On the east architrave the mortices are under the metopes ; twelve 
of them are approximately square, and most of them contain lead 
holding iron dowels. The two end ones are oblong and are empty. 
Holes like the last two occur over each column of the north side ; 
that is, under every second triglyph. These are all empty except the 
one over the northwest column. This contains a heavy bronze dowel 
wedged in. The smaller connection between the dowel and its shield 
has been broken off about flush with the face of the architrave. 

A hole more or less nearly square and rudely cut is over each 
column of the west end and of the south side, except that the holes 
over the corner columns are like those on the north architrave. 

On the north architrave and on the south architrave, under each 
triglyph, are three round holes 0.002 m. in diameter, drilled into the 
stone, placed as if forming the points of triangles of various shapes. 
A circle, serving to intersect the three points, has a radius in each 
case of about 0.415 m. On the Nike bastion are three larger empty 
round holes with the same arrangement and radius. In most cases 
the small round holes on the architrave contain iron nails broken off 
flush with the surface. 

Over each of the two middle columns of the east end is an oblong 
hole containing lead and iron. If shields belonged to these, they 
covered each a group of letter holes of the Nero inscription. In 
each case, also, a hole on each side of the group has been enlarged, 
and holds the lead and the iron or bronze peg which held the edge 
of the shield fast. In the case of several of the other mortice holes, 
small holes on the circumference of a circle, with an average radius 
of 0.515 m., seem to point to a like use of clamps on the edges of the 
shields. 

The south group of letters of the Nero inscription covered half 
the space about the south shield hole. 

The following conclusions were drawn : 

(1) There were several different series of decoration on the archi- 
trave. 

(2) Twelve shields, not uniform in size, were on the east archi- 
trave about the middle of the first century after Christ. 



32 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

(3) Probably the two end shields of the east architrave belonged 
to the same series with the shields of the north architrave and of 
the other corners. Their diameter was a little over a metre. 

(4) The workmanship of the holes and the bronze dowel in one 
of them speak for their relative age. 

(5) On the north and on the south architrave was a decoration, at 
a different time, about 0.83 in. in diameter. 

(6) The shields of the west end and of the south side seem to 
have been a separate series. 

(7) Two shields, with a diameter of 0.84 in., were placed on the east 
architrave after the Nero inscription had been removed. 

6. Mr. Edward L. Tilton, of New York, Concerning the Two 
Temples of Hera at Argos. 

The remains of the two temples of Hera at Argos, or more prop- 
erly, at the Argive Heraeum, exhibit certain features which are 
unique, besides throwing additional light upon various known 
phases of Greek architectural art. The older temple antedated, 
apparently, all others in Greece whose ruins are known to us. The 
second temple, to judge from the remains, must have exemplified all 
that was best in Greek art, in refinement of design, beauty of execu- 
tion, in proportions, materials, polychromy, and sculpture. 

The old temple was built upon a platform or terrace supported 
by a Cyclopean wall constructed of large boulders. A portion of 
this platform was paved with irregular limestone blocks which 
served in part as a foundation for the temple. The remains of a 
stylobate and a few odd stones seem to justify the conclusion that 
the temple was a hexastyle, with fourteen columns on the side, and 
with a cellar 36.30 m. in length by 8.50 m. in width, or width to 
length as 1 is to 4, which is the proportion we might expect to find 
in a temple of great antiquity. 

The second, or Fifth Century temple, was built by Eupolemus 
upon a lower terrace, which was carefully constructed by cutting 
and filling. The remains indicate that the temple was hexastyle. 
with twelve columns on the sides. The stylobate was constructed 
of limestone ; the walls, columns, and the entablature, except as 
noted, were of poros stone ; the metopes, cyma, and roof tiles were 
of marble. 

FRIDAY, DECEMBER 27. 9.30 A.M. 

1. Dr. Ernst Riess, of the De Witt Clinton High School, 
New York City. Some Names found on Coan Inscriptions. 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1901 33 

It is well known that Greek families liked to choose their names 
with reference to the divinities especially worshipped by their mem- 
bers. Names, therefore, form an important source for the history of 
religion, especially for the discovery of old and obliterated divine 
beings. An investigation into the proper names of the island of Cos 
shows an astonishing lack of names composed with the name of that 
god to whom the island owes its chief fame, Asclepius. It also shows 
that in spite of the Dorian origin of the inhabitants, the Dorian gods 
proper, Apollo, Heracles, Demeter, and even Zeus, are but sparsely 
represented. On the other hand, names composed with elements 
meaning "best," " light," " life," " saving," form an abnormally large 
percentage. The conclusion is drawn from this, that these names 
contain the proof of an ancient worship of a god, or a circle of gods, 
whose sphere of influence was ever this, namely, protection, salva- 
tion, healing, and that in later times Asclepius was substituted for 
this aboriginal divinity. The existence of divine beings of the 
name of Aristos or Ariste, and their relation to the same sphere, has 
been known from other parts of Greece. And the continuation of 
an old " Carian " cult on the island, even after the Dorian invasion, 
is furthermore supported by the analogous continuation of the 
worship of Hecate Stratia, belonging to a similar sphere of influence. 

2. Professor Charles C. Torrey, of Yale University. (7) A 
recently discovered Phoenician Temple Ruin, (2) A Hoard of 
Ancient Phoenician Silver Coins. 

(1) In the autumn of 1900, the remains of a Phoenician temple 
were discovered in a hillside just south of the Awwaly river, about 
a mile and a half north of the present city of Sidon. The ruin was 
that of a large quadrangular building, enclosed by a massive wall 
built of limestone blocks, which were nearly cubical in shape, from 
three to four feet .thick, and very nicely squared and fitted. An 
inscription in the Phoenician language, found on several of the 
stones which composed the wall, gave the name of the builder as 
Bad-Ashtart, King of Sidon, and grandson of King Eshmunazar ; 
and stated that the temple was dedicated to the god Eshmun. 

The site was partially excavated, in the early summer of 1901, by 
Macridy Bey, of the Imperial Ottoman Museum in Constantinople. 
The work was done in a thoroughly scientific manner, and yielded 
many interesting results, of which we may expect a full report in 
due time. 

(2) Early in the year 1901, a hoard of ancient silver coins was 
unearthed near Sidon. At the time when the collection was seen by 



34 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

the writer, in the spring of that year, it consisted of perhaps fifty 
coins. These were all Phoenician octadrachms, mostly of the well- 
known type designated "Class III," in Head's Historia Numorum, 
p. 671. Two specimens belonging to the older type of the time of 
Artaxerxes II (Class II, ibid.) were of especial interest, as they 
seem to have been hitherto unknown. On the one, just above the 
towers of the city (obverse), appear the letters Mth, m$m. On the 
other, the letters am, Mth appear just above the reins of the chariot 
(reverse). Both of these coins, as well as the majority of their 
fellows, were in an excellent state of preservation. The writer 
secured the two just described, and a few others. It is to be hoped 
that all of the coins which formed this hoard may be kept in sight 
until a complete description of it can be made. 

3. Dr. Alice Walton, of Wellesley College. " Calynthus " or 
Calamis ; a note on Paus. X, 13, 10. 

Whether we adopt in Paus. X, 13, 10, TC^^ . . tTnreW, the smooth 
reading eo-nJKcunv /oya, or believe that some form of <rwe/oyos is con- 
tained in this vexed passage, an unusual distinction is made in the 
work of the artists who made the second offering of Tarentines at 
Delphi, the text implying that the work as a whole, that is, its com- 
position and central group, is the work of Onatas the Aeginetan, 
while the accessory figures of horsemen and foot-soldiers and possibly 
the fallen warrior were done by " Calynthus." As Pausanias was 
especially accurate in Book X in identifying an artist introduced for 
the first time unless he was well known, " Calynthus " was a man of 
some note whose name was confused by a scribe with the name 
Phalanthus occurring three times just below. Brunn has suggested 
that this artist was Calamis, a view which seems plausible when 
we consider a similar division of work in the Syracusan offering 
at Olympia, and that Calamis was noted for his renderings of 
horses. 

If we assume that the king of the Peucetians was represented 
in the central group, the natural reconstruction is that of con- 
ventional warrior-groups of the period, in which the Tarentines 
correspond to Greeks, and the Peucetians to barbarians. Opis lies 
prostrate in the centre; Taras, the eponymous hero of Tarentum, 
and the king of the Peucetians are above him to right and left, 
while Phalanthus-Poseidon, characterized by the dolphin, stands in 
the centre, with his face turned toward Taras to signify that his is 
the victorious side. Horsemen and foot-soldiers flank this central 
group, turned obliquely toward it. 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1901 35 

4. Professor George A. Barton, of Bryn Mawr College, 
(J) A Babylonian Deed of Grift from the Sixth pre-Christian 
Millennium. 

The tablet which forms the subject of this note is in the E. A. 
Hoffman collection of the General Theological Seminary in New 
York City. It was purchased by Dean Hoffman in 1898. The 
Bursar of the Seminary informs me that it was purchased in Paris. 
The tablet is formed of a hard black stone, and is 3f inches square. 
It is convex in shape, being probably an inch thick at the centre, 
and sloping toward th edges. The edges are f of an inch thick in 
the middle, but much thinner at the corners. The figures on it are 
cut about | of an inch deep ; the other signs are distinctly cut, but 
by no means as deeply. At the bottom of col. II a circle was cut 
by mistake and erased. This has made the tablet considerably 
thinner at that point. 

My attention was first called to the tablet about a year ago. 
While making a study of the archaic inscriptions which had been 
published, I noticed the statement concerning this tablet in Kadau's 
Early Babylonian History}- It was evident that Eadau had not read 
the tablet. Later, one of my pupils, Miss Ellen Seton Ogden, 
through the courtesy of the authorities of the Seminary, secured a 
copy, and we made considerable progress in its interpretation. In 
September of the present year I was permitted to collate the tablet 
again. This enabled me to obtain a clearer impression of some of 
its most peculiar signs, and to establish the fact of the erasure above 
mentioned. Otherwise I found it necessary to make no changes in 
Miss Ogden's copy. 

Further study of the tablet has made it evident that it is almost 
identical with a tablet in Paris which is as yet unpublished, but which 
Thureau Dangin mentions in the preface to the Supplement of his 
Reclierches sur Vorigine de Vecriture cuneiforme, designating it as y, 
and many of the signs of which he cites in the table which follows. 
When those signs and their position on tablet y are examined, they 
correspond, with one exception, to the signs of our tablet, column 
for column and line for line. When this Supplement was published 
in 1899, Thureau Dangin had not identified all these signs. 

In interpreting the tablet I have worked from the starting-point 
furnished by the numbers. It is evident that the first of these gives 
the area of a field, and probable that those which follow give the 
dimensions of its various sides. This supposition has proved cor- 

1 Radau's Early Babylonian History, pp. 12 note, and 321. 



36 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

rect. The tablet so far yielded up its meaning that I have given a 
tentative transliteration and translation of it in my Sketch of Semitic 
Origins, 1 which is now in press. The tablet itself is of such interest 
to Babylonian palaeography as well as to history that I venture to 
present my version of it to the Institute, and to call attention to 
some of its most important palaeographical contributions to our 
knowledge. Unfortunately the sign which designates the locality 
from which it comes, I am unable to identify. The writing shows 
the document to be older than the Blau monuments, but later than 
the archaic inscriptions published last year by Father Scheil in his 
Textes elamites-semitiques and the Receuil de travaux. 2 

I hope, in connection with Miss Ogden, to publish the text, with 
complete commentary, at an early date. It reads as follows : 

1(1). IIIMV GANA DUK-KA DINGIR 7-LAG 

(2). SAL-LAL-TUR 
11(1). IIIMVICL URI-NI-A SIG LIK-A 

(2). IIIMVICL GAL PI NER-A DA-KU GUR DIMMENA 

BABBAR NIN-A TAB BAR(UMUN) 
III(l). IIIMVIC E BABBAR LUG AB TAB BAR 

(2). IIIMVICL IGI KUR IR DU BAD LIK-A GAR-A 
(3). GIR SAG 

i.e. "3005 Bur of a field of clay, to the god ? presented Sallaltur. 
36050 cubits on its Akkadward side, the lower (side), from the be- 
ginning ; 36050 cubits running along the breadth of the ziggurat of 
Shamash, the lady who pours forth brightness ; 36050 cubits (along) 
the temple of Shamash, the messenger of Ab, who pours forth 
brightness (i.e. Sin); 36050 cubits before the mountain unto the 
abode of Ishtar (?), to the beginning, for making brick. May he 
give strength, may he bless." 

(2) The Haverford Library Collection of Cuneiform Tablets. 

Through the generosity of Mr. T. Wister Brown, of Philadelphia, 
a collection of four hundred cuneiform tablets was purchased for 
Haverford College early in October of the present year. By the 
desire of the donor, the collection is to be known as the " Haverford 
library Babylonian collection." The tablets were purchased of Mr. 
Gullabi Gulbenkian, of New York. They are inscribed in the cunei- 

1 Page 213, n. 5. 

2 One of them was repeated in the J. Am. Or. S., XXII, pp. 126 ff. 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1901 37 

form character of about 2400 B.C., and are of various sizes. Some of 
them are large and flat, containing from two to five columns of 
writing on each side, while others are much smaller. A very inter- 
esting series of temple receipts, most of them about 1^- by 2 inches in 
size, contains a number of case tablets. 

I have catalogued about eighty of these tablets and find them to 
be lists of sheep, goats, asses, and various kinds of supplies, as well 
as receipts for grain and other kinds of food, similar to the tablets 
published in Parts VII, IX, and X of the Cuneiform Texts recently 
issued by the British Museum, and also similar to those published 
by Keisner last year in the Mittheilungen of the Berlin Museum, 
under the title Tempelurkunden aus Telloli. Judging from those 
already catalogued, the Haverford tablets are also from the archives 
of the temple of Telloh. One of the temple receipts reads : 

" 1 kid of royal quality from the mountain ; 1 kid of royal quality 
for Tammuz the shepherd Mirburrtum brought; he gave it to the 
temple. (Dated) Month of the festival of Tammuz, the year after 
Urbillum was destroyed." 

It bears the seal of " Ur-Nina, shepherd of the sheep offered to 
Ningirsu." The name Ningirsu identifies the locality with Telloh. 
Urbillum was destroyed in the forty-eighth year of Dungi, and again 
in the third year of Bur-Sin II. This document must, therefore, 
come from one of these reigns. All the dated tablets so far cata- 
logued come from one or the other of these reigns, i.e. approximately 
2400 B.C. 

5. Miss Lucia C. C. Grieve, of New York, The Dead who 
are not Dead. 

The laws of ancient Athens declared that those for whom the 
burial service had once been performed, i.e. travellers or soldiers 
reported dead, or persons suffering from suspended animation, were 
impure and not to be admitted to intercourse with their fellow-men. 
To evade this law, such persons, as a means to their restoration, 
were required to allow themselves to be treated as infants. A 
similar custom obtained in Koine, but the person to be restored must 
climb into his house through the roof. In India an elaborate and 
costly ritual was necessary, the restored man still acting the part of 
a new-born child. These coincidences do not argue the existence of 
this practice in the original Indo-European stock, but are the out- 
come of the inherent feeling for organized government, and probably 
elate from an early period. Such a practice, either in the law or in 
its evasion, was impossible among the ancient Egyptians, and not in 



38 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

accord with what we know of the Semitic races. Traces of it are 
found in various parts of India at the present day. 

Remarks were made by Professor A. V. W. Jackson. 

6. Professor Samuel Ives Curtiss, of Chicago Theological 
Seminary, Ancient Sacrifice among Modern Semites. 

This paper is based on researches and discoveries in Syria, Pales- 
tine, and the Sinai tic Peninsula during the years 1898-1901, made 
through personal interviews with Arabs and Syrians, interpreted by 
Kev. J. Stewart Crawford, of Nebk, and others. 

(1) The use of blood in connection with sacrifice was first observed 
among the Arabs of Ruheibeh in the Negeb, of semn (Arab butter) 
and henna, on shrines in the land of Edom, and inside the tradi- 
tional tomb of Aaron on Mt. Hor, near Petra, also on the doorposts 
and lintels of shrines in the Druse mountains, and on the cupola of 
Nebi lyub at Busan, and on three short pillars in front of it (Heb. 
mazzeboth). 

(2) The unanimity of the testimony in all parts of northern Syria 
and among all classes of people, that " the bursting forth of blood " is 
the essential element in sacrifice, is remarkable. 

(3) In what does sacrifice consist? I have undertaken my re- 
searches in the full persuasion that the " sacrificial meal " was the 
primitive form of sacrifice among the Semites. My earliest investi- 
gations seemed to confirm this view no part of the animal is 
burned, it is boiled and eaten as a feast. After very extended 
inquiry in all parts of the country, I found that the feast was simply 
an incident, that it is non-essential to the idea of sacrifice, but that 
the " bursting forth of blood " is essential ; that is, the death of the 
victim, this, and this only, is sacrifice. The saint (well) is some- 
times considered as the giver of the feast, for the animal was given 
to him and is his, but he is not conceived of as being present as 
host. 

(4) The sacrifice is a redemption (fedou) ; e.g. " every house must 
have its death, man, woman, child, or animal." The life of an 
animal is accepted for the life of a man, " Spirit for Spirit," " it be- 
comes a kqffarah (Heb. Jcipporeth, covering) for his sins." 

7. Professor A. V. Williams Jackson, of Columbia Univer- 
sity, Some Archaeological Memoranda made in India. 

Professor Jackson described first a visit to Sanjan, with a view to 
identifying the probable site of the oldest Parsi " Tower of Silence " 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1901 39 

in Hindustan ; and then gave an account of a shrine or temple near 
Rawel Pindi in Northern India, where a sacred fire is perpetually 
kept burning. Although the guardians of the fire are Moham- 
medans, grounds were given to show that we have here apparently a 
survival of an influence of the Persian fire-cult, which may be shown 
elsewhere in Northern Hindustan. 

The second half of the paper was devoted to throwing light on 
certain passages in Sanskrit dramas by illustrations of archaeologi- 
cal remains at Benares and Sanchi. 

8. Dr. William Hayes Ward, of New York, Symbols of 
Babylonian Gods. 

Besides the multitude of representations of Babylonian and As- 
syrian gods, there appear in the art of the peoples numerous figures 
that are evident symbols of gods. Some are easy to recognize. The 
crescent is the moon-god Sin; the thunderbolt is the storm-god 
Kamman. On cone seals of the Assyrian and later periods columnar 
representations appear ; whether altars or gods is not always clear. 
These columns were called asherim by the Hebrews, but it has not 
been noticed by students of Hebrew archaeology that they were not 
alike, and must be differentiated. The Eoman Hermae were similar 
figures. In his study of the Monolith of Salmanasar, Von Luschan 
has gathered the representations of symbols of gods accompanying 
figures of Assyrian kings, and compares them with the lists of gods 
mentioned in the several inscriptions, but without very satisfactory 
identifications. But the bas-relief of Bavian (Sanherib) gives twelve 
emblems, and twelve gods are mentioned, and both in the same order, 
which identifies these twelve, and shows that the column with a 
ram's head is Ea, the double column Nebo, the column with the 
two lions' heads is Nergal, and the column with the lance-head is 
Marduk. 

We now turn to the boundary stones, or grants of lands, and gain 
much more light from one found by De Morgan in Susa, on which 
the names of the gods accompany the emblems, though not all are 
well preserved. These confirm the conclusions from the bas-relief 
of Bavian and add other identifications, such as the fire-god Nusku, 
represented by a lamp. We learn that Ea was represented not only 
by the ram, but by the Capricorn with a fish's tail. Some emblems 
yet remain to be identified. 

9. Miss May Louise Nichols, of Farmington, Conn., The 
Origin of the Red-figured Technique in Attic Vases. 



40 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

The question as to the origin of the red-figured technique in Attic 
vase-painting belongs to the domain of theory rather than of scien- 
tific proof. For, as has been truly said, the red-figured technique 
never had any development in the true sense of the term, but all 
at once flashed upon the mind of the vase-painter as a fully devel- 
oped idea. But although it may never be possible to know the exact 
facts as to the origin of this technique, it is possible to note some 
tendencies of the times, and to trace some steps in the history of 
vase-painting and sculpture which may have led to the conception 
of this idea. This is all that the present paper attempts to do. 

The strong tendency toward naturalism visible in Greek art of the 
sixth century, and the fact that that century was an age of experi- 
ment, of inventions, and of steady progress toward the most effective 
use of color in both painting and sculpture, are emphasized. 

Examples are cited to show the tendency in terra-cotta, sculpture, 
and vase-painting, toward the use of a light color for the figures and 
some dark color for the background. It is found in vases of the 
1 polychrome ' technique, whose origin is assigned to the so-called 
1 Dorian technique ' of the old Argive pottery ; in the grave stelae 
such as that of Lyseas ; in the sarcophagi such as those of Clazo- 
menae ; and in some of the Gorgoneion cylixes which, as a class, 
furnish an excellent illustration of the tendency of the age toward 
experiment. Theories which assign to any one of these exclusively 
the origin of this red-figured technique are deemed inadequate, as 
they all express the same tendency; while with all these works 
about him to suggest the idea consciously or unconsciously, nothing 
seems more natural than that some ingenious vase-painter should 
have conceived the idea of the simple red-figured technique. 

10. Dr. George H. Chase, of Harvard University, Some 
Terra-cotta Types from the Heraeum. 

Besides the typically Argive style of terra-cottas, i.e. flat-bodied 
female figures with a tendency to elaborate plastic ornamentation, 
there were found in the excavation of the Heraeum a considerable 
number of figures of the ordinary archaic type. These are, for the 
most part, draped female figures both with and without attributes in 
their hands, similar to a large class of terra-cottas found all over the 
Greek world. At the Heraeum, however, it is noteworthy that these 
figures are relatively far less important than at any other Greek site 
where similar terra-cottas have been found. Furthermore, a number 
of our archaic specimens show clear traces of Oriental influence, 
while the attributes which many of the figures carry are in no case 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1901 41 

attributes of Hera. It seems probable, therefore, that these archaic 
terra-cottas were not originally a native Argive product, but were 
copied from foreign types. Three single specimens, a group of two 
lions, a flying female figure (perhaps a gorgon), and a group repre- 
senting a bull and a lion, are noteworthy because of their similarity 
to well-known sculptures. 



FRIDAY, DECEMBER 27. 2.30 P.M. 

Joint session with the Society of Biblical Literature and 
Exegesis. 

After the address by Professor Edward Q. Hincks, of An- 
dover Theological Seminary, on Some Tendencies and Results of 
Recent New Testament Study, the following papers on archaeo- 
logical subjects \vere read : 

1. Professor Franz Boas, of Columbia University, Some 
Problems of American Archaeology. 

Owing to the absence of literary information in regard to the 
early history of America, methods of American archaeology are sim- 
ilar to those of European prehistoric archaeology. Archaeological 
investigations in America can be made fruitful by the application of 
ethnological experience, since probably the customs of the ancient 
inhabitants of America were similar to those of the present Indians. 
Some of the most interesting problems in American archaeology are 
met with on the Pacific coast of the continent, where, at the present 
time, a great diversity of languages are spoken, where distinct types 
occur, and where the culture is also highly differentiated. Ethno- 
logical evidence indicates that at an early time intercourse took place 
between the eastern plains of America and the Pacific coast. This 
fact is also borne out by archaeological evidence particularly in the 
region of the State of Washington and southern British Columbia. 
It would seem that there has been early intercourse between the 
Indians of the North Pacific coast and the inhabitants of Siberia, 
while the Eskimo who at present inhabit Alaska appear to be recent 
intruders. The solution of these problems requires a thorough 
archaeological investigation of the east coast of Bering Sea and of 
the Pacific coast between Columbia Elver and Vancouver Island. 

[This paper appears in full above, pp. 1-6.] 

2. Dr. William Hayes Ward, of New York, The Hittite 
Lituus. 



42 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

One of the peculiar points often recurring in the so-called " Hit- 
tite " art is the rod, curved up at the bottom, held in the hand of a 
king, or priest, and generally designated a " lituus." It differs from 
the lituus held by Roman augurs, in that it is held at the top, and 
the curve is at the bottom, thus reversing the Roman style. This 
"lituus" occurs on the rock sculptures of Boghaz-Keui and on 
numerous seals. 

A " Hittite " seal-cylinder which has lately come into my posses- 
sion makes clear what this " lituus " is. On this seal are figured the 
two principal Hittite deities, the goddess corresponding to Ishtar, or 
Venus, holding open her garment to show her exposed body, and the 
warrior god Teshub, who holds in one hand a club over his head, and 
in the other two objects, one a rope attached to a ring in the nose of 
a crouching bull before him, and the other the " lituus." 

This " lituus " is drawn with unusual care. It is clearly a serpent 
held by the neck. The mouth is open, and the eye is clearly seen. 
The curved lower end is simply the tail of the serpent bent upward. 

We already knew that the Hittites paid reverence to the serpent, 
as I have previously published a cylinder, with Hittite inscrip- 
tion, showing the worship of a Nehnshtan, or brazen serpent on a 
pole. The serpent, or more usually two serpents arranged as a cadu- 
ceus, was carried by Babylonian gods ; and Gilgamesh is even seen, 
on an Assyrian sculpture, strangling a serpent, as did Hercules, and 
as does the Hittite god on this seal. 

3. Professor Theodore F. Wright, of Cambridge, Mass., 
Figurines from Tell Sandahannah. 

This mound, lying abput twenty miles southwest of Jerusalem, 
has been excavated by the Palestine Exploration Fund and has been 
found to contain lamps, jars, vases, bowls, plates, weights, figurines, 
inscribed stones, and many coins. 

I. There are sixteen figurines cut out of thin lead. Human figures 
are rudely but clearly represented, and all are in attitudes of agony 
and are bound hand and foot with wires of lead, iron, and bronze. 
They were at first regarded as images of captives, but are now seen 
to represent persons who were to be attacked by means of sorcery. 
This view is supported by references to the immediate explanations 
of Professor Wimsch, of Breslau, and M. Clermont-Ganneau, and to 
the treatises on Magic in Hastings' Bible Dictionary, and by Budge, 
Jastrow, and others. Accompanying the figurines were tablets having 
some Hebrew but mostly Greek inscriptions, not yet fully deciphered, 
but containing curses. 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1901 43 

II. One figurine in terra cotta represents a draped female figure 
with peculiar head-dress. This may represent Astarte, but is more 
likely a figure of Saint Anna, mother of Mary, whose name is the 
common explanation of the term Tell Sandahannah, Saint Anne. 
Cimabue gave the Madonna a similar head. 

Professor Theodore F. Wright then read the Report of the 
Board of Managers of the American School in Palestine. 

At the meeting of the Society of Biblical Literature and Exegesis 
held December 28, 1900, the Committee appointed to establish the 
American School of Oriental Eesearch in Palestine presented its 
final report and was discharged. The management of the School 
then passed into the hands of the contributing institutions and 
individuals named in said report, and by them a Board of Managers 
was chosen for the ensuing year. To this Board of five members, 
Professor John Williams White, being President of the Archaeologi- 
cal Institute of America, was added ex officio. The Board was 
organized by choosing a Chairman and a Secretary. Professor J. H. 
Hopes was requested to act as Treasurer and has done so. 

The previous Committee had appointed Professor C. C. Torrey as 
the first Director. His report, which is made a part of this report, 
will show the faithfulness of his work under unexpected difficulties. 
Professor H. G. Mitchell is now in Jerusalem as the second Director 
and reports favorably as to the continued assistance of U. S. Consul 
Merrill, the development of the library, and the work being done by 
him and his one regular student. This is Mr. Martin A. Meyer, a 
graduate of the Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, whose examina- 
tion for the fellowship offered by the Archaeological Institute 
showed that he was the best qualified of the three candidates. Pro- 
fessor Mitchell will give special instruction for limited periods to 
some others. 

There are now twenty-one contributing institutions, namely, 
Andover Theological Seminary, Auburn Theological Seminary, Bos- 
ton University, Brown University, Bryn Mawr College, Colgate 
University, Columbia University, Cornell University, the Episcopal 
Theological School in Cambridge, the General Theological Seminary 
of New York, Harvard University, Hebrew Union College of Cin- 
cinnati, Johns Hopkins University, McCormick Theological Semi- 
nary, the University of New York, the University of Pennsylvania, 
Princeton University, Princeton Theological Seminary, Trinity Col- 
lege of Hartford, the Union Theological Seminary of New York, 
and Yale University. 



44 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

The subscription being made through the labors of Dr. James B. 
Nies for an endowment excavation fund now amounts to about 
$30,000. 

The decease of Professor Joseph Henry Thayer on the twenty- 
sixth day of November has removed from the Board of Managers its 
head and most active member. The School originated with him and 
had his constant attention and generous service until his strength 
failed. May it become the worthy monument of this sincere friend 
of man, ripe scholar, and beloved teacher. 

Respectfully submitted by the Board of Managers : 

GEORGE F. MOORE, JOHN WILLIAMS WHITE, 
JOHN P. PETERS, THEODORE F. WRIGHT. 

WM. HAYES WARD, 

DECEMBER 10, 1901. 

Dr. Nies then read a report on the Endowment Fund for 
Exploration and Excavation under the Direction of the School 
in Palestine. 

4. Professor Louis B. Paton, The Civilization of Canaan in 
the Fifteenth Century B.C. 

[No abstract of this paper has been furnished.] 

5. Professor John H. Wright, of Harvard University, Some 
Aspects of the Work of Heinrich Brunn. 

[No abstract of this paper has been furnished.] 

6. Professor William H. Goodyear, of the Museum of the 
Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, New Observations on 
Architectural Refinements in Italian Churches. 

[This paper will appear in full in an early number of this 
JOURNAL.] 

SATURDAY, DECEMBER 28. 9.30 A.M. 

1. Dr. Enno Littmann, of Princeton University, Four Early 
Palmyraean Inscriptions. (Read by Professor W. K. Prentice.) 

The American Archaeological Expedition to Syria in 1899-1900 
found in Palmyra among others four ancient inscriptions with very 
interesting archaeological details. Two are honorary inscriptions 
on the brackets of two columns in the so-called Temple of the Sun. 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1901 45 

They are of great importance, because they show that a temple on 
this site was begun at least as early as the first century after Christ. 
One was executed in honor of a prominent citizen by his sons in the 
year 28-29 A.IX, the other by the community of Palmyra in 70- 
71 A.D., in honor of a man who contributed to the building of the 
temple. The other two inscriptions are on altars found outside of 
the city. One is dated 34 A.D. This altar was erected by the mem- 
bers of a " thiasus," i.e. a religious society which had charge of a 
certain festival. This explanation was given to me by Professor 
Clermont-Ganneau, who has found the same festival in the Old 
Testament, in Phoenician inscriptions, and in the famous MMeba 
map. The fourth inscription states that a Nabataean, who had been 
commander of cavalry in a garrison on the Euphrates, erected two 
altars in honor of his own national god, a god whose name was 
unknown until recently, but was discovered at the same time in 
Palmyraean, Nabataean, and Safaitic inscriptions, 

2. Dr. Carroll N. Brown, of Asheville, N. C., Fragment of a 
Treasure List found in the Acropolis Wall of Athens. 

The inscription is one of several discovered by Mr. Brown while 
a fellow of the School of Classical Studies at Athens (1896-1898). 
It is a fragment of a treasure list dating from a period shortly 
before the middle of the fourth century B.C., and similar to many 
inscriptions already published in C.LA. II, 2. It has been possible 
to restore it very fully by comparison with these lists, and in its 
turn it casts new light on portions of them that were obscure or 
lacking. Thus in C.LA. II, 2. 677, II, 1. 38 and 680 1. 11, ford 
should be rpcis or T pes. In C.LA. II, 2, 677, II, 11. 38 sqq. ; 680, 
11. 5-14; 681, 11. 23-33 ; 711, 11. 6-13, weights of two vessels may be 
restored, and C.LA. II, 2, 681, 11. 24-33, and 711, 11. 6-7, may be 
corrected in other points. C.I. A. II, 2, 678, A. I, 1. 21, may be re- 
stored with absolute certainty. C.LA. II, 2, 684, is found to form 
part of the new inscription and must be entirely rewritten to accord 
with it. Koehler's proposed readings here, though probable in 
themselves, are found to be untenable in several particulars. In 
C.LA. II, 2, 714, 1. 6, 6A[oo- t %x>s] should be restored and C.LA. 676, 
11. 1-3, should be emended to agree with the new inscription. In 
C.LA. II, 2, 676, 1. 4; 701, II, 1. 51 ; 713, 1. 16, the lacunae should 
be filled by the words [o S/uKv'fy] dve^Kti/. In C.LA. II, 2, 652, B, 
1. 11, KaraKe^pvo-w/xeVot should be o-eo^/ucur/uieveK. 

AoKt/xeta xpiWov, testing specimens, and \eiat xpvcrcu, show speci- 
mens of weights used in weaving, are for the first time described 



46 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

fully enough to allow us to form some conception of their size and 
use, and in recording the weight of the former a new sign, ~E (= rcrap- 
TY}fi6ptov), is used. (IC~E = If obols.) 

3. Dr. Ernst Riess, of New York, The Place of Classical 
Archaeology in the Secondary School. 

[No abstract of this paper has been furnished.] 

Remarks were made by Dr. Sachs and Professor J. H. Wright. 

4. Professor Karl P. Harrington, of the University of Maine, 
A Canard, A Quarry, A Query. 

A canard, in my opinion, is the idea of O. E. Schmidt, that the 
remains of an ancient tomb, perhaps that of Cicero himself, adjoin 
the church of San Domenico, near Isola Liri. The large stones of 
the foundation may have served other purposes in Cicero's villa 
near by; and the supposed opening into the tomb is doubtless 
merely a drainage canal. 

An archaeological quarry may be found in the church and abbey 
of San Trinita at Venosa, the birthplace of Horace. The walls, 
which are in a ruinous condition, are so full of fragments of inscrip- 
tions and other objects of interest that they could be easily worked 
to good profit, by the American School in Rome, for example. 

The query is whether Schmidt is not essentially correct in locat- 
ing Cicero's Pompeianum just outside the Herculanean gate. Cicero 
would inevitably have required beauty of natural scenery and con- 
venience of access in selecting the villa. Convenience in this case 
must have meant proximity to the harbor. The elevation back of 
the two houses next to the Herculanean gate meets both conditions, 
harmonizing also with the supposed location on the "via Graeca," 
and with the local tradition* as to the site. The important part of 
the. villa would have been on the hill itself. 

5. Professor Mortimer Lamson Earle, Barnard College, Co- 
lumbia University, Notes on the Greek Alphabet. 

I. Of the Evolution of the Supplementary Aspirate (Spirant) and 
Assibilate Signs. The evolution of the characters $ and X must be 
first discussed. In regard to the evolution of the former character 
the theories may be grouped under the two heads, morphological and 
phonological. The morphologists, who would derive <t> simply and 
arbitrarily from <P (9), are represented by Franz and Larfeld ; the pho- 
nologists, who would derive the new aspirate (or spirant) character 
from the traditional aspirate , are represented by Francois Lenor- 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1901 47 

mant and von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff. Probability seems to point 
to the development of the new character for ph under the impression 
of a desire to give alphabetic expression to ph and ch to match th 
() and fill out the scheme 

B . T 

T . K 

AT 

Thus from the obsolescent or obsolete guttural sign that stood 
next to P . was derived the new character for ph (phei), partly on 
account of a certain similarity between the guttural character and 
the form of theta and partly on account of a phonological relation 
between the theta and the sound to be represented by the new char- 
acter. The development of the character for ch (X or +) followed 
from this, the form of the new sign being due perhaps partly to 
kappa (K), partly to theta (). As for I with the power of X 
(chsj Jcs), its use in this function was due to the phonetic value of 
zeta (1) and the resemblance of the latter sign to the obsolete char- 
acter I (samega?). The old sign with its new power and a name 
similar to phei and chei (viz. xei) retained its traditional place in 
the alphabet. For ps (phs) a new sign with the name psei was 
placed at the end of the alphabet (after X), its form due perhaps 
in part to all the three of the preceding signs Y 4> X. 

II. Of the Names of the Original Letters of the Greek Alphabet. 
A comparison between the traditional Greek names and the tradi- 
tional Hebrew names. The Greek names represent, it would seem, 
Phoenician names in some cases different from the Hebrew. It is 
suggested that samekh would naturally have given samega. May 
this not have been misunderstood as sammega (i.e. sam mega) and 
the name simply rejected by the lonians ? The Ionic name sigma 
would then be a characteristic name for the sole remaining simple 
sibilant. 

III. Of the Beta Signs. Remarks on the beta signs that diverge 
from the common Greek type (B). Theraean beta (3) treated as a 
differentiation of H = 1 (pel). Two, or perhaps three, primitive 
Greek forms of beta suggested. 

IV. Of the Sixteen-letter Alphabet. The differing views of Pro- 
fessor Sophocles (1848) and W. Schmid (1893) about the origin of the 
grammarians' notion that the primitive Greek alphabet had but six- 
teen letters. Professor Sophocles's view seems the more plausible. 

6. Professor Fitz Gerald Tisdall, of the College of the City 
of New York, The Credibility of Xenophon's Anabasis. 



48 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

The credibility of a history depends on the fulness and accuracy 
of the author's information and his impartiality, which includes 
honesty and freedom from bias. 

The character of Xenophon is depicted in Anabasis III, 1, 4 ff., as 
devoid of patriotism, unscrupulous, and careless of truth. Some 
parts of this passage are scarcely credible. As confirming this view 
of his character, the question of his age at the time of the Anabasis 
is considered. The opinion at present prevailing is that he was 
about thirty years old, the age he assigns to Proxenus, and this is 
based wholly upon statements, or rather inferences from statements, 
in the Anabasis. The correct view that he was forty-three or forty- 
four rests upon Strabo and Diogenes Laertius, two impartial wit- 
nesses of different periods, not seriously contradicted by Plutarch. 
The expression of Xenophon after his dream, TTOMV 8 ? i/Auctay c/xavrw 
cXOtlv dva/xeVa), implies mature age ; and the passage with Seuthes is 
only explicable on the same supposition. That Proxenus was his 
dpxato? evos is irreconcilable with the age of thirty ; whereas if both 
were forty- three or forty-four, the difficulties disappear. 

The story of Xenophon's rise in part of one night from being a 
civilian friend of Proxenus to the position of virtual commander of 
the Greek army is untrustworthy. So also that of Xenophon's deeds 
thereafter. The manoeuvre against the Colchians is instanced as a 
passage calculated to deceive by giving the reader the impression 
that Xenophon invented a new form of attack, whereas it must have 
been well known to the soldiers. 

As errors of statement, the incredible number of one million two 
hundred thousand in the king's army stamps Xenophon as careless 
or ignorant. The error of over three hundred miles in distance in 
the Anabasis invalidates many of his distances and makes the whole 
uncertain. The battle of Cunaxa, containing the incredible rout of 
six thousand Persian cavalry by six hundred Persian cavalry under 
Cyrus, ending with the death of himself and all his attendant nobles, 
is not trustworthy. 

The Anabasis is a good story containing much information, but 
not to be considered as veracious history. 

After this paper, Professor F. W. Putnam, of Harvard Uni- 
versity, read a Report on the Establishment of the Travelling 
Fellowship in American Archaeology. 

7. Miss Harriet A. Boyd, of Smith College, Mycenaean Dis- 
coveries at Gournia, in the Neighborhood of Kavomi, Crete. 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1901 49 

[Miss Boyd showed and explained a series of views, illustrating 
her recent excavations at Gournia. See p. 71.] 

8. Miss Blanche E. Wheeler, of Providence, The Pottery at 
(rournia. 

The excavations at Gournia, Crete, in 1901, yielded extensive 
remains of pottery. Though much of it was broken, a remarkably 
large number of vases was found whole. This pottery may be briefly 
classified as follows : 

I. Monochrome pottery, made of : (a) coarse red clay, used for pithoi 
and other large vessels ; (b) coarse yellow clay, used for amphorae ; 
(c) fine red, pinkish, gray, and yellowish clay, used for cups, bowls, etc. 

II. Pottery made of fine pinkish clay, with a red or black slip, 
usually very thin, often metallic in quality, used for cups and bowls. 

III. Painted pottery, made of : (a) fine red, pinkish, and yellowish 
clay ; (6) rather coarse pink or yellow clay. 

The designs are bands, zigzag lines, wave lines, and dots; plant 
patterns, such as the vine, fern, large heart-shaped leaf, ivy, and 
crocus; spirals; representations of marine life, such as the cuttle- 
fish, nautilus, and seaweed; the double axe; rosettes; and small 
flowers or petals between spirals. 

The colors of the decoration are white, red, and black. Some- 
times the last two colors appear in alternate bands, showing that 
they were thus used intentionally. On many vases the color shades 
from black to bright red, as a result of uneven firing. White bands 
and dots are often painted on the red or black decoration. One 
fragment has, in addition to these bands and dots, a white spiral 
resembling tendrils. The colors are both lustreless and lustrous. 
A slip of the same color as the clay is usually applied first and on 
it the design is painted, but in some cases the design seems to have 
been painted directly on the clay. 

The variety of shapes is great, cups, bowls, pitchers, ewers, am- 
phorae, stirrup-jugs, " schnabelkannen," jars, fillers, and many shapes 
as yet unclassified. 

With a few exceptions the pottery is wheelmade. The shapes are 
graceful, and the decorations are artistic, in many cases showing ex- 
cellent technique. The pottery belongs to the so-called Island ware. 
It represents, generally, the late Mycenaean style, as is shown by 
the overcrowding of the space with ornamentation. 

9. Mr. William Warner Bishop, of the Polytechnic Institute 
of Brooklyn, Roman Church Mosaics of the First Nine Centuries. 



50 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

Mr. Bishop described briefly a number of these pictures, and classi- 
fied them with regard to their subjects and the placing of these sub- 
jects in the various parts of the church. The main results of the 
study were, first, that the apse is almost entirely given over to sym- 
bolic scenes ; second, the tribune and triumphal arches have, gener- 
ally, symbolic representations drawn from the. Apocalypse ; third, 
distinctly non-Apocalyptic Biblical scenes are found only on the 
tribune arch of one church, SS. Nereo ed Achilleo, and in the panels 
of the nave of S. Maria Maggiore. This church, however, is the only 
one in which the nave mosaics have been preserved. It was shown 
that the mosaics in S. Paolo and SS. Cosma e Damiano directly in- 
fluenced the four mosaics made in the ninth century by order of 
Paschal I. If a Roman tradition as to the placing of subjects 
existed, it was different from that which is shown in the literary 
sources of the fourth and fifth centuries. 

The following papers were read by title : 

1. Professor John C. Rolfe, of the University of Michigan, 
The Language and Style of the Preamble of Diocletian's Edict 
De pretiis Venalium Rerum. 

This document has, in a way, the same relation to the time of 
Diocletian that the Monumentum Ancyranum has to that of Augus- 
tus ; yet its Latinity has, so far as I know, never been carefully 
examined, and it is seldom cited in our lexicons and handbooks. 

On account of the many and flagrant blunders made by the stone- 
cutters the testimony of the Edict, especially in matters of orthog- 
raphy, has been lightly esteemed. This defect is, however, in part 
made good by the fact that we have several versions, and by a 
comparison of these the original text may be restored in many 
instances. 

In the assimilation of prepositions the document shows surprising 
regularity, and a decided preference for the unassimilated forms. 
Thus we have inmanitatem, 1, 7 (imm-, A.) ; inprobos and inmodestos, 
1, 9; inprobos, 1, 17; inpedita, 2, 11; inmunis, 2, 21 (imm- in S. (?) ; 
the reading is iinmunis). Inmo, 1, 9 (A. P.) and senper, 1, 21 (S. A.), 

1, 23 (P. S. ; semper, A.) and 2, 18, seem to be due to a false analogy 
with these forms. In no case is the unanimous testimony of the 
versions for the assimilated form, and in only one case (collationem, 

2, 4, S. P. ; conl-, A.) does the balance of evidence point that way. 
An especially interesting orthography is obtumsi, 1, 18 (attested 

by P. S. Gr., while A. has obtumsi). The expression quis adeo 



GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1901 51 

obtumsi pectoris . . . est is interesting for its parallelism with Virg. 
Aen. I, 567, on whose interpretation and orthography it throws 
light. 

In spite of the grandiloquence and verbosity of the Preamble, its 
actual offences against classical Latinity are surprisingly few. 

The following words and expressions are especially interesting 
from the lexicographical point of view ; nearly all are inadequately 
treated in the lexicons : 1, 17, intempestivo (new word) ; 1, 2, sudore 
largo, for the usual sudore multo; 1, 2, honestum publicum (cf. ex 
commodo publico, 2, 23) ; 1, 3, de praeterito (new) ; 1, 9, inmodestos 
(new as a subst.) ; 1, 11, temperamentum (cf . 2, 22 and 1, 22) ; 1, 12, 
quantum, = ut (unique) ; 1, 15 in peiora (new in plural) ; 1, 22, 
superis (new in this sense); 1, 20. exercitos habent (said by Thiel- 
mann, Archiv f. lot. Lex u. Gram. II, 377, not to be found after 
Plautus) ; 2, 1, quadruplo, octuplo (new, if adverbs) ; 2, 10, subditi 
(new as a subst., at least in the singular). 

[This paper will be published in full elsewhere.] 

2. Professor George Hempl, of the University of Michigan, 
The Runic Inscription on the Anglo-Saxon Sword found on the 
Isle of Wight. 

The runic inscription on the hilt of the Anglo-Saxon sword found 
in the Isle of Wight and now in the British Museum (Stephen's Old 
Northern Runic Monuments, III, p. 459) reads 

ceco wceri 
' self-defence ' 

3. Dr. Edmund von Mach, of Harvard University and 
Wellesley College, The Draped Female Figures from the 
Acropolis An Attempt at Classification. 

A classification is possible from several points of view. Some of 
the classifications which may lead to definite results as to date, place 
of provenience, etc., are : 

A. According to the treatment of the finger- and toe-nails. Not 
many nails are preserved. The upper fragment (Gardner, Fig. 12) 
shows an entirely different nail and fingertip from what is found on 
Athenian sculpture (cf. the stele of Aristion) while it strongly resem- 
bles the well-preserved nail of the second finger of the right hand of 
the "Hera" of Samos (not to be seen on photographs, because the 
fingers are bent up and hidden under the shadow of the drapery-fold). 
The nail is excellently preserved. 



52 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

B. According to hair. 

I. Number of braids. (1) Three braids. (2) Four braids. This 
is the later group. There is, however, at times an overlapping of 
group I. 

II. Style of hair in braids. (1) Braids done in zigzag lines. 
(2) Braids represented by oblong strips cut by shallow horizontal 
lines or grooves. (3) When these lines are somewhat slanting 
and the strips themselves rounded instead of flat the effect is 
extremely natural (cf. Overbeck, Fig. 41 6, less satisfactorily Gard- 
ner, Fig. 28). 

III. Style of hair over forehead and temples. (1) Hair running 
in even and parallel, fairly horizontal, layers over the forehead and 
continuing in the same direction over the temples (Tarbell, Fig. 94). 
(2) Hair over temples following a different direction from the hair 
over the forehead (Overbeck, Fig. 41 a). (3) Lowest row of hair 
differently done from upper rows. (4) At times in fantastic curls. 
(5) Direction of rows, vertical instead of horizontal (Overbeck, Fig. 
41 6). (6) Fantastic curls not confined to the lowest row. Viewed 
from these several points of view the " Nike " of Delos, e.g., falls in 
where she properly belongs ; and the inaccuracy of the old date at 
the very beginning of the archaic period becomes clear. 

IV. According to the direction of the folds of the drapery. 
(1) Folds straight on both sides. (2) Slanting on one side. 

4. Professor Mary Gilmore Williams, of Mt. Holyoke Col- 
lege, Studies in the Life of a Roman Empress. 

It is the purpose of these studies to compare the scanty evidence 
furnished by historians with the testimony of coins and inscriptions, 
so as to indicate the relation of lulia Domna to her predecessors 
and to define her position in the Empire. With her the title of the 
Empress received its last important addition. She was named on 
coins, " Mater Augustorum duorum, Mater Senatus, Mater Patriae," 
when her sons became co-emperors. The amplified title, " lulia Pia 
Felix Augusta Mater Augusti et Castrorum et Senatus et Patriae," 
was used after Geta's murder. She was the first Empress to be named 
on a milestone, and the first to be represented on coins with the legends 
Liberal Aug. and Fortunae Reduci. She was the only Empress who 
presided over the Secular Games, and who received an acclamatio 
from the Arval Brethren. Her name is associated with the Em- 
peror's in giving the dates of several inscriptions. Coins and 
inscriptions presenting her name are more numerous than those in 
honor of any other Empress. Cohen records more than three hun- 



GENEEAL MEETING, DECEMBER, 1901 53 

dred and fifty coins. Most of the nearly two hundred inscriptions 
are of some public significance. 

5. Professor James R. Wheeler, of Columbia University, 
Heracles Alexicacus. 

[No abstract of this paper has been furnished.] 

6. Professor James W. Kyle, of the William Jewell College, 
The Maidens' Race on Attic Vases. 

A black-figured Attic lecythus, 22 cm. high, found in Salamis, now 
in the Central Museum at Athens, depicts three women running, 
evidently in a race. The figures, 6.50 cm. high, are unmistakably 
intended for women, since their faces, arms, and legs are white. 
Each has her hair done up in two large coils, on top of the head, 
and at the nape of the neck. Their loose flowing garments are 
girded up and wound about the waist, leaving the legs bare to half- 
way up the thighs. Arms and legs are extended in the violent 
striding fashion habitual in vase-paintings of racers. The exact 
similarity and regularity of their attitude and their preparations 
for running indicate a race. Furthermore the presence of a black 
object, in shape and size like an altar, with an irregular flame-shaped 
mass upon it, depicted just at the rear of the hindmost figure, seems 
to indicate some formal service in honor of a divinity. The simplest 
interpretation seems to be that this vase represents the eldest of the 
three sets of maidens who raced in the games held in honor of Hera 
at Elis, as described by Pausanias (Book V, 16). The dress of these 
figures does not harmonize exactly with Pausanias's account, but 
doubtless he merely described some victor's statue as he saw it. 
This vase seems to be the only one in existence depicting an athletic 
contest of women. 

The comparative freedom of the painter in execution, and the 
delicately graceful shaping and fine finish of the vase, indicate a 
date near the end of the black-figured period. 

7. Professor J. R. S. Sterrett, of Cornell University, Descent 
reckoned ^rpodev. 

[No abstract of this paper has been furnished.] 

8. Professor W. N. Bates, of the University of Pennsylvania, 
Etruscan Horseshoes from Corneto. 

In this paper the writer described and discussed four bronze horse- 
shoes found near Corneto, and now in the Free Museum of Science 



54 ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 

and Art of the University of Pennsylvania. They are half-shoes or 
sandals and all are excellently preserved. Each shoe has three holes 
for attaching, one circular hole near the centre, and two square 
holes at the ends of the shoe. The writer argued that these bronzes 
were really the soles of leather boots to which they were attached 
by means of a large rivet and straps. The boots were kept on by 
straps which crossed behind under the ankle, were then brought for- 
ward and crossed in front, and finally tied behind above the ankle, 
thus keeping the shoe firmly in place. The lower surface of each 
shoe has a number of projecting points, suggesting that they were 
to be used on ice. In general these shoes seem similar to the mule- 
shoes mentioned by Catullus. The tomb in which they were found 
probably dates from the fourth century B.C. 

Of the following papers, which were withdrawn, no abstracts 
have been furnished : (1) Dr. James Dennison Rogers, of Col- 
umbia University, On the Trvpyos of the Teian Inscriptions (<7. 
I. G-. 3064, 3081) and the vopfopkara Trvpyiva of Aeschylus, Per- 
sians 859. (2) Hon. Samuel J. Barrows, of New York, Obser- 
vations with Regard to the Translation of the New Testament 
into Modern Greek, with Reference to the Recent Disturbance 
at Athens. 



1901 
July December 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS 1 

NOTES ON RECENT EXCAVATIONS AND 
DISCOVERIES; OTHER NEWS 

HAKOLD N. FOWLER, Editor 

49, Cornell Street, Cleveland, Ohio 



GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 

AMERICANISTS. International Congress. The Thirteenth Ses- 
sion of the International Congress of Americanists will be held in the halls 
of the American Museum of Natural History, New York City, October 20- 
25, 1902. The object of the Congress is to bring together students of the 
archaeology, ethnology, and early history of the two Americas, and, by 
the reading of papers and by discussions, to advance knowledge of these 
subjects. Communications may be oral or written, and in French, Ger- 
man, Spanish, Italian, or English. All debates are expected to be brief, 
and no paper must exceed thirty minutes in delivery. The papers pre- 
sented to the Congress will, on the approval of the Bureau, be printed in 
the volume of Proceedings. Members of the Congress are expected to send, 
in advance of the meeting, the titles, and, if possible, abstracts of their 
papers, to the General Secretary. The subjects to be discussed by the 
Congress relate to : (I) The native races of America, their origin, distri- 
bution, history, physical characteristics, languages, inventions, customs, and 
religions ; (II) The history of the early contact between America and the 
Old World. All persons interested in the study of the archaeology, eth- 
nology, and early history of the two Americas may become members of 
the Congress by signifying their desire to Mr. Marshall H. Saville, General 
Secretary of the Commission of Organization, American Museum of Natu- 
ral History, New York, and remitting, either direct to the Treasurer 
(Mr. Harlan I. Smith, American Museum of Natural History) or through 

1 The departments of Archaeological News and Discussions and of Bibliography of 
Archaeological Books are conducted by Professor FOWLER, Editor-in-charge, assisted 
by Miss MARY H. BUCKINGHAM, Professor HARRY E. BURTON, Professor JAMES C. 
EGBERT, JR., Professor ELMER T. MERRILL, Dr. GEORGE N. OLCOTT, Professor 
JAMES M. PATON, and the Editors, especially Professor MARQUAND. 

No attempt is made to include in the present number of the JOURNAL material 
published after December 31, 1901. 

For an explanation of the abbreviations, see pp. 99, 100. 



56 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

the General Secretary, the sum of $3.00 in American money. The receipt 
of the Treasurer for this amount will entitle the holder to a card of mem- 
bership and to all official publications emanating from the Thirteenth Ses- 
sion of the Congress. Mr. Morris K. Jesup is President, and the Duke of 
Loubat Vice-President, of the Commission of Organization. 

FEODOSIA. Greek Coins. In a brickfield near Feodosia, on the 
east coast of the Crimea, according to a letter in the Vossische Zeitung, a vessel 
containing about a thousand ancient Greek copper coins of various sizes has 
lately been dug up. On one side of the coins the letters IIAH are inscribed, 
on the other side is the head of Pan. Pan was the tutelary god of Pantica- 
paeum, the old Milesian colony upon whose site Kertch now stands. The 
coins are in good preservation. They bear, besides the inscription, a quiver 
and an arrow. (Athen. July 31, 1901.) 

MOKIEWKA. Scythian Armor. A discovery is reported from St. 
Petersburg in the Vossische Zeitung. Lieutenant-general Brandenburg was 
commissioned by the Artillery Museum in S. Petersburg early in June to 
excavate the Scythian burial mounds near the village of Mokiewka in the 
Tschigivin circuit. In one of these grave mounds he came upon the skeleton 
of a Scythian warrior in complete armor. The whole of the armor was in 
excellent preservation. Hitherto only isolated parts of the Scythian panoply 
have come to light. The armor has been carefully packed and forwarded 
to St. Petersburg, where it is at present on view in the Artillery Museum. 
(Athen. August 10, 1901.) 

NI3CH (SERVIA). Roman Coins and a Head of Constantine. 
At Nisch (Naissus), in Servia, a number of Roman coins and other antiqui- 
ties were found in August, 1900. These are described by M. M. VASSITS in 
Mom. Mitth. 1901, pp. 47-56 (3 figs.). Most important is a large bronze 
head, which is thought to have belonged to a statue of Constantine the 
Great, and is regarded as the best existing example of the work of that 
time. 

AMRA (ARABIA). The Castle. In the Neues Wiener Tagehlatt, 
ALOIS MUSIL and his associate MIELICH describe their visit to the castle of 
Amra, about 140 miles east of Jerusalem. The castle, hitherto inaccessible 
to Europeans, proved to contain important treasures of antiquity. It was 
built before the time of Christ, and has been uninhabited for thirteen hun- 
dred years. The explorers are to publish a book with a full account of the 
castle. (Biblia, November, 1901.) 

LOCAL MUSEUMS IN TURKEY. In S. S. Times, November 9, 
1901, H. V. HILPRECHT describes the growth of the Archaeological Museum 
at Constantinople, and announces that local museums are to be established 
in the chief towns of the Ottoman Empire, the first of which are to be at 
Baghdad, Koniah, and Jerusalem. At the latter place there is already the 
beginning of a museum, formed chiefly from the discoveries of the Palestine 
Exploration Fund. 

CATALOGUE OF CASTS. P. P. Caproni and Brother, of 1914-20, 
Washington Street, Boston, Mass., have issued an illustrated catalogue 
(1901), in which the casts for sale by the firm are represented. These 
number about fifteen thousand, chiefly classical and Renaissance subjects. 

NECROLOGY. Charles Chipiez. Charles Chipiez, best known by 
his share in the Histoire de I' Art dans I'Antiquite of Perrot and Chipiez. died 



EOTPT] AECHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1901 57 

at Paris, November 9, 1901, aged sixty-six years. He was the author of 
numerous articles and monographs on the architecture of many epochs and 
stages of civilization, a practical architect, member of the Societe Centrale 
des Architectes Fraiujais, and an officer of the Legion of Honor. ( Chron. 
d. Arts, November 16, 1901 ; Athen. November 30, 1901.) 

Hermann Grimm. The recent death of Hermann Grimm leaves a far 
greater blank than many a more distinguished writer, for with him passed 
away one of the last links that connected this century with Germany's great 
classical period. Hermann was born in Cassel in 1828. He was brought 
up in all the traditions of the Goethe school ; and he did them credit, though 
his was not a creative mind. His poems and novels were of small impor- 
tance, but his works on art were exceedingly popular, for he possessed the 
power of presenting his ideas in clear and pleasant form, free from all dis- 
figuring pedantry. His life of Michael Angelo, perhaps his best-known 
work, is written in German worthy of Goethe's disciple, but it was as an 
essayist that he excelled. Grimm, who for many years filled the posi- 
tion of Art Lecturer at Berlin University, had long been ailing, but his 
interest in art and literature remained undiminished to the last. (Athen. 
July 13, 1901.) 

Emile Lambin. fimile Lambin, whose writings on Gothic flora have 
attracted considerable attention, died at Paris, September 19, 1901, aged 65. 

EGYPT 

A YEAR'S EXPLORATION OF EGYPT. The following brief 
sketch of the results of excavations in the season of 1900-01 is taken from 
Biblia, November, 1901, pp. 256-260. 

At El Amrah, a few miles south of Abydos, Messrs. Wilkiii and Randall- 
Maclver showed how the types prevailing in the pre-historic times, whether 
in the forms of vessels or materials employed, or in the construction of 
tombs, merge gradually into those which are known to have existed in the 
first dynasty. They also found on a carved slate, which is known as a 
type of the middle of the pre-historic age, an emblem in bas-relief so curi- 
ously resembling the general character of the hieroglyphs, though not iden- 
tified with any particular one, that it is believed to be the earliest recorded 
example of the primitive writing. 

At Abydos Professor Petrie has continued his work of identifying the 
royal tombs of the first and second dynasties, despoiled by his predecessor, 
and so arranging the chronology of that time. But his search has been 
even more fruitful. In the tomb of Zer, placed as Mena's successor, and 
therefore the second king of Egypt, was found a female arm wrapped in its 
original cloth, which on being unrolled yielded a unique and valuable set of 
jewelry, with designs in gold, turquoise, lazuli, and amethyst. These were 
restrung as found, and remain at Gizeh, by far the oldest and most perfect 
set of the ancient Egyptian jewels. A further example of the art of that 
reign were two lions in ivory. 

The handle of the royal land-measuring cord of King Den and two large 
stones inscribed with the name of Perabsen are also relics of importance ; 
but the richest find comes from the tomb of King Khasekhemui. Here 
were found the royal sceptre, in good preservation, seven stone vases with 
gold covers, two gold bracelets, and twenty copper dishes. (An account of 



58 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

these discoveries is given by G. STEINDORFF, S. S. Times, December 21, 
1901. See Berl. Phil W. November 9, 1901.) With the aid of the objects 
recently discovered we can now trace the progress of the indigenous Egyp- 
tian people from the pre-historic stage to the second dynasty. Nothing 
forces us to assume the immigration of a New Race. 

The gap in our knowledge between the second dynasty and the fourth 
is filled to some extent by the discoveries of Mr. John Garstang. From 
El Alawniyeh, working slowly northward during the winter months, a 
pre-historic burial ground and two settlements of the same period were 
examined in turn. An undisturbed burying site of the Old Empire yielded 
some results of interest, including a number of the curious " button " seals, 
which the explorer believes may have been the real ancestor of the scarab 
that in later times became so popular, and a set of alabaster vessels of rare 
quality with a long gold necklet and jewels, which remain in the museum 
at Cairo. 

Later in the season Mr. Garstang's attention was called to a large con- 
struction described as an ancient fort, high up in the desert from Beit 
Khallaf, westward from Girga. A secret stairway revealed itself, and soon 
the name of Neter Kha, impressed upon the seal of a wine jar, made clear 
the importance of the discovery. This name was already known as that 
of the builder of the famous step pyramid at Saqqara, the oldest of those 
great monuments of early Egypt. From an adjoining mastaba, built in 
imitation of the step pyramid, came also a name new to history, Hen Khet, 
being the king apparently who succeeded the former. In the site around 
were large mastabas of the servants of these kings; the plans of their 
tombs at once supplied the missing link with those of the earlier times. 
Meanwhile the excavation of the great tomb showed the stairway to descend 
under an arch the earliest known steeply into the sand, and to be pro- 
tected at intervals, portcullis-wise, by massive doors of stone. Eventually, 
at a depth of ninety feet from the surface of the mastaba, were found 
eighteen underground chambers, disturbed and plundered, yet filled with 
relics. (In Athen. November 9, 1901, it is stated that excavations at this site 
are to be continued by Mr. Garstang, the expenses being borne by private 
persons.) 

At Naga Dy, on the opposite side of the river, Dr. G. A. Reisner has 
also achieved important results for the University of California. The 
period of his finds embraces all those considered above, with which his 
results work out in striking analogy and confirmation. In addition to a 
large set of vessels of alabaster, slate, diorite, and other stones, he has 
nearly twenty of the early stone cylinder seals, which are now attracting 
much attention ; a gold seal with the name of Mena, and a gold pendant 
bearing the name sign of This. His gold jewels form a remarkable 
collection. 

At Abu Sir, still bearing on the Old Empire, Dr. H. Schafer and Dr. 
L. Borchardt, for the Germans, have continued their work on the site of the 
temples of Ra and of the Obelisk. The startling find is a great brick-built 
boat of Ra, on the south side of the temple ; but of equal importance is 
their uncovering of traces of the inclined planes by which the buildings 
were constructed confirming at last a much-abused theory. 

At Thebes, Mr. Percy Newberry continues his untiring labors among 



EGYPT] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1901 59' 

the private rock tombs. The burying place of Rekhmara has not been 
found, but much valuable copying and exploration has been done. In the 
debris before one tomb were found three bronze dishes, perfect specimens 
of the art of their time, in each of which is an ox in the centre, so that 
when the bowl is filled the animal appears to be standing in the fluid and 
drinking from it. 

In the Fayoum, Messrs. Grenfell and Hunt have also continued their 
regular labors. They have again been fortunate in the number of papyri 
found, but unhappily many will be unserviceable on account of the damp. 
With a view to escaping from this constant danger they have been inspect- 
ing a site in upper Egypt for next year's work. 

The official work of the department has been continued with conspicuous 
energy. At Karnak, the fallen columns and those in danger have been 
removed and numbered, with a view to being rebuilt. At Thebes, Mr. 
Carter has prepared for public view the three royal tombs of Thothmes I 
and III and of Amenhotep II. At the Gizeh Museum a late acquisition, in 
addition to the share of excavation finds, is a large statue of Merenptah 
from Eshmunein. [See below.] 

MASPERO, C. R. A cad. Insc. 1901, pp. 615 f., mentions the discovery at 
Boicheh of an intact tomb of the twelfth dynasty, excavation on the site 
of a Graeco-Roman necropolis at Sals, and the discovery, at Eshmoune'in, 
of the ruins of a great temple, with a gate of the twelfth dynasty and a 
colossus of Rameses II, appropriated afterwards by Menephtah. [An 
account of discoveries in 1900-01 is contained in the Archaeological Report 
of the Egyptian Exploration Fund, 1900-01, pp. 1-9, 15, 18-25.] 

ABU RO ASH. French Excavations. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1901, 
pp. 616-619 (pi.), is a report by E. CHASSINAT on his excavations at Abu 
Roash. He excavated the site of the chapel belonging to the ruined pyr- 
amid. Of the chapel nothing remains, but inscriptions were found show- 
ing that the pyramid was that of King Didoufri, one of the earliest kings 
of the fourth dynasty. A finely-executed head of the king also came to 
light. 

. ABYDOS. Petrie's Discoveries. In Harper's Monthly, October, 
1901, pp. 682-687 (8 figs.), W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE writes on 'The Royal 
Tombs at Abydos,' giving a popular account of recent discoveries, which 
have made known the names of four pre-dynastic kings, Ka, Zeser, farmer, 
and Sam. Their date is about 4900 to 4800 B.C. A summary of this article 
is given in Biblia, November, 1901, pp. 249-251. An extract from a letter 
of PETRIE to the New York Journal is given ibid. October, 1901, pp. 240- 
242, and a summary account of the discoveries at Abydos, compiled from 
the volumes of the Eg. Ex. Fund for 1900 and 1901, is given ibid. August, 
1901, pp. 149-152. 

ANTINOE. The Excavations. In R. Arch. XXXIX, 1901, pp. 77- 
92, is an extract from a lecture by AL. GAYET, describing his fifth cam- 
paign of excavation at Antinoe. The chief interest centres about the 
cemeteries of late Roman times. Here corpses were found still swathed in 
their funeral garments, and painted and embroidered cloths show the cos- 
tumes of the time. The necropolis of the time of the twelfth dynasty has 
been discovered some miles below Antinoe. No objects of unusual interest 
have been found in the tombs there. 



60 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

S AKKARA. The Pyramid of Unas. Excavations have been con- 
tinued, under Barsanti's supervision, about the pyramid of Unas (cf. Am. 
J. Arch. 1901, p. 332). The underground chambers were found as was ex- 
pected, but contained little of interest. The chapel is much ruined, but the 
fragments show that it had a portico with at least eight monolithic col- 
umns which had palm-leaf capitals. A tomb of the Saite period was also 
discovered. (MASPERO, C. R. Acad. Insc. 1901, pp. 614 f.) 

THEBES. Restorations and Discoveries. At Thebes, the temples 
have been provided with gates to protect them from injury, and the repairs 
of the temple of Karnak, made necessary by the fall of the columns in 1 899, 
have been finished. The thorough clearing out of the ruins has led to 
happy results : the discovery of statues of the twelfth dynasty at the pylon 
of Thutmosis III, and, at the temple of Khonsu, of the statue of Khonsu, 
erected by Harmhabi, in his own likeness. (MASPERO, C. R. Acad. Insc. 
1901, p. 615; pi.) 

An Egyptian Figure South of the Zambesi. In Biblia, October, 
1901, pp. 242-243, is a communication from Dr. CARL PETERS, to the 
London Times, concerning an Egyptian figure found south of the Zambesi 
river. Professor PETRIE declares that the figure is certainly ancient, has 
been buried in moist earth (i.e. not in an Egyptian tomb), and has not been 
kept long by an Arab. On the chest is the cartouche of Tahutmes III 
(about 1450 B.C.), of the eighteenth dynasty. The discovery of such a 
figure in South Africa may open new problems or reopen old ones in 
Egyptian history. 

A New Periodical. The first volume of Le Muse'e Egyptien, " recueil 
de monuments et de notices sur les fouilles d'Egypte," has appeared. The 
purpose of this periodical is to reproduce in the best manner possible the 
literary and archaeological treasures of the Bulaq Museum. The first vol- 
ume, with forty-two plates, contains chiefly Egyptian inscriptions and pic- 
tures, with fresh data on the life and history of the Egyptians. (Nation, 
September 12, 1901.) 

Egyptian Antiquities sent to Pittsburg. The Pittsburg Museum 
(U.S.) has received from London eight large cases of antiquities from 
Egypt, which were allotted to the Museum by the Egypt Exploration Fund. 
Among these are a drinking vessel and numerous small objects from the 
tomb of King Ka, an engraved ebony tablet, a bar of gold engraved with 
the name of King Menes, and the sarcophagus of a princess of the family 
of King Zer, whose date is not far from 4700 B.C. There are hundreds of 
other objects of various interest and importance. (Biblia, January, 1902, 
p. 337.) 

BABYLONIA 

BABYLON. Discoveries of the German Expedition. The Ger- 
man expedition, headed by Koldewey, has discovered the throne room of 
Nebuchadnezzar, a magnificent structure, 18 m. wide and 52 m. long, 
directly opposite the entrance of which is the niche where once stood the 
king's throne. On both sides of the niche are important remains of the 
colored decoration of the walls. In addition to this work in the old castle, 
or Kasr, and in the processional street of Marduk, the Germans have been 
excavating in the city proper, near the village of Jimjima, and have found 
many tablets inscribed with letters, psalms, contracts, word lists, etc., of 



STRIA AND PALESTINE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1U01 61 

great interest. The work is to be extended to the hill called Amram-bar- 
Ali, where rich returns are expected. The expedition has obtained the 
right to excavate the neighboring hills of Fara and Abu Hatab, which prob- 
ably belong to the pre-Sargonic period, the fourth millennium before Christ. 
These hills are near Nippur, where the expedition of the University of 
Pennsylvania has obtained its important results. Individual members of 
the German expedition have been publishing the results of their private 
studies, among which a pamphlet, Von Babylon nach den Ruinen von Hira 
und Huarnaq, by BRUNO MEISTER, deserves special mention. (Independent, 
November 7, 1901 ; cf. Biblia, November, 1901, pp. 271-272 ; Berl. Phil. W. 
November 9, 1901.) 

According to a further report of the Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft, by 
which the expedition was sent out, Koldewey has discovered a temple of 
Adar or Ninib, the tutelary god of the physicians. About four hundred 
bricks were found, but the inscriptions on the majority have not yet been 
deciphered. One contains the litany sung by the choruses when the god 
Marduk returned from the procession to his temple, which was discovered 
last winter by the explorers. (Athen. December 14, 1901.) 

SYRIA AND PALESTINE 

TRAVELS IN PALESTINE. In the Mittheilungen und Nachrichten 
des Deutschen Palaestina Vereins, 1900, pp. 65-77, 49-56 (6 figs.), and 1901, 
pp. 1-9 (4 figs.), Dr. SCHUMACHER continues his report of his travels and 
investigations east of the Jordan. His investigations are, so far as here 
recorded, topographical. Ibid. 1900, pp. 56-64, 77-80, and 1901, pp. 9-14, 
D. J. SAUL describes his trip from El-'Akabe to Jerusalem by way of Gaza. 
In Z. D. Pal. V. 1901, pp. 118-126 (7 figs.), LUCIEN GAUTJER describes a 
trip in the region of the Dead Sea and the land of Moab. 

DSCHERASCH. Inscriptions. In the Mittheilungen und Nachrich- 
ten des Deutschen Palaestina Vereins, 1900, pp. 41-44 (5 figs.), G. SCHU- 
MACHER publishes seven inscriptions from Dscherasch. One is from the 
lintel of the door of the Mausoleum (No. 15), two are dedications to Mascu- 
linius (Nos. 16 and 17), two others refer to the same person (Nos. 18 and 
19), and one is a milestone. Two much-defaced busts probably belong to 
the monument of Masculinius. 

JERUSALEM. A Tomb with Hebrew and Greek Inscriptions. 
In the Mittheilungen und Nachrichten des Deutschen Palaestina Vereins^ 
1900, pp. 33-37 (6 figs.), P. BONAVENTURA LUGSCHNEIDER describes a re- 
cently discovered tomb just outside of Jerusalem. Three square chambers 
have been opened, and a fourth chamber appears to exist. Twenty-nine 
ossuaries were found. The inscriptions are discussed by E. KAUTSCH, ibid. 
pp. 37-41. They are in Hebrew and Greek, and appear to date from the 
last century before or the first century after Christ. A note by G. DALMAN, 
on the Hebrew inscriptions, is to be found ibid. pp. 82 f . 

The Fountain of Siloah. The fountain of Siloah has been cleaned, 
and the wall through which the water from the fountain of St. Mary leaked 
away has been cemented. The fountain of Siloah is, therefore, now again 
supplied with water. In the course of the work the construction of the 
fountain or basin was examined. Further investigations show that a 
second chamber, connecting with the first basin, was also a water-holder. 



62 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

From this a passage opened, which apparently served as a means by which 
the fountain could be approached and its supply of water regulated. (C. 
SCHICK, Mittheilungen und Nachrichten des Deutschen Palaestina Vereins, 
1900, pp. 45, 81 f.) 

THE MAD ABA MOSAIC. The French Academy of Inscriptions 
recently resolved to undertake the cost of a reproduction of the mosaic 
chart of Madaba, which is so important a record of the topography of 
ancient Palestine, with an exact rendering of the colors of the original. 
(Athen. August 31, 1901.) 

SERDJILLA. A Mosaic Pavement and Inscription. In R. Arch. 
XXXIX, 1901, pp. 62-68 (1 pi.; 1 fig.), HOWARD CROSBY BUTLER pub- 
lishes a mosaic found in a bath at Serdjilla, in Syria. The outer border 
consists of a simple pattern of inclined squares. Within this is a second 
border, a running plant treated as scroll work, with birds, fruits, and 
disks inserted in the open spaces. The main body of the mosaic contains 
a tiger killing a gazelle, a lion killing a wild ass, a bear running at full 
speed, a gray animal of feline form pursuing its prey, two birds, and a tree. 
In the part of the mosaic not uncovered were doubtless other animals. 
Each figure is outlined in black. The other colors used are in part natural- 
istic, the tiger being striped black and orange, blood being red, etc., but 
gray and brown shades are much affected. The designs are inspired by 
ancient traditions, and the composition and technique are excellent. A 
medallion in the middle of the mosaic contains an inscription which is dis- 
cussed by WILLIAM KELLY PRENTICE, ibid. pp. 68-76. It is written in bad 
hexameters, and records the fact that Julianus, son of Thallasius, and his 
wife Domna gave the pavement (and probably the bath). The bath was 
finished in July, 473 A.D. The date (the month of Panemus, year 784, in- 
die tion 11) is reckoned from the Seleucid era. 

SIDON. A Gold Plaque. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1901, pp. 565-567 
(fig.), C. CLERMONT-GANNEAU publishes a gold plaque from near Sidon. 
Asclepius and Hygieia are represented standing. Asclepius is half draped 
and bearded. His serpent twines about his staff. Hygieia is fully draped 
and holds a serpent which she is feeding from a dish. Between these two 
figures stands a diminutive Telesphorus. The work is poor, but purely 
Hellenic, with no Semitic elements. 

A Temple of Eshmouii. At Bostan esh-Shaykh, about an hour's ride 
north of Sidon, the emissaries of the Ottoman Museum have discovered 
ruins of a Phoenician temple identified by an inscription as that of Esh- 
moun. Five inscriptions were found, one of which, in two lines, begins 
" May Eshmoun bless," while two larger ones, identical in contents, give the 
name of " King Bad-'Ashtoreth, king of the Sidonians, grandson of King 
Eshmoun 'azar, king of the Sidonians," and mention the temple which he 
built for Eshmoun, "the holy priest-prince." (H. V. HILPRECHT, S. S. Times, 
December 21, 1901.) 

TBLB-ERH-CHIB AH. An Egyptian Stele. At the last meeting 
of the Paris Academic des Inscriptions, CLERMONT-GANNEAU reported his 
discovery at Telb-erh-Chibah, near Mzeiris, to the south of Damascus, of 
' an Egyptian stele of Pharaoh Seti I of the Nineteenth Dynasty,' which 
proves that the Egyptian conquests had extended far towards Syria at a 
time when the Israelites had not yet settled there. (Athen. Nov. 9, 1901.) 



ASIA MINOR] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1901 63 

ASIA MINOR 

AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL JOURNEY. The Berl Phil. W. October 
26, 1901, states, on the authority of the Vossische Zeituny, that Dr. BELCK 
has discovered at Aniasia a fine Greek inscription of Pharnaces of Pontus, 
son of Mithradates, cut in the rock. Amasia was in ancient times impreg- 
nable. Dr. Belck also visited the fortress of Tokat, Giimenek (Comana 
Pontica) , where he measured the ruins of the temple and found several in- 
scriptions, Niksar (Neocaesarea), the ancient Cabira, where was the treasury 
of Mithradates, Herek (Eupatoria), and Ladik (Laodicea). Further infor- 
mation is given, ibid. December 28, 1901. Zilch, the ancient Zela, was found 
to be upon a natural hill, not an artificial mound. At Kalchissar, Hittite 
sculptures and a badly weathered inscription were found. At Uyuk a new 
figure of a lion came to light, and Belck found that the whole hill is 870 m. 
in circuit, and that about 12 m. of its height is artificial. The whole ruin 
is perhaps that of a temple, which dates from about 2000-1500 B,C. At 
Boghazkio, some 25 km. south of Uyuk, several hitherto unnoticed figures 
were added to the procession represented in the rock cut relief. The place 
was no doubt used as a temple or sanctuary. The ancient city about 2 km. 
from Boghazkio is not Pteria, but some other city, which was built about 
1500 B.C., and destroyed about 700 B.C. Belck has partly deciphered a great 
Hittite inscription, in ten lines, which nobody had copied before on account 
of its badly weathered condition. It probably has reference to the founda- 
tion of the city. Within the city are remains of several towers. Many 
fragments of clay tablets with Assyrian writing were found. At Nefezkio, 
probably the ancient Tavia, many remains of Greek columns and sculptures 
were found. From Caesarea Belck went through Cappadocia. He found 
proof of the existence of a great Cimmerian power here, about 700-585 B.C. 
The Moschi (identical with the present Georgians) lived in Cappadocia about 
750-640 B.C., when they were expelled by the Cimmerians. Kara Uyuk, near 
Caesarea, was a town of the Moschi, and is the place from which the Cap- 
padocian cuneiform inscriptions came. Belck also found a great Hittite 
inscription, apparently relating to the foundation of a city near the ruins of 
which it was discovered. Another Hittite inscription on the body of a king's 
statue was found at Bor. Tyana was recognized as the site of a Turanian 
city destroyed about 680 B.C., probably by the Cimmerians. Several cities 
of Cilicia were visited. At Caesarea two Hittite inscriptions were found. 

INSCRIPTIONS FROM VARIOUS PLACES. In the R. fit. Gr. 
XIV, 1901, pp. 295-305, A. E. CONTOLEON publishes thirty-seven inscriptions. 
Ten are from Smyrna and the neighborhood, five from Tralles, four from 
Koula, in Lydia, and three from Philadelphia. The rest are from various 
places in Asia Minor. Nearly all are votive inscriptions or simple epitaphs, 
though there are a few fragmentary decrees. None seems to be of earlier 
date than Roman times. 

Twenty new inscriptions from Mysia, with some corrections on those pre- 
viously published, are given by J. A. R. MONRO in J.H.S. XXI, 1901, pp. 
229-237. To be noted are the identification of Balat with Hadrianeia, the 
discovery of a probable site for Hadrianutherae and the occurrence of the 
singular of the Homeric eivarepes. A financial decree of the fourth or third 
century B.C. and a statue-base of a priest of Zeus Idaeus are from Scepsis. 



64 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

COS. Various Discoveries. During a five months' stay on the 
island of Cos in 1900, R. HKKZOG not only found hundreds of inscriptions, 
his primary object, but also discovered the island to be full of monumental 
evidence of every kind and from all periods of its history, Carian, Greek, 
Roman, Byzantine and Mediaeval. The Asclepieum was not found, but 
among the discoveries made in trial excavations were an unusually fine 
Orpheus-mosaic now in Constantinople, a curious wall with piers and mov- 
able panels like a proscenium and a fountain-shrine of Demeter and Cora 
with many small objects like those from Eleusis. A survival of pre-Hellenic 
script similar to the Cretan was found among the masons' marks on Greek 
fourth century building blocks. The whole island is a most promising field 
for systematic excavation. (Arch. Anz. 1901, pp. 131-140; 7 cuts.) 

ERYTHRAE. The Existing Remains of this City. In Athen. 
Mitlh. XXVI, 1901, pp. 103-118 (pi. vii; 3 cuts), G. WEBER describes the 
existing remains of Erythrae, correcting some of the earlier notices. The 
Hellenistic wall can be traced through most of its length, and in some places 
reaches a height of 5 m. The thickness varies from 4.40 m. to 5. 20 m., and 
at irregular intervals are found remains of towers. The Acropolis was much 
altered in Byzantine times, but the inner fortifications, apparently, like 
the outer wall of the fourth century B.C., can be traced in places. The 
theatre is the chief ruin, but of this nothing is now visible except scanty 
remains of the seats. The temple of Athena Polias seems to have been on 
the Acropolis, but no traces of it remain. The Heracleum is probably to 
be sought, not where Hamilton suggests, but near the sea, where are a frag- 
ment of an archaic Ionic capital and other architectural remains. Other 
traces of ancient buildings of but little importance are still visible. The 
city was supplied with water from the mountains to the east by a conduit 
containing clay pipes, and there are also remains of wells. The city existed 
in Byzantine times, to which belong the ruins of three churches, the trans- 
formation of the Acropolis, and an aqueduct which pierces the ancient wall 
at the south. The site has been thoroughly plundered and the ancient 
remains largely destroyed. Recent terracing for vineyards has contributed 
to this destruction. Nine hitherto unpublished inscriptions, honorary, ded- 
icatory, or funerary, but of little importance, conclude the article. 

LAMPSAKI. A Gilded Terra-cotta Vase. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 
1901, pp. 297-298, S. REINACH, on behalf of Hamdy Bey, describes a vase 
found in a tumulus at the Caza of Lampsaki, on the road from Dardanelles 
to Lampsacus. It is 0.52 m. high, has three handles (one broken), and is 
completely gilded. On a blue band a hunting scene is represented in 
colored relief. A white boar is attacked by three men and three dogs. 
Blue and red are among the colors employed. The vase belongs to the time 
of Alexander and is an important specimen of ceramic ware made in imi- 
tation of metal. 

MILETUS. The German Excavations. In Berl Phil. W. October 26, 
1901, is a summary of KEKULE v. STRADONITZ'S report to the Berlin Acad- 
emy on the excavations at Miletus from September to the end of the year 
1900. The streets and the water supply were investigated, the Hellenistic 
and later walls were traced and examined, and a market place, perhaps 
the agora, perhaps one of the emporia of the city, was found near the har- 
bor. The "theatre-like building" found in 1899 is now seen to be the 



ASIA MINOR] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1901 65 

bouleuterion. This is proved by an inscription, which also shows that the 
building was erected about 200 B.C. Numerous pieces of architectural and 
other sculpture were found. At one point was a standing archaic female 
statue with a bird held at the breast, several seated statues, and an archaic 
bull. This was probably the site of the temple of Artemis. Several mosaics 
came to light, among them one with busts of the nine Muses in the order 
given by Hesiod. At a point halfway to Didyma a heroum was partial ly 
excavated. 

MOCISSUS. A New Hittite Inscription. A "Hittite" inscription, 
written boustrophedon, in characters well advanced toward the linear stage, 
is published by J. G. C. ANDERSON in J.H.S. XXI, 1901, p. 323. It is in- 
cised on the rock of a mountain fortress north of the upper Halys, near 
Mocissus. 

PERGAMUM. Further Excavations. The Berl. Phil. W. October 
26, 1901, quotes from the Reichs-Anzeiger the statement that the excavations 
at Pergamum are being continued by Dorpfeld, and that a long inscription 
with police regulations concerning streets, water works, boundary walls, 
fountains, etc., has been found. 

RHODES. Inscriptions. In Hermes, XXXVI, 1901, pp. 440-444, 
F. HILLER VON GAERTRINGEN publishes four Rhodian inscriptions. The 
first, on a stone once the base of a statue, gives name and titles of a certain 
Pausanias, who had been phylarch, trierarch, and choregus. The date is 
probably the second century B.C. The importance of the offices mentioned 
is discussed. The second inscription is on the same block as the first. 
Lysariias, son of Parmeniscus, set up a statue of Antipater, son of Dionysius. 
The artist was Phanias, son of Phanias, a Rhodian. The third inscription 
records the setting up by the Rhodian senate and people of a statue of 
Aristides, son of Xenombrotus, who had held several priestly offices. The 
date is not earlier than the first century B.C. The third inscription is copied 
from the journal of Ludwig Ross, who saw it in 1843. It supplements 
7. G. Ins. I, 93, recording the crowning of the Rhodian people by the people 
of Thasos. 

SINOPE. Inscriptions. In the Revue des Etudes Anciennes, 1901, 
pp. 352-357, D. M. YKRAKIS publishes (from the Bvavris, of Constanti- 
nople, September 11, 13, and 17) seventeen inscriptions from Sinope. Three 
are in Latin, the rest in Greek. Five are stamps on vase handles. One 
Latin inscription is. a dedication to M. Aurelius Antoninus, another men- 
tions the legio XXII primly (enia) p(ia) f ({delis'). One of the Greek inscrip- 
tions is a list of names (which may be a part of a decree or other document) ; 
another honors a certain Claudius Potelius (?) for his munificence. 

SMYRNA. A Milestone. In the Revue des titudes Anciennes, 1901, 
pp. 349-351, A. FONTRIER publishes the inscriptions of a milestone found 
at Bunarbaschi near Smyrna. It was the eighth milestone on the road to 
Sardis. It has two fragmentary Latin inscriptions, one of which mentions 
Diocletian and Maximianus, the other, apparently Constantine and his sons, 
Constantine II and Constantius II. A third inscription, in Greek, may 
perhaps mention Aurelian. 

THYATIRA. Inscriptions. In the Revue des Etudes Anciennes, III, 
1901, pp. 265-268, A. FONTRIER and P. FOURNIER publish three inscrip- 
tions from Thyatira. The first gives the name and numerous titles of 



66 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

A. Julius Nicomachus, who is honored by the senate; the second com- 
memorates Athenades, son of Pythodorus, victor in the boys' diaulos at the 
Romaea in Ephesus ; the third states that Aur. Alexander, son of Antiochi- 
anus, made the two gates. 

THRACE 

SALONICHL A Latin Inscription. P. N. P. publishes the follow- 
ing inscription from Salonichi in Berl. Phil. W. September 14, 1901 : M. Oppio 
Maxi\mo M. Oppius \ Philomusus pater \ et Oppia Rufa mater. 

SIATISTA. A Relief with Inscription. In Berl. Phil W. Decem- 
ber 14, 1901, P. N. PAPAGEORGIU describes a relief found near Siatista and 
now at Salonichi. It is much injured. In the middle is a draped Apollo 
(whether standing or seated is uncertain), playing a lyre. The fragmen- 
tary inscription was a dedication by an Alexander in behalf of his son 
Parmenio, in accordance with written prescription [d?] 



GREECE 

ARCHAEOLOGY IN GREECE IN 1900-01. In Crete new quar- 
ters of the palace at Cnossus equal in extent to those first found have been 
explored, notably a large hall reached by three flights of descending stairs, 
the only ancient instance of staircases one above another. There are arti- 
cles from Babylonia, Nubia, and Egypt, including the lid of an alabastron 
with the name and titles of the little-known Hyksos king, Khyan ; frescoes 
showing new costumes and phases of life ; stucco reliefs, with a fleur-de-lis 
ornament and a style of sculpture resembling that of the Renaissance ; fur- 
ther examples of Mycenaean linear script and cult-scenes, and a third system 
of signs. In the neolithic settlement beneath the Mycenaean, the earliest 
type of idol known in Greece or the islands was found. [See Am. J. Arch. 
1901, p. 342; Berl. Phil. W. November 2, 1901. On the discoveries at 
Gournia, Phaestus, Praesus, Sitia, and Zakro, see below, pp. 71-73.] 

In Leucas Dr. Dorpfeld continues his search for proofs of the Homeric 
Ithaca. At Oeniadae in Aetolia, ship-houses similar to those at the Piraeus 
have been found. At Corinth but little new work has been done; the base 
of a statue by Lysippus invites regret. The excavation of the temple of 
Athena Alea at Tegea has yielded important fragments of sculpture, among 
them a head, possibly by Scopas. The tenth season at Delphi was devoted 
to the group of temples outside the sanctuary to the southeast. They show 
some important remains of sculptural decorations, especially the tkolos, which 
was famous in antiquity. A museum is being provided from the same pri- 
vate source as that at Olympia. At Dimini. near Volo, in Thessaly, a pre- 
Mycenaean hill-settlement shows a distinct local type of work, and recalls 
traditions of the independent and adventurous folk of lolcus. Three cave- 
sanctuaries of the Nymphs and kindred divinities have been explored ; one 
at the southern end of Hymettus, which yielded inscriptions from the sixth 
century down, and coins to beyond 400 A.D.; a second on the Attic side of 
Parnes, where small objects of gold were found, and a third in a ravine on 
Aegina. 

At Athens the Russian Archaeological Institute has been granted a 
building site, and the French School has provided a building for its foreign 
students. Dr. Wolters has been succeeded at the German school by Dr. 
Schrader. The work of strengthening the Parthenon goes on, and is likely 



GREECE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1901 67 

to occupy the next two years. The approach to the Acropolis is being 
restored to its ancient form by the removal of earth. A room in the Central 
Museum is now given up to the pottery from the Acropolis. The lower 
part of the sunken ship-load of sculpture which is now being recovered at 
Anticythera proves to consist chiefly of marble copy-statues hopelessly de- 
faced by the sea-water. Some further bronzes and minor works of art are 
more valuable. Among them is a statuette of a young athlete on a base of 
red marble. The bronze head at first called a boxer seems to be a fine 
Hellenistic portrait, possibly of some king. [On discoveries at Aegina, see 
below, p. 68.] 

The Siegiin expedition at Alexandria is studying the street plan and the 
Serapeum. Two cemeteries, Hellenistic and Roman, have been explored, 
the latter showing a return to an Egyptian style of painting. 

Events in Asia Minor are reserved for a later paper. (R. C. BOSANQUET, 
J.H.S. XXI, 1901, pp. 334-352.) 

Work of the Greek Archaeological Society in 1900. In the 
HpaKTiKa, 1901, the work of the Greek Archaeological Society in 1900 is 
recorded. Excavations were carried on at fifteen places. In Athens the 
peribolus of the Olympieum was cleared, and two inscribed altars were 
found, one of which had a relief representing Artemis hunting; the work 
at the Stoa of Attains (Am. J. Arch. 1900, p. 488) was completed; and the 
removal of earth about the Acropolis was begun. At Piraeus the chief 
work was the investigation of the harbor and walls of Munychia. Here an 
inscription relating to the walls was found (Am. J. Arch. 1901, p. 98). At 
Sunium some -simple ancient buildings and a base inscribed 'ATTO] AAwvos 
were discovered, but the chief result of the work was the laying bare of the 
fortification, which is one of the finest specimens of heavy ancient Greek 
masonry. The Cave of Pan on Mt. Parnes was investigated (Am. J. Arch. 
1901, p. 341), and excavations at the fortress and the deme of Phyle brought 
to light remains of buildings, a few fragments of sculpture, and vases. At 
a place called Ka\v/3ia. Kovj3apa, in Attica, a statue of early " Apollo " type 
was found by private persons, and excavations by the Society discovered an 
ancient necropolis. On the work at Eretria, see Am. J. Arch. 1901, pp. 
95 ff., 345. At Rheneia tombs containing vases with geometrical designs 
were opened, but the chief discovery was a small temple of Heracles, in which 
was the foundation for the statue. The statue itself wanting the head, 
feet, and right hand was found, and is a work of the first or second cen- 
tury B.C. A court with porticoes and a cistern adorned with marine repre- 
sentations in painting, relief, and mosaic, was before the temple. At 
Chalcis the gymnasium was cleared, and a great number of tombs was 
opened. In the gymnasium a fine mosaic (Am. J. Arch. 1901. p. 341) was 
found. Several early tombs were opened at Volo in Thessaly (A m. J. Arch. 
1900, p. 493 ; 1901, pp. 345, 348). At Mycenae the work of clearing away 
the earth thrown outside the wall in Schliemann's excavations was begun. 
Just outside of Sparta the Menelaeum, a cenotaph consisting of three 
terraces of stone, the lowest of which measures 23.70 m. by 16.50 m. was 
excavated. Here several small lead idols were found. At Andania two 
mosaics were uncovered in a Roman house. One represents a hunting 
scene, and has also medallions containing busts, three of which are inscribed 
E wovSr/s, E vrjviw, and 'lepwws- A t Epidaurus the clearing of the sacred pre- 



68 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

cinct was completed ; the entrance of the Stadium was examined ; a build- 
ing of Roman date, under which were earlier foundations, was partially 
excavated, and a place east of the propylaea was investigated. Several 
inscriptions were found, one of which proves the existence of a temple of 
Telesphorus. A brief account of all these excavations is given in the 
Hpa/criKa, pp. 11-19. More detailed reports are given of the excavations at 
the Olympieum, pp. 29-30 (G. N. NICOL AIDES) ; at the Stoa of Attalus, 
pp. 3l4*5 (K. D. MYLONAS) ; in the Piraeus, pp. 35-37 (I. CH. DRAGATSES) ; 
at the Cave of Pan and at Phyle, pp. 38-50 (A. N. SKIAS) ; at Sunium, 
pp. 51-52 (B. STAES) ; at Eretria, pp. 53-56 (K. KOUROUNIOTES) ; at 
Chalcis, pp. 57-66, with 3 figs. (G. A. PAPABASILEIOS) ; at Rheneia, pp. 67- 
71 (D. STAVROPOULOS) ; at Volo, pp. 72-73 (CHR. TSOUNTAS) ; at Mycenae, 
p. 73 (TSOUNTAS) ; at the Menelaeum, pp. 74-87, with 6 figs. (P.KASTRIOTES). 
A report on clearing and repairing in the odeum of Herodes Atticus at 
Athens is given (with 2 figs.) by A. JS". SKIAS, pp. 88-94. In the course of 
this work a grave containing early pottery was discovered. The activity of 
the Society in repairing the monument of Philopappus at Athens, in pre- 
serving and restoring the monastery at Daphne, in strengthening the sup- 
porting walls of the temple at Sunium and the stadium at Delphi, is 
mentioned (pp. 19-20). The Society also undertook (p. 20) the building of 
local museums in several places, and made purchases for the National 
Museum and Numismatic Museum. A description of the statues found at 
Anticythera, with four reproductions of photographs, fills pp. 95-102 of the 
HpaKTiKa. At the end of the volume are four views of the theatre at 
Epidaurus. 

AEGINA. Excavations at the Temple. In Berl. Phil. W. August 3, 
1901, pp. 1001-1005, A. FURTWANGLER gives the results of the excavations 
at Aegina after they were resumed June 9. The lower strata of the eastern 
terrace were examined. Here remains of early Doric buildings were found 
among the rubbish used in filling and grading the terrace, and below this 
material traces of other early buildings came to light. Between the eastern 
terrace wall and the rock a hollow space was filled with votive offerings. 
Here were Mycenaean idols of the goddess, often with a child on her arm, 
female idols of later times, birds, beasts, a tortoise, bronze fibulae, pins, and 
ornaments, a fine bronze statuette of a cock, many fragments of various 
kinds of vases, among them geometric and proto-Corinthian ware, Egyptian 
scarabs, and early Greek gems. Fragments of Argive bronze reliefs were 
found, among them one with a representation of Theseus and the Minotaur. 
A small torso of an archaic marble figure of the goddess, in long drapery, 
with one hand at her breast, also came to light. Many fragments of Nau- 
cratite vases, made especially for dedication to Aphrodite, were found. The 
most interesting discovery is a carefully cut archaic inscription, with letters 
6 cm. high. It reads : 

..I$OITAMAPI30SM^ONTOS : . TA0AIAI. -00190$ 

..Re&:(X?)OBOMos; XOA ^ AS 

roi.roi 



" In the priesthood of Cleoetas (?) a temple was made to Aphaia, and the 
altar and the ivory (statue) was added [and the wall?] was built round it." 



GREECE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1901 69 

A fragment of a dedication to Aphaia (here called 'A<a) \vas found in 
April. The old temple probably lay beneath the later structure. Pindar's 
lost ode to Aphaia was probably composed for the dedication of the new 
temple. Aphaia was a virgin goddess, similar to Britomartis, Dictinna, and 
Artemis. An extract from an article by FURTWANGLER in the Beilage of 
the Miinchener Allgemeine Zeituny, 1901, No. 149, explains the nature of this 
goddess. Of the pediment sculptures few fragments were found. The 
terrace south of the temple was investigated and the excavation of the old 
building lying still farther south was finished. Two buildings west of the 
temple were excavated. One was a large house with a great hall in which 
were stone benches, apparently a place for festive gatherings, the other 
seems to have contained a reservoir. Half an hour's walk to the east of the 
temple an aedicula with Ionic columns was excavated. It was probably a 
nymphaeum. A small archaic nude female torso of stone and an excellent 
terra-cotta head of Pan were found here. Remains of large buildings of the 
classical period were found in the neighborhood. The mosaic with the 
inscription C.I.G. 9894 was laid bare in the town of Aegina. An inscrip- 
tion, found by chance at a distance from the excavations, appears to be an 
inventory from the sanctuary of Damia and Auxesia, in Oea, and among 
the votive offerings mentioned are many pins, Tre/oovcu (cf. Hdt. V, 88). 
Brief notes on the inscriptions mentioning Aphaia are contributed by R. 
MEISTER and FURTWANGLER, Berl. Phil. W. August 31, 1901. The exca- 
vations arid their results are described and discussed by R. B. RICHARDSON, 
in the Nation, October 31, 1901. S. REINACH mentions the different names 
given to the temple in modern times, shows that even if no new evidence 
had been found we ought to have known that it was the temple of Aphaia, 
describes the newly found inscription, and discusses the nature of the goddess 
in C. R. Acad. Insc. 1901, pp. 524-537. [See also Arch. Am. 1901, pp. 129- 
131; Berl. Phil. W. November 16, 1901, where it is stated that the publica- 
tion of the discoveries may be expected soon, and that further excavations 
by the Bavarians are to be hoped for. A summary of FURTWANGLER'S 
preliminary report (' Aiginetica. Vorlaufiger Bericht iiber die Ausgrabun- 
gen auf Aegina,' Sitzb. Mun. Akad. 1901, iii, pp. 363-389) is given by Miss 
HARRISON in Cl. R., 1901, pp. 473-475.] In Berl. Phil. W. December 21, 
1901, A. FURTWANGLER gives a further report of the latest excavations. At 
the south side of the temple no important discoveries were made. At the 
east end, remains of earlier structures show that the existing temple was the 
fourth on the site. Here numerous archaic idols, fibulae, ornaments, etc., 
were found, among them a shell with Phoenician engraving. Parts of the 
horizontal cornice of the temple, with marks showing the position of statues, 
were recognized. Two of the earlier temples can be reconstructed. Eighteen 
types of roof tiles are now distinguished. A second fragment of the in- 
scription from the temple of Damia and Auxesia, at Oea, has been found, 
and the inscription, which is now complete, is published by FURTWANGLER. 
The goddesses are here called Mnia and Auzesia. The inscription belongs 
to the fifth century B.C., and gives an inventory of the contents of the 
temple, in which each goddess had a separate cella. Mnia had even a 
.separate opisthodomus, in which was a statue of Dionysus. In general, the 
'contents of the temple are not valuable, but consist of such articles as might 
be expected in a rural sanctuary. 



70 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

ANTIC YTHERA. Further Discoveries. The Berl Phil. W. De- 
cember 28, 1901, on the authority of the Vossische Zeitung, announces the 
discovery at Anticythera of further objects from the sunken vessel. (See 
Am. J. Arch. 1901, pp. 92, 339.) A marble horse with elaborate trappings, 
the third horse found here, has come to light. On the breast are reliefs, 
among them a head of Medusa. Several fragmentary statues, all badly 
injured by the water, a number of bases, a hand, a finely executed foot, 
with sandal and straps, and a variety of vases, several of which have inscrip- 
tions telling the measure of their contents, and numerous articles of finely 
colored glass ware, some of which are decorated with reliefs, are among the 
discoveries. The cleansing of these objects will be a work of some difficulty. 
The bronze " Hermes " can be restored, though with difficulty. The custo- 
dian of the " Kunsthistorische Sammlung " of the Museum at Vienna, W. 
Sturm, offers to undertake the work, if the fragments can be taken to 
Vienna. 

ATHENS. A Lamp with Representation of a Scene in a Mime. 
In Athen. Mitth. XXVI, 1901, pp. 1-8 (pi. i), C. WATZINGER publishes a 
small hanging lamp of terra-cotta, found in the German excavations on the 
west slope of the Acropolis. The lamp is of brick-red clay covered with a 
dark red slip, a technique hitherto unknown in lamps, but found in terra- 
cottas and vases of the latter part of the third century B.C., marking the tran- 
sition from the black glaze of the earlier time to the terra sigillata. On a 
base, which held the oil, stand three figures, evidently a slave, in a difficult 
situation, an old man turning from the slave in anger, and a young man, 
watching the scene with interest ; all are most successfully characterized. 
On the back is an inscription, //,t//,oAa>yoi | 17 WTTO^O-IS | cixvpa. The three 
mistakes in as many lines show the ignorance of the potter. Mi/zoAoyo? 
was hitherto unknown in a pre-Christian document; it clearly means "per- 
former of mimus." The second line indicates the character of the mime, 
as possessing a plot (cf. Pint. Symp. VII, 712 E), while the third line is the 
title of the piece. The lamp is therefore important for the history of the 
Greek mime, as giving us the title of a new piece, and especially as showing 
that as late as the end of the third century there were mimes which were 
Spa/xara and performed by three actors. The view that the mime was not 
a dramatic piece can no longer be maintained. 

Meetings of the German Institute. At the open meetings of the 
German Institute in Athens during 1901 the following papers have been 
read : January 2 : W. DORPFELD, ' The New Excavations at Pergamum.' 
January 15: A. WILHELM, 'Inscriptions from the Acropolis;' E. KRUGER, 
' Portrait of a Poet, in Relief.' January 30 : C. WATZINGER, ' Small Objects 
from the West Slope of the Acropolis'; W. DORPFELD, 'The Stage of 
the Greek Theatre.' February 13: H. VON PROTT, 'The Panionion'; I. 
SVORONOS, ' Coins with the Representation of the Tholos at Epidaurus.' 
February 27 : C. WATZINGER presented STRZYGOWSKI, ' Orient offer Rom?' ; 
S. WIDE, 'A Local Species of Boeotian Vases'; R. B. RICHARDSON, 'The 
Excavations at Corinth in 1900.' March 13: A. WILHELM, 'The Exca- 
vations of the Austrian Institute at Lusoi ; ' W. DORPFELD, ' Investigations 
and Excavations on Leucas I.' March 29 : H. VON PROTT, ' The Dulorestes 
of Pacuvius'; W. DORPFELD, ' Investigations and Excavations on Leucas II.' 
April 29 : A. WILHELM, ' Topographical Investigations in the Peloponne- 



GREECE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEW8, 1901 71 

sus'; TH. WIEGAND, 'The Excavations at Priene and Miletus.' (Athen. 
Mitth. XXVI, 1901, p. 120.) 

The Congress of Archaeologists. The commission for the Inter- 
national Congress of Archaeologists at Athens has just held its first 
meeting, under the presidency of the Crown Prince Constantine. A sub- 
committee was chosen to make arrangements for the details of the congress 
and the issue of special invitations, with the Cultus-Minister Stais as 
president, and the Director-General of Antiquities Kavvadias, Professor 
Homolle, the Director of the French Archaeological Institute, and Dr. 
Dorpfeld, the Director of the German Archaeological Institute, as members. 
During the time of the congress there is to be a general visit of the mem- 
bers to the antiquities of Athens, and it is hoped that common excursions 
will also be arranged to some of the most archaeologically interesting points 
in the Greek kingdom. The date of the congress will probably be the 
spring of 1903. (Athen. July 15, 1901.) 

CHALCIS. Inscriptions. In 'E <. 'A p x- 1901, pp. 89-98, GEORGIOS 
A. PAPABASILEIOS publishes inscriptions from Chalcis. The first is a 
fragmentary decree granting to some persons (names unknown) from Ala- 
banda the same rights as to the other citizens of that town. Nos. 2-16 
are simple epitaphs. Inscriptions on terra-cotta grave-monuments read 
XA or XAA or XAAKIAEQN- One reads A0 ('AftyraiW). On one is the 
name ^>iAt7r7rov, the letters arranged in a circle between the radiating petals 
of a conventionalized flower. Ten stamps from amphora handles give 
names, three of which are in the genitive with CTTI", recording dates. 

CRETE. GOURNIA. Miss Boyd's Discoveries. In the Nation, 
November 7, 1901, Miss HARRIET A. BOYD describes the discoveries which 
she made, in company with Miss B. E. Wheeler, at Gournia, near Kavousi. 
A Mycenaean acropolis was found, approached by two long streets, about 5 
feet wide, with terra-cotta gutters and good stone pavements. These lead 
to the palace of the Prince. Right and left are side streets and houses. 
The steeper parts of the roads are built in steps. The houses have rubble 
foundations, but the upper walls are of brick. In some parts of the palace 
the upper walls are of ashlar. Several houses have walls standing to the 
height of 6 or 8 feet. Plaster is used extensively for the facing of walls 
and door jambs. There are many proofs of the existence of a second story. 
Twelve houses have been excavated, most of which have eight rooms or 
more. Of the palace, fourteen rooms have been excavated, chiefly maga- 
zines, like those at Cnossus. A terrace court, a column base, and an aula, 
evidently belonging to a portal, have been uncovered. In the centre of the 
town is a shrine. It is a small, rectangular building, near the top of the 
hill. The most noteworthy of its contents are a low terra-cotta table, with 
three legs, which possibly served as an altar ; cultus vases with symbols of 
Mycenaean worship: the disk, "consecrated horns of the altar," and the 
double-headed axe ; and a terra-cotta idol of the " Glaucopis Athene " type, 
with snakes as attributes. Numerous small objects of various materials 
were found ; among them, stone basins and delicately carved vases ; pottery 
remarkable for its various decoration, which includes all the well-known 
Mycenaean motives of plants, animals, and sea-shells, besides many new 
types; and stone and bronze utensils, among them a bronze saw 45 cm. 
long. On five vases the double axe is painted, and the axe is carved also 



72 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

on one of the blocks of the palace, as at Cnossus and Phaestus. Xo trace 
of linear or pictographic script has been found, but Mycenaean gems of fine 
workmanship are numerous. This is " the most perfect example yet discov- 
ered of a small Mycenaean town." (See also 1). G. HOGARTH, London 
Times, August 10 ; Independent, September 5 ; Biblia, September, pp. 181- 
187; S. REINACH, Chron. d. Arts, November 30; R. C. BOSANQUET, J.H.S. 
1901, p. 341.) 

PHAESTUS (CRETE). A Mycenaean Palace. In Biblia, Sep- 
tember, 1901, pp. 181-187, D. G. HOGARTH, after mentioning the discov- 
eries at Cnossus, describes other discoveries in Crete. At Phaestus, a palace 
of Mycenaean times has been discovered by Halbherr. It consists of a 
paved court with an altar and tiers of stone seats, a building with a pillared 
vestibule, a main hall, a double row of galleries, and numerous chambers, 
and a second court larger than the first. The construction is more solid 
than at Cnossus, but the frescoes, sculptured friezes, and stucco reliefs, 
found at Cnossus, are wanting. (A more detailed description of Phaestus 
is given by S. WIDE, in BerL Phil. W. October 12, 1901. Cf. also Independ- 
ent, September 5, from a letter by HOGARTH in the London Times, August 10.) 

Work in the Spring of 1901. In Rend. Ace. Lincei, 1901, fasc. 7-8, 
pp. 260-284 (plan), L. PERNIER makes a report of the work of the Italian 
expedition in Crete during the spring of 1901 (cf. Am. J. Arch. 1901, p. 344). 
It was proved that the Mycenaean necropolis of Phaestus was not on the 
hill northeast of the palace, but more probably on another elevation, about 
2 km. west of Phaestus ; the remains in the latter place, however, may indi- 
cate the existence of a town, not a necropolis. The northern and eastern 
parts of the third acropolis of Phaestus were cleared. Above the ruins of 
the Mycenaean palace the following strata were found : (1) Byzantine 
tombs; (2) Roman walls; (3) remains of the last period of the Greek city, 
especially fine pottery; of the earlier Greek city there are no important 
remains ; (4) remains of the period intervening between the destruction of 
the palace and the foundation of the Greek city. A large part of the palace 
was excavated, and, in this article of Pernier, the complicated system of 
rooms, including three /xeya/oa, is described by references to a plan. Many 
letters or signs were found inscribed on building materials and other 
objects; also many vases, including one shaped like the hut urns of Latium. 
A remarkable discovery was a shell having in bas-relief a procession of four 
creatures with human bodies and the heads of animals. The decoration of 
the stucco in the palace is all geometric. Traces of a neolithic settlement 
were found below the palace at the west. 

PRAESUS (CRETE). British Excavations. At Praesus, the 
Eteocretan capital, in Sitia, the eastern province of Crete, few remains of 
Mycenaean civilization appeared. Inscriptions in a non- Hellenic (Eteocre- 
tan) language were found. Many remains of Hellenic sculpture and vari- 
ous kinds of vases, bronzes, and utensils were found. The head and 
shoulders of a statue of a young god and the head and fragmentary body of 
a lion give a good idea of early Cretan sculpture. Vases and jewellery were 
also found in tombs. (R. C. BOSANQUET, J.H.S. 1901, p. 340.) 

ZAKRO (CRETE). Houses and Small Objects. At Zakro, a 
small ancient town in the extreme southeast of Crete, Mr. HOGARTH has 
found houses, one of twenty rooms, in which were more than seventy vases 



GREECE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1901 73 

and objects in silver, bronze, and stone, and two inscribed tablets and one 
hundred and fifty impressions of lost signets. They were found all 
together, as if they had been in a box, and the objects to which they were 
attached had perished. The vases had decorations in the older familiar 
Mycenaean style. (Independent, September 5, 1901, from a letter of D. G. 
HOGARTH, in the London Times, August 10. See also Biblia, September, 
1901, pp. 181-187; S. REINACH, Chron. d. Arts, November 30; R. C. Bo- 
SANQUET, J.H.S. 1901, pp. 3381; G. STEINDORFF, S. S. Times, November 
9, 1901.) 

DELPHI. Excavations in 1901. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1901, pp. 
638-611, is a brief report by Tn. HOMOLLE of the excavations at Delphi in 
1901. At the place called Marmaria, the site of the temple of Athena Pro- 
naia, a terrace more than 100 m. in length, surrounded by Hellenic and 
polygonal walls, was laid bare. It was entered by at least three gates, and 
contained six temples or chapels, two altars, and a dwelling for priests. At 
the eastern and western ends of the enclosure are two temples, each more 
than 20 m. long. One is the temple of Athena Pronaia, the other of Athena 
Ergane(?). One is peripteral, the other prostyle. One of tufa, the other 
of limestone. Both are Doric, but the second has Ionic half-columns in the 
pronaos. The first appears to belong to the time of the Persian Wars, the 
second to the fourth century B.C. Between them are a treasury, probably 
that of the Phocaeans, a tholos, and an altar, all of white marble, and all 
destroyed. The treasury resembles that of the Cnidians, and dates from 
the sixth century B.C. It was Ionic, and its sculptures show the Ionic style. 
The tholos was more perfect in execution than those of Epidaurus and 
Olympia. The Doric capital of the peristyle recalls that of the Parthenon. 
The thirty-eight metopes were adorned with scenes of the Amazonomachia 
and the Centauromachia admirably conceived and executed. Of these only 
fragments remain. The Corinthian columns of the interior are among the 
earliest known. Above, a small terrace was occupied by two chapels, one 
of which was the heroum of Phylacus. Remains of the metopes of the 
tholos and of another series of small metopes show heads and other frag- 
ments of sculpture which rival the reliefs from Rhamnus. Among the 
terra-cottas found, the Victory which stood as an acroterium upon the 
temple of Athena is a most beautiful work, though only fragments of it 
remain. Pieces of armor, griffins' heads, bronze plaques, and bronze circles, 
surmounted by figures of men or animals, were once parts of votive tripods. 
Among the inscriptions discovered are a signature of the Athenian Cephis- 
odotus, an epigram in honor of the mathematician Callippus, an archaic 
dedication to 'A#ava /rapyava, decrees of proxeny in honor of some Phocae- 
ans, and an account of the real estate farmed or rented on the account of 
Apollo, dated in 333 B.C. 

ITHACA. Inscriptions. It is reported from Ithaca that inscribed 
gravestones of the fourth century B.C. and earlier have been found at the 
south of the island. A very old gravestone is inscribed 'ApTroSojpov ; four 
others also contain names. An inscription of Roman date mentions an 
Ithacan Orous, who died far from home, and gives the name of the island 
clearly. (Berl Phil. W. October 26, 1901.) 

LEUCAS. Early Vases. At Leucas, where Professor Dorpfeld is 
digging at the expense of the Dutchman Goekoop, with the idea that this 



74 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

spot, not the present Thiaki, is the Ithaca of Odysseus, between the villages 
of Vlicho and Katochori, the stratum which yielded several vases of Grecian 
date has underneath it, it is found, another layer which contains many vases 
which appear to be of Trojan style. It is hoped that buildings will now be 
discovered at the same spot. (Athen. July 20, 1901.) 

PIRAEUS. Names of Ships. In 'E<. 'Ap X . 1901, pp. 81-84, 
A. WILHELM publishes an inscription from the harbor of Munichia. It is 
a fragment of a list of vessels approved by a board of naval examiners. 
Before the name of each vessel are the words SOKI/AOS KOI evreAry?. Four 
names, Aavar/, @ea/>ta, IlayKpareia, and TavporroA?;, can be read. 

THERA. Inscriptions. In Hermes, XXXVI, 1901, pp. 444-447, 
F. HILLER VON GAERTRINGEN publishes two inscriptions from Thera. The 
first is in honor of some one, a son of Philostratus of Raucus, in Crete, who 
had been admiral and general of one of the Ptolemies. The date is probably 
after 265 B.C. The second inscription is a very fragmentary dedication to 
Sarapis, Isis, and Anubis by a Myndian (whose name is lost) in behalf of 
Ptolemy IV and Arsinoe. 

THERMITS. Continued Excavations. At Thermus, in Aetolia, 
Sotiriades has found an artist's inscription AVO-ITTTTOS CTroc'ei, a bronze weight 
of 500 grammes inscribed 'ATroAAon/os ep/xi'ov, and several exedras with the 
names of men whose statues were set up by the KOLVOV of the Aetolians, 
besides fragments of terra-cotta cornices and antefixes and marble triglyphs 
belonging to the temple. The statues in the exedras (among them the one 
with the signature of Lysippus) were apparently of bronze. In the valley 
of BoAro-a, four or five miles from Thermus, a heap of terra-cottas has been 
found. Remains of buildings of the third century B.C. are still standing 
here. Excavations at Thermus are to be continued, and later Thestieis, on 
Mt. Vlochos, is to be excavated. (Berl. Phil. W. August 17, 1901.) 

ITALY 

ACERENZA. A Portrait of the Emperor Julian. In R. Arch. 
XXXVIII, 1901, pp. 337-359 (3 pis. ; 6 figs.), S. REINACH publishes a bust 
which crowns the gable of the cathedral at Acerenza. An inscription built 
into the church (C.I.L. IX, No. 417) mentions the emperor Julian, and there 
is no doubt that the bust of an emperor at the top of the gable represents 
him, as was observed by F. Lenormant in 1882. The face agrees with the 
descriptions and coins of Julian. That a second inscription has nothing 
to do with Julian is mentioned, ibid. XXXIX, p. 289 (cf. p. 260). It is 
shown that the statues in the Louvre and the Musee des Thermes, at Paris, 
hitherto supposed to represent Julian, are not portraits of him. The busts 
on the Marlborough cameo, now in the British Museum, probably represent 
Julian and Helen, as Wieseler thought, not, as Furtwangler believes, Zeus 
Ammon and Isis. A large cameo in the Cabinet des Medailles appears to 
be, as Babelon had conjectured, a portrait of Julian. The bust at Acerenza 
is, however, the best portrait of Julian known. Similar results are reached 
by G. NEGRI, in a volume entitled L 'imperatore Giuliano V Apostata (Milan, 
Hoepli). 

ATRI. A Temple, Terra-cottas, and a Necropolis. Remains of a 
Roman temple of brick, with terra-cotta ornaments, have been found at 
Atri. There was once an abundance of votive material; but this, together 



ITALY] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1901 75 

with the temple, was plundered by the barbarians, and the building then 
burned. The remains of the temple, together with various terra-cottas 
found in Atri, are described by E. BKIZIO in Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 181-194 
(10 figs.). About "2 km. southeast of the town a pre-Roman necropolis has 
been partially explored. 

AUFIDENA. The Necropolis. In Man. Antichi, X, 1901, pp. 225- 
638 (10 pis. ; 100 cuts), L. MAKIANI publishes the results of excavations at 
Aufidena (modern Alfedena), the most important centre in the mountains 
of northern Samnium. An extensive necropolis shows the pre-Roman 
civilization to be of Sabellian type with strong local characteristics, develop- 
ing slowly from the seventh to the fourth century B.C., with hints of an 
earlier art. Gold, silver, and imported vases are rare, but bronze ornaments 
are abundant and of great beauty. In Arch. Stor. Nap. 1901, pp. 325-342, 
GIULIO DE PETKA gives a summary and, in some points, a criticism of 
Mariani's article. The necropolis, in which 1164 tombs have been exca- 
vated at different times, belongs to the iron age. Attention is called to 
the evidences of migration of the Aryan Italic race from the valley of the 
Po to Tarentum, and to the connection of the " Cyclopean " walls with the 
Pelasgians and the " Mycenaean " civilization. The later history of Aufidena 
and the migration of most of the inhabitants to Castel di Sangro are dis- 
cussed. 

BELMONTE-PICENO. Objects found in the Necropolis. In Not. 
Scavi, 1901, pp. 22.7-238 (10 figs.), S. BAGLIONI describes numerous objects 
found in the necropolis of Belmonte-Piceno, in the province of Ascoli. 
Most important are the bronzes, torques, jibulae, bracelets, rings, amulets, 
and weapons. Besides these, there are vases with geometric decoration and 
others of bucchero, objects of iron, amber, etc. The necropolis belongs to 
the last periods of the Certosa, and its contents show that the civilization 
of lower Picenum is entirely different from that of upper Picenum. 

CASALEONE. Coins and Other Objects. A hoard of 1040 repub- 
lican coins, dating from the end of the second to the middle of the first 
century B.C., has been recently found in the territory of Casaleone. Other 
antiquities, especially those of a prehistoric nature, found at various times 
in this region, are described by G. GHIRARDINI in Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 
290-293. 

CHIUSI. Bronze Busts. Two bronze busts, probably of the seventh 
century B.C., have been found at Chiusi. One is the earliest known repre- 
sentation of the god Nethuns. The other, of greatly inferior workman- 
ship and evidently made in unskilful imitation of the first, has a woman's 
head, probably that of a female divinity of the sea. These busts, attached 
to poles, were carried in sacred processions. (L. A. MILANI, Not. Scavi, 
1901, pp. 322-326; 6 figs.) 

ESTE. A Pre-Roman Settlement. Walls, vase-fragments, etc., 

belonging to a pre-Roman settlement, have been found at Este. Most 
notable is a rectangular stone mould for casting, with five cavities, having 
the shape, respectively, of a ring, a crescent, three rings touching one 
another, and two birds. (G. GHIRARDINI, Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 223-227 ; 
fig. ; ALFONSO ALFONSI, B. Paletn. It. 1901, pp. 57-61 ; fig.) In B. Paletn. 
It. 1901, pp. 134-139 (pi.), ALFONSO ALFONSI describes several pre-Roman 
andirons of terra-cotta found at Este. 



76 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

GELA. Tombs and Attic Vases. In Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 307-311, 
P. ORSI gives an account of a second campaign in the territory of Gela, in 
the early part of 1901. One hundred and twenty-one tombs were opened, 
containing many good Attic vases, most of them of the fifth century B.C., 
several being inscribed. 

GIGLIO. The Villa of the Ahenobarbi. The discovery of certain 
brick stamps 011 the island of Giglio proves that the villa of the Domitii 
Ahenobarbi, built in the time of the republic, was restored or enlarged 
toward the end of the first century after Christ. (G. PELLEGRINI, Not. 
Scavi, 1901, pp. 5-7.) 

GIRGENTI. A Roman Necropolis. In February and March, 1899, 
a Roman necropolis was partially excavated at Girgenti, just below the 
Temple of Concordia. It appears to have been destroyed by the Christians 
who occupied the site in the fourth and fifth centuries. The tombs and 
their meagre contents are described by A. SALINAS in Not. Scavi, 1901, 
pp. 29-39 ; 2 pis. ; 7 figs. 

LIPARI. Various Antiquities. The following objects from the 
island of Lipari have been recently acquired by the Museum at Palermo : 
a sepulchral stele, inscribed ; a cornelian, engraved with the figures of a cow 
and a calf ; a small stone hatchet ; and an archaic quadrans, with the head 
of Vulcan. (A. SALINAS, Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 408-411 ; 4 figs.) 

LUOGOSANO. Ancient Remains. In Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 333- 
336, E. GABRICI describes remains of Roman period on Mt. S. Stefano, near 
Luogosano. These, he thinks, belonged to a torcularium. He describes also 
an ancient bridge in the same region, on the river Calore. 

MENTANA. Inscriptions. Near Mentana, on a road that was 
probably a branch of the ancient Via Salaria, several republican tombs 
have come to light. All had been plundered in antiquity. The most inter- 
esting of the few remaining objects are four tabellae devotionum or defixionum. 
Facsimiles of these are given by L. BoRSARI in Not. Scari, 1901, pp. 205 
210. 

NAPLES. A Relief of Athena and Demeter. In Not. Scavi, 1901, 
pp. 283-285 (fig.)? A. SOGLIANO describes a recent acquisition of the Naples 
Museum, a relief representing Athena and Demeter. It is an excellent 
copy of a Greek original of the fifth century. 

NORB A. Excavations to Begin. It is announced that excavation 
is to be immediately begun at Norba. In B. Paletn. It. 1900, pp. 132-134, 
L. PIGORINI gives the general plan of the work, which will begin in the 
necropolis. 

POMPEII. Excavations January to September, 1901. In Not. 
Scavi, 1901, A. SOGLIANO publishes reports of excavations at Pompeii. In 
.January excavation was continued south of the Basilica and outside the 
north wall on the Barbatelli estate. The restoration of the Terme del Foro 
was still in progress (pp. 21-23, with two figures showing the restored vault 
of the caldarium and the northeast angle of the tepidarium). In the February 
number, pp. 145-170 (21 figs.), SOGLIANO describes a small house in Reg. V, 
Ins. IV, excavated during the summer of 1900. He gives a detailed descrip- 
tion of the wall paintings, which are in the third style, and include pictures 
of the killing of Xeoptolemus at Delphi, Aphrodite and Ceres, Theseus and 
Ariadne, Dionysus and Ariadne, Narcissus, and one splendid example of the 



ITALY] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1901 77 

architectural style. The roof of the atrium was of the Tuscan variety and 
has been restored, the first attempt to do this at Pompeii. Tn March excava- 
tion was continued in Reg. V, Ins. IV (pp. 204-205). In April excavation 
continued in Reg. V, Ins. IV. A pistrinum was uncovered, containing mills, 
furnace, etc. There were numerous graffiti on the walls (pp. 255-262; 2 
figs.). In May the street was cleared between Ins. Ill and IV of Reg. V, 
and many inscriptions were found on the walls of the houses. Excavation 
was resumed in Ins. Ill, and in the agger of the town wall search was made 
for examples of primitive local pottery (pp. 280-283). In June, excava- 
tion was continued in Reg. V, Ins. Ill and IV. The most important 
discovery was a bronze statuette of a young man, wearing the chlamys, 
which falls from the left shoulder across the back and over the right fore- 
arm. The figure may represent Perseus, or a young man with the attributes 
of Perseus (pp. 299-304 ; 4 figs.). In July, in Reg. V, Ins. 4 a , a small house 
was excavated, next to that of M. Lucretius Fronto. The excavation of 
Reg. V, Ins. 3 a w r as continued. Besides many other small objects, a bronze 
table was found. Its single support is the leg of a lion, resting on a square 
base, and ending above in an acanthus flower, out of which of springs a 
winged Cupid (pp. 329-333; plan; 2 figs.). In August a part of the town 
wall was cleared, at the left of the first tower, counting from the Porta di 
Ercolano. Many mason's marks were found. In Reg. VI, Ins. V, a Doric 
column of tufa, hitherto walled up, was exposed, and by its style of the 
fifth century, proves that there was an early house on this site. The exca- 
vation of Reg. V, Ins. Ill, was continued. Excavation was carried on also 
below the terrace on which rests the Greek temple, on the southeast side. 
Here were found many architectural fragments of terra-cotta, as well as 
heads and statuettes of the same material (pp. 357-363; fig.). In Septem- 
ber work was continued in Reg. V, Ins. Ill, and southeast of the Greek 
temple. In the former place, the following objects came to light : a marble 
bas-relief, representing Aphrodite watching a sacrifice which is being offered 
to her ; before the goddess are the altar, the ram for sacrifice, the victimarius, 
and six other persons, including three children ; it is probably a copy of a 
fourth century original. On the plaster coating of a detached piece of 
wall, an inscription in charcoal, mentioning various articles of food. A 
head of a Bacchante, in giallo antico. Near the Greek temple, several 
terra-cotta statuettes, one of them an especially good work (pp. 400-406 ; 
4 figs.). 

The First Owner of the Villa of P. Fannius Sinistor. F. BARNABEI, 
in Rend. A cc. Lincei, X, p. 72, describes a bronze seal found in the villa of 
P. Fannius Sinistor, near Bosco Reale, inscribed with the name of L. Herius 
Florins, the first owner of the villa, or one who bought it in the year 12 A.D. 

Skeletons and Ornaments. In July, 1899, an ancient country inn was 
discovered between the river Sarno and the Stabian gate of Pompeii. Here 
the skeletons of seventy or eighty persons have been found, evidently fugi- 
tives from the great eruption of 79 A.D. Some twenty of these belonged 
to a party of rank and wealth. Gold necklaces, bracelets, and rings were 
found upon their necks, arms, and fingers. One person among them seems 
to have been of especial importance. (R. LANCIANI, Athen. October 26, 
1901. Cf. Berl. Phil. W. January 4, 1902.) [Canizzaro's suggestion that 
the skeleton of a distinguished person is that of Pliny the Elder hardly 



78 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

deserves mention. Pliny's body was found after the eruption (Plin. Ep. vi, 
16, 20), and was doubtless removed by his friends.] 

Roman Villa Containing Rare Works of Art. The daily papers 
print a report, dated London, December 22, that there has been found at 
Pompeii a grand Roman villa, one room of which is filled with objects of 
Greek and Roman art. 

These include a bronze statue representing Genius with a torch in its 
extended right hand, the whole being of superb w r orkmanship. There are 
also four of the most beautiful Etruscan vases and models of various descrip- 
tions. Seven other rooms were found to be full of cereals and other 
foodstuffs. Further explorations of this particular corner of Pompeii are 
expected to yield rich results. 

PUTEOLI. Inscriptions. P. ORSI gives in Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 19- 
20, several inscriptions of Puteoli, among them one recording a restoration 
of the temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus Heliopolitanus. 

ROME. Discoveries in the Forum. In the Cl. R. 1901, pp. 328- 
330, THOMAS ASHBY, JR., gives an account of recent excavations in Rome 
in the first half of the year. The further exploration of Sta. Maria Antiqua, 
the discovery of the foundations of the arch of Tiberius in front of the two 
southwesternmost arches of the supposed rostra of Caesar, and the finding 
of five pits, two of which contained pottery of Roman date, are mentioned. 

GIACOMO BONI'S complete report of the excavation of the precinct of 
Juturna in the Roman Forum is published in Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 41-144 
(140 figs.). After an introductory discussion of early religious rites and 
the nature and worship of Juturna, he describes the discoveries in minute 
detail, the ramp leading to the Palatine, the shrine, well, lacus, and the 
various rooms, with exact measurements of all architectural remains and 
abundantly illustrated description of all statues and sculptured fragments, 
vases, brick-stamps, lamps, etc. 

The Volcanal. In Athen. December 21, 1901, R. LANCIANI, in his 
"Notes from Rome," gives a brief history of the Volcanal or Area Volcani. 
On a rocky ledge commanding the Comitium, at the foot of the steps of the 
Temple of Concord, are the remains of an altar* This was originally a nat- 
ural projection of rock, roughly squared by hand. The cube measured 
3.95 m. in length, 2.80 m. in breadth, and about 1.20 m. in height. This 
altar Lanciani believes was the altar of Vulcan. 

Inscriptions. In Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 14-17, G. GATTI gives a number 
of inscriptions found, some on the Via Nomentana, near St. Agnese, others 
on the Via Salaria, near the convent of the Carmelitani. 

At Sta. Maria Capua Vetere has been found an inscription of the year 
360 A.D., containing two rare gentile names, Murrius and Luscidius. (G. 
PATRONI, Not. Scavi, 1901, p. 18.) 

Various Discoveries. The following discoveries in Rome are an- 
nounced : Under the Piazza of S. Giovanni in Laterano, a piece of ancient 
pavement, brick w r alls, and a lead pipe bearing the name Domitia Lucilla. 
In the courtyard of the barracks of the bermnlieri, near S. Francesco a Ripa, 
ancient tombs. On the Via Ostiense, ancient tombs and four sepulchral in- 
scriptions. (G. GATTI, Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 200-203.) In the Via Meru- 
lana, a piece of pavement of an ancient street, leading to the Porta 
Esquilina. Between Via Lucullo and Via Sallustiana, on the property of 



ITALY] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1901 79 

the Sisters of St. Giuseppe, a headless statue of archaic type, which is attrib- 
uted to the fifth century B.C. In the Baths of Caracalla, several fragmen- 
tary pieces of sculpture, including a head of Aesculapius, of a new type, a 
good copy of a bronze original of the fifth century, and another head of 
doubtful sex, from a good Greek original of the early fourth century. On 
the Via Ostiense, near the railroad bridge, ancient tombs. On the Corso d* 
Italia and on the Via Tiburtina, sepulchral inscriptions. (L. SAVIGNONI 
and G. GATTI, Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 247-255; 3 figs.) In the Via della Pol- 
veriera, an ancient tavola iusoria in marble. In the garden of the Palazzo 
Rospigliosi, ancient brick walls and architectural fragments. In Via Ve- 
neto, near the Palazzo Balestra, a wall of opus reticulatum. In Sta. Maria 
Antiqua, in the Forum, an early Christian sarcophagus, decorated as fol- 
lows : A group of fishermen, suggesting the preaching of the Faith ; the 
baptism of Christ, a symbol of regeneration ; the rescue of Jonah from the 
whale, indicating the new life after death ; and, finally, the Good Shepherd, 
as a symbol of the joy of Heaven. (O. MARUCCHI, Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 
271-278; fig.) Tombs and sepulchral inscriptions have been found on the 
Via Nomentana and the Via Salaria. (Not. Scavi, 1901, p. 279.) In the 
Rospigliosi garden, a piece of ancient pavement, belonging to a street run- 
ning north and south ; brick walls, and floors of opus signinum ; a lead pipe, 
inscribed. In the gallery under the Quirinal, sculptured fragments, among 
them a small head of a fawn, the head of a bearded man, the head of a 
youthful athlete, a headless female statue. On the Via Ostiense, near the 
railroad bridge, two sepulchral inscriptions. (G. GATTI, Not. Scavi, 1901, 
pp. 294-297.) In Via S. Gregorio, a piece of ancient pavement. In the 
area included by Via Sallustiana, Via Piemonte, and Via Lucullo, ancient 
brick walls, and a brick drain covered with tiles. In the Rospigliosi garden, 
a tufa wall and others of brick. In the passage under the Quirinal, a head- 
less statue of Faunus. Under the Lungotevere Cenci, a very ancient tufa 
drain, in construction like those of the Forum. In various parts of the city, 
sepulchral inscriptions, complete or fragmentary. (G. GATTI and G. To- 
MASSETTI, Not. Scaui, 1901, pp. 826-328.) In the Rospigliosi garden, a part 
of the nymphaeum of a private house, decorated with mosaic. In the passage 
under the Quirinal. a room, with mosaic pavement. In the Velabrum, near 
the Arch of Janus, three rooms, with walls of opus reticulatum. Under the 
Piazza della Bocca della Verita, an ancient paved road. In the courtyard 
of the house, No. 38, .Via della Lungaretta, a pedestal with the inscription, 
C.LL. VI, 671. (G. GATTI, Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 352-356; fig.) Near S. 
Pietro in Vincoli, a room of an ancient house, still retaining a part of its 
painted walls and the mosaic floor. In the Rospigliosi garden, a room of a 
private house, having on one of its walls a painting in the architectural 
style. In Via Torino, in the area of the ancient monastery of S. Bernado, 
the pavement of an ancient street, walls, a drain, etc. In Via di S. Teodoro, 
opposite the entrance to the Palatine, the pavement of the Vicus Tuscus. 
In the Piazza della Bocca della Verita, a drain built of tufa blocks. At Ripa- 
grande, a wall built of large tufa blocks. On the Via Nomentana, at the 
Villa Patrizi, a small marble bust of a child. (G. GATTI, Not. Scavi, 1901, 
pp. 397-400; 2 figs.) 

The Barracco Museum. Baron Giovanni Barracco has just made a 
present to the city of Rome of his museum of ancient marbles, which con- 



80 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

tains specimens of the best productions of Egyptian, Greek, and Roman- 
Greek plastic art, on condition that it shall not be merged in the great 
Capitoline collections of statuary, but shall retain its own individuality. 
The Town Council has accepted the gift, and has set apart for the building 
of the new museum a plot of ground at the junction of the Corso Vittorio 
Emrnanuele and the Via de' Banchi. The ground is archaeologically inter- 
esting, as it extends over the remains of the schola or residence of the 
Quindecimviri Sacris Faciundis, the walls of which were inscribed with the 
official reports of the celebration of the Ludi Saeculares. (K. LANCIANI, 
Athen. July 27, 1901.) 

The Museo Ludovisi. The Italian Parliament has sanctioned the 
acquisition of the Museo Ludovisi. It will be rearranged, and opened to 
the public as an annex to the Museo Nazionale in the Baths of Diocletian, 
to be built from the designs of Signer Calderini. (R. LANCIANI, Athen. 
July 27, 1901.) 

The Borghese Museum and Gallery. The Italian House of Repre- 
sentatives has sanctioned the purchase of the Borghese museum and gallery 
of pictures for 3,500,000 lire ; also the purchase of the villa for 3,000,000 
lire. The museum and gallery will remain the property of the nation, and 
while their individuality, as the former Borghese collections, will be re- 
spected, it is probable that the Ludovisi marbles, those of the National 
Museum at the Baths of Diocletian, and the Corsini gallery of pictures will 
be removed to the villa and exhibited under the same roof, although in 
independent wings. (LANCIANI, Athen. December 21, 1901.) 

SAN GIMIGNANO. Etruscan Tombs. At San Gimignano, 
Etruscan tombs have been discovered, all of the third or second century B.C., 
except one, which, on account of vase fragments, must be referred to the 
first part of the fifth century B.C. (G. PELLEGRINI, Not. Scavi, 1901, 
pp. 7-10.) 

SAN VITTORINO. The Via Salaria. The pavement of the ancient 
Via Salaria has been found at San Vittorino, near Pizzoli, proving that the 
road ran in a straight line from Foruli to Amiternum. (N. PERSICHETTI, 
Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 23-24.) 

SARDINIA. Excavations and Discoveries. In Not. Scavi, 1901, 
pp. 365-389 (16 figs.), G. PATRONI makes his first report as Director of 
Excavations and head of the recently established archaeological commission 
for Sardinia. In May and June, 1901, excavation was carried on at Nora, 
with the following results. On the isthmus connecting the peninsula with 
the mainland, Roman walls were found, among them the foundation of what 
may have been an amphitheatre. Here was also a necropolis of the Roman 
period. Forty-two tombs were opened, containing amphorae and coins, the 
latter showing that the necropolis was in use from the second half of the 
second century to the second half of the third century after Christ. In 
the midst of the graves was the foundation of a small square structure of 
earlier date. On the promontory were found remains of a tower of Punic, 
possibly of Phoenician period, as shown by pre-Roman vase fragments of the 
fourth century B.C. There were remains also of two other towers, of Roman 
period. The prehistoric cave of St. Bartolomeo near Cagliari was thor- 
oughly cleared for the first time, arid the chronology of Orsoni, who excav- 
ated in 1878, was proved to be unsound. The vase fragments were of the 



ITALY] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1901 81 

neolithic and eneolithic periods. This material is at least as early as the 
similar pottery of Italy and Sicily, possibly earlier. 

In Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 286-287, F. NISSARDI describes several tombs in 
the neighborhood of Bitti (Sassari), Sardinia. 

ORISTANO (Sardinia). A Punic Inscription. In C. R. Acad. 
Jnsc. 1901, pp. 576-579, P. BERGER gives text and translation of an inscrip- 
tion on marble now at Oristano, near Cagliari, said to have been found in 
the oldest parts of the necropolis of Tharros. The first part contains the 
names and titles of the deity (Baal-Tsor, "Master of Tyre," i.e. Melqart), to 
whom a building is dedicated, followed by a detailed list of its various 
parts; the second part is a list of magistrates. The name Araphet seems 
to be that of Arapha, a place not far from Tyre, which is mentioned in the 
Greek inscription from Pozzuoli (Am. J. Arch. 1901, p. 473). The date is 
given by the names of the suft'etes of Tharros and also by those of the 
Carthaginian suft'etes. In the sixth or seventh century B.C., Tharros was 
evidently connected by religious ties with Phoenicia and politically with 
Carthage. 

SICILY. Various Discoveries. In Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 336-349 
(4 figs.), P. ORSI reports the following discoveries in Sicily: At Syracuse, 
in the district of Zappala, fourteen tombs have been excavated, containing 
broken vases, coins, etc., which confirm the theory that the necropolis, com- 
ing into existence in the fourth century, reached its greatest extent in the 
third century, and then, being abandoned for a time, came into use again 
at the end of the republican period. In the Via Venti Settembre, two 
statues have been found. The first represents Hades, standing, with Cer- 
berus at his side. It is of Parian marble, showing distinct traces of color. 
It is a Greek work, dating from the second or, possibly, the third century B.C. 
The other is a headless statue of Hygieia, holding a serpent. It is either 
an original of the fourth century B.C., or a direct copy of an original of 
that period. Both are probably from the precinct of Apollo, near which 
they were found. The catacombs of Sta. Maria di Gesii have been partially 
cleared. At Pantalica, near Sortino, 227 tombs have been opened, con- 
taining many broken vases, fibulae, rings, etc. These tombs are of the 
second and third periods. Many tombs have been opened at Caltagirone. 
They date from the first half of the fifth century B.C. Other tombs of 
the third century B.C. have been explored at Mineo. At Centuripe, 
some years ago, a lead coffin was found, containing the skeleton of a boy, 
and, at his head, a terra-cotta bust of Artemis. The bones have been 
examined, and it is generally agreed that the boy was a sufferer from 
rickets. 

TERNI. The following discoveries are reported from Term: tombs 
of the pre-Roman necropolis that was first explored in 1886 ; in an upper 
stratum, a group of Christian tombs; within the town, pieces of Roman 
pavement, fragments of sculpture, etc. (L. LANZI, Not. Scavi, March, 1901, 
pp. 176-181; fig.) 

TIMMARL A Town and Necropolis. In a letter to L. Pigormi, 
published in B. Paletn. It. 1901, pp. 27-41 (pi., 3 figs.), DOMENICO RIDOLA 
announces the discovery of a town and necropolis at Timmari, near Matera. 
The settlement dates from the end of the bronze age and the beginning of 
the iron age. 



82 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

TURIN. Sculptures. At Turin, a bronze head of Augustus has been 
found, a little larger than life, of great beauty and fine workmanship ; also, 
a marble torso of a winged Cupid. (E. FERRERO, Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 391- 
397; 4 figs.) 

VETULONIA. Excavations and their Results. GIOVANNI PINZA, 
in B. Paletn. It. 1901, pp. 164-192 (pi. ; 16 figs.), gives the results of excava- 
tions at Vetulonia, during the years 1896-1900. The article is in large part 
a list of small objects found in the tombs. The writer reaches the general 
conclusion that well-tombs, trench-tombs, and chamber-tombs are practically 
contemporary. 

VARIOUS MINOR DISCO VERIES. In Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 25- 
29 (3 figs.), G. PATRONI describes the following antiquities : At Viggiano 
(Potenza), a mosaic floor and other remains of buildings. At Pietrapola 
(Cosenza), remains of an ancient road, wall, and gate. (Cf. Not. Scavi, 

1900, p. 606.) At Cir6 (Catanzaro), a Jieroum of the third century B.C. 
Other minor discoveries are reported by several writers in Not. Scavi, 1901. 
A mosaic representing a hunting scene has been found at Baia, near the 

so-called Stufe di Nerone. At Soccavo, near Naples, a fragment of a 
marble candelabrum has been found, with a dedicatory inscription in Greek, 
(pp. 297-299.) Several tombs and many objects vases, bronzes, etc. 
have been found at various times in towns of the Basilicata (pp. 262-270; 
9 figs.). Traces of a primitive necropolis similar to those of Este have been 
found at Bertipaglia (pp. 171-174; 6 figs.). Six fragmentary inscriptions 
from the Roman necropolis have been found near Brindisi (pp. 306-307). 
Architectural fragments, Roman tombs, and sepulchral inscriptions have been 
discovered at Fossa (Aveia), in the country of the Vestini (pp. 304-306). 
A marble head of Bacchus has been found at Fossombrone (p. 175 ; fig.). 
A republican inscription from the temple of Castor and Pollux at Tusculum 
has been found at Frascati (p. 280.) Tombs, a bronze helmet, and various 
terra-cotta objects have been discovered at Guglionesi (pp. 24-25; fig.). 
An inscription recently found at Sorrento records the restoration of a sun- 
dial, which had been overthrown by an earthquake, by the Emperor Titus, 
in the year 80 (pp. 363-364). At Sulmona, near the church of S. Fran- 
cesco la Scarpa, remains of a large building, possibly a temple, have corne 
to light. Under the Corso Ovidio an ancient paved road has been found 
(p. 365) . Recent excavations at Veio, in the territory of Formello, in the 
necropolis formally excavated by Canina and Carnpana, have brought to 
light neither facts nor objects of importance (pp. 238-246 ; 10 figs.). 
Tombs and remains of a Roman building have come to light near Venti- 
miglia. The latter served as a foundation for the church of S. Stefano, 
which was destroyed in the sixteenth century (pp. 289-290). 

FRANCE 

GREZAN (GARD). A Greco-Celtic Statue. In C. E. Acad. Insc. 

1901, pp. 280-281 (pi.), a statue found at Grezan, near Nimes, and now in 
the museum at Nimes, is published with remarks by S. REINACH. Only 
the upper half is preserved. The style is rude. The head is covered with 
a clumsy headdress which extends to the shoulders. About the neck is a 
torques. The breast is covered with ornaments in imitation of metal, 
upon which are geometrical designs. The figure, like some Etruscan works, 



GERMANY] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1901 83 

shows Ionic Greek influence. It belongs to Greco-Celtic art as the sculptures 
of Cerro de los Santos and Elche belong to Greco-Iberian art. 

ME AUX. Two Roman Bronzes. In the Revue des Etudes A nciennes, 
III, 1901, pp. 223-224 (2 figs.), GEORGES GASSIES publishes (1) a small 
bronze statuette representing Mercury, nude, with wings springing from his 
head, holding a purse in his hand, and (2) a bronze head of Mercury with 
a winged cap. Both were found at Meaux. 

Gallo-Roman Reliefs. In the Revue des Etudes Anciennes, 1901, pp. 
344-348 (5 figs.), GEORGES GASSIES publishes four rude reliefs on the four 
sides of an altar or pedestal found at Meaux. One represents Mars in the 
costume of a Roman soldier, a second Hercules (or rather the Gallic deity 
identified with Hercules), nude and brandishing a club, the two others 
draped figures, apparently female, perhaps deities, perhaps the dedicators of 
the monument. Another relief of the nude Hercules brandishing his club 
is published. It was found in the same wall where the other monument 
was found. 

NERAC. Bust of Minerva. In the Revue des Etudes Anciennes, 
1901, p. 348 (2 figs.), C. JULLIAN publishes a small bronze head of Minerva 
wearing a high-plumed helmet. The work is rude. The head was found 
at Nerac and is now in the Azam collection at Bordeaux. 

PARIS. Acquisitions of the Louvre in 1900. The additions to 
the department of Greek and Roman Antiquities include nothing of excep- 
tional importance. There are marble and stone sculptures and inscriptions, 
forty-four numbers from Africa, Asia, Macedonia, etc. ; bronze, twenty-four 
numbers, including the river Orontes, the lower part of a group representing 
the Tyche of Antioch after Eutychides of Sicyon ; objects in gold and silver, 
eight numbers, from Russia, Asia Minor, and Syria ; glass, twenty-six num- 
bers from Egypt and Syria. Among miscellaneous articles are some memo- 
rial ampullae and an ivory book-cover of Christian times, steatite moulds 
for parts of bronzes from Syria and others for jewellery from Egypt, an 
archaic female head in lead from Greece, and two frescoes from Boscoreale. 
(Arch. Anz. 1901, pp. 150-155.) 

RUGLBS (EURE). A New Oculist's Seal. In B. Arch. C. T. July 
1901, pp. vi-vii, HERON DE VILLEFOSSE publishes the text of an oculist's 
seal found at Rugles. It reads, on the four sides; (1) Collyrium fos post 
impet(um) ; (2) Diapsicorum deleter imator (ium) ; (3) Dicentetum post imp(e- 
tuni) ; (4) Diedaeum len(e) ad siccam lipp (iiudinern) . 

TRINQUETAILLE. A Mosaic. At Trinquetaille, at the mouth of 
the Rhone, the French archaeologist M. MORA has discovered a finely pre- 
served mosaic under the ruins of an ancient Roman villa. It represents 
Europa and Jupiter as a bull, and is remarkable for the anatomical precision 
of the figures. It is to be placed in the museum at Aries. (Athen. August 
31, 1901.) 

GERMANY 

THE BOUNDARY COMMISSION. The work of the Limeskom- 
mission for 1900 has been to fill out gaps in the known course of the limes, 
to gather more details bearing on the history of special portions, and to 
study the influence of pre-Roman roads on the plan of the entire system. 
The only considerable break likely to remain in either the older or the later 
line is about 3 km. of the Odenwald line adjoining the left bank of the 



84 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

Main. The transition to the new system, with strong stockade fence and 
stone towers, and often, but not everywhere, a change of route, seems to 
have begun under Hadrian. The long straight stretch in Wiirtemberg is 
wholly of this second period. Ulm appears not to have been a Roman set- 
tlement, at least not at the time of the establishment of the limes. It is clear 
that the Romans used in many instances, and in the Rhine section exclu- 
sively, the earth roads which they found, rebuilding them with stone only 
within their settlements or at other special points, and laying out new roads 
with reference to them. Larger forts were placed where the boundary 
crossed preexisting roads. An important extension of the work of the com- 
mission would be the study of the German road-system outside the province, 
as far as the Elbe. (E. FABRICIUS, F. HETTNER, O. v. SARWEY, Arch. 
Anz. 1901, pp. 81-92.) 

THE COMMISSION FOR THE STUDY OF ROMAN GERMANY. 
The statutes of the Commission for the Study of Roman Germany, the 
new branch of the German Archaeological Institute, are published in Arch. 
Anz. 1901, pp. 169-170. The final decision of most of the larger matters of 
its organization and work rests with the Imperial Chancellor. 

REPORTS FROM THE PROVINCE OF THE RHINE. The late 
Roman wall of Andernach has been excavated. A preliminary statement 
of the results is given by HANS LEHNER in Jb. V. Alt. Rh. 1900, pp. ITS- 
ITS. The same writer reports (ibid. pp. 1T5-185) the following discoveries : 
At Rheinbrohl, the beginning of the Roman limes and a castellum ; at 
Remagen, a considerable piece of the Roman circuit wall; at Bonn, an 
inscribed fragment of an altar to Jupiter and two Roman potter's ovens ; 
at Duren, a Roman farm or villa, which has been partially excavated. 

Ibid. 10T (1901), pp. 203-245 (1 pi., 24 figs.), HANS LEHNER gives an 
account of the excavations and finds of antiquities at a considerable number 
of places along the Rhine, from July 16, 1900, to July 31, 1901. Ibid. 106 
(1901), pp. 119-260, with many plates and woodcuts, are published the 
usual reports of the great activity of the provincial commission for the 
care of monuments in the province of the Rhine, of the antiquarian and 
historical society of the same region, and of the additions recently made to 
the various museums of the district. 

ALTENBURG. The Lindenau Collection. The vases of the Linde- 
nau collection in the Altenburg Museum, some three hundred and fifty 
pieces, have been newly arranged and labelled for the use of the public by 
A. SCHNEIDER. A new catalogue has not yet been printed, but a list with 
dimensions, etc., is available, and a recent book by A. PROCKSCH on the 
founder gives descriptions. (Arch. Anz. 1901, p. 171.) 

ANDERNACH. Graves and their Contents. In Jb. V. Alt. Rh. 
1900, pp. 103-128 (7 pis.), CONSTANTIN KOENEN catalogues the graves and 
their contents excavated in a cemetery at Andernach, which appears to 
have been in use from the time of Charlemagne to the year 881. 

BONN. The Roman Town. R. SCHULTZE (in Jb. V. Alt. Rh. 106 
(1901), pp. 91-104; plans and 1 pi.) describes the extent, and somewhat 
the character of the buildings, of the Roman town on the site of Bonn. 

COBLENZ-NEUENDORF. An Augustan Necropolis. A. GUN- 
THER describes, with admirable care and precision, and drawings of the 
objects found, the situation and contents of seventeen graves of the early 



GERMANY] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1901 85 

empire found in 1898 in Coblenz-Neuendorf. (Jb. V. Alt. Rh. 107 (1901), 
pp. 78-94; cuts.) 

HALTERN. The Roman Fort Aliso. The excavation of the Roman 
Aliso has been continued. It was 1700 m. in circuit, and was built into an 
earlier fortification about 200 m. larger. The smaller fort was stronger 
and better provided with dwellings for the garrison than the earlier one. 
It also furnishes at least ten times as many interesting single finds. These 
are very numerous, and include fragments of terra-cotta vases, glassware, 
coins, silver-plated clasps and pins, weapons, arrow-heads, tools, keys, etc. 
The earlier fort is to be regarded as the work of Drusus, the son of 
Augustus, in 11 B.C. (Berl. Phil. W. January 4, 190'2, from LEIINER'S 
report in N. D. Alt.) 

NEUSS. The Roman Camp. The excavation of the Roman camp 
at Neuss is finished. Several buildings were found, and numerous objects 
of interest came to light. The excavation of the late Roman fortifica- 
tion near Aiidernach and of the Roman villa near Blankenheim is also 
completed. (Berl. Phil. W. January 4, 1902, from LEHNER'S report in 
N. D. Alt.) 

NIEDERBIEBER. Roman Coins. E. RITTERLING describes at 
length tw T o recent finds at Niederbieber, one (September 3, 1900) of 192 
antoniniani from Caracalla to Valerian, and the other (September 27, 1900) 
of 88 denarii and 301 antoniniani, from Albinus to Valerian II, of which 
the latest were almost in mint state. (Jb. V. Alt. Rh. 107 (1901), pp. 95-131.) 

REMAGEN. New Governor of Germany. A (fragmentary) in- 
scription shows a certain Claudius Agrippa to have been governor of 
Germany at some unknown time, in the second or third century after 
Christ. (H. LEHNER in Jb. V. Alt. Rh. 106 (1901), pp. 105-108.) 

RODENBACH. Relics of the Late Bronze Age. At Rodenbach, 
near Neuwied, in 1896, was uncovered a small, flattish vase of earthenware, 
with simple linear decorations, containing fragments of bone and a few 
bronze ornaments, chain, torque, pin, fibula (of unusual type), etc., 
evidently belonging to the later bronze age (1000-800 B.C.). They are 
described by B. VON TOLL in Jb. V. Alt. Rh. 106 (1901), pp. 73-77 (1 pi.). 

ST. GOAR. A pre-Roman Cippus. CONST. KOENEN describes, in 
the Jb. V. Alt. Rh. 106 (1901), pp. 78-90 (with figs, and 1 pi.), a curiously 
sculptured, short, quadrangular obelisk, of red sandstone, now standing in 
St. Goar, at the corner of the churchyard between the Rheinfels and Bis- 
marck weg. He believes it to be of pre-Roman origin, to show a barbarian 
adaptation of Greek and Oriental motives, and to be a monument of a native 
fire-worship, but reserves conclusive discussion of the last point. 

URMITZ. A Prehistoric Fort. A new fort has been discovered near 
Urmitz which is earlier than the fort of Drusus, but later than the great 
fortification of earth. This great fortification belongs apparently to the 
" Pfahlbauzeit," or later stone age. (Berl. Phil. W. January 4, 1902, from 
LEHNER'S report in the N. D. Alt.) 

WURSELEN. Roman Coins. HERR STEDTFELD, in Jb. V. Alt. Rh. 
106 (1901), pp. 112-116, describes and catalogues a find of thirty-two solidi 
of the last half of the fourth century after Christ, made at Wurselen (near 
Aachen) in the spring of 1900. 



86 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

AUSTRIA 

VIENNA. A New Museum. The numerous Roman remains found 
in Vienna at various times are to be collected in a special museum. The 
committee in charge has now, at least provisionally, established a Museum 
Vindobonense, in a school building on the Rainerstrasse, where a good-sized 
room is already filled with bronzes, terra-cottas, and iron utensils, while the 
second room is a " lapidarium," containing, among other things, a sepulchral 
monument of the first Christian century, the oldest historical find made in 
the city of Vienna. The establishment of the museum has given a new 
impetus to research in this line, as is evidenced by numerous additions 
recently made. The museum is to be opened to the public during the 
present month. (Nation, October 10, 1901.) 

Sculptures from Ephesus. The most important pieces of sculpture 
from the Austrian excavations at Ephesus are now on exhibition in the 
" Temple of Theseus " in the Volksgarten at Vienna, and an illustrated 
catalogue has been prepared. The principal piece is a life-size bronze 
statue of an athlete, with strigil, reconstructed from more than two hun- 
dred fragments. (Arch. Anz. 1901, p. 148 (cut); Berl. Phil. W. December 
7, 1901). 

GREAT BRITAIN 

CHATSWORTH HOUSE. Ancient Sculptures. The ancient 
marbles in the Duke of Devonshire's possession are published from pho- 
tographs, with comments, by A. FURTWANGLER in J.H.S. XXI, 1901, 
pp. 209-227 (10 pis.; 10 figs.). The most important piece in the collec- 
tion, an original Greek bronze head of about 460 B.C., was published in 
the same writer's Intermezzi in 1896. The marbles are : 

(1) A very beautiful herm, copied, with the addition of shoulder-curls, 
from a statue of a god, of the school of Myron and Phidias, of about 
450 B.C. No replica is known, but the Cassel Apollo is a similar type. 

(2) A mediocre copy of the Doryphorus of Polyclitus. 

(3) An idealized head of Alexander, of a new and very fine type, with 
an extraordinary wealth of curls about the face. From an Attic original 
of the fourth century, perhaps by Leochares. 

(4) A head of Hermes as god of the palaestra, with swollen ears, deep- 
set eyes, and two wings in his closely cropped hair. From a fourth century 
original. 

(5) Head of Dionysus, ivy-crowned, from the same Praxitelean original 
as two statues of the leaning Dionysus. 

(6) Small statue of Apollo standing at ease with legs crossed ; a modifi- 
cation of a Praxitelean type. 

(7) Boy's head, of unfamiliar type, from a fourth century original. 

(8 and 9) Two most interesting examples of Gallo-Roman portraiture, 
showing Greek influence, found in Provence, and known from drawings 
published in 1724. (8) A male figure, a modification of the partly draped 
imperial type, with a head not belonging to the statue in which distinctly 
Roman portrait features are combined with the hair-type of the deified 
Alexander ; good work of the early Empire. (9) A woman seated, a very 
rare type in Roman portraiture, with her daughter standing beside her; 
coiffure of the Flavian epoch. 



GREAT BRITAIN] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1901 87 

(10 and 11) Two excellent female portrait busts, of the time of Trajan 
and of the early third century. 

(12 and 13) Two heads of Faustina the Elder. 

(14) Half-length figure of a man ; characteristic of the third century after 
Christ. 

(15) Grave relief of Herennia Syrisca and her son, with heroizing em- 
blems and inscription. From Macedonia ; first century B.C. 

(16) Fragment of relief with the rare head of Juno Sospita, covered with 
the goat-skin ; Augustan. 

(17) Fore parts of the horses from a relief of a quadriga ; first century B.C. 
INCHTUTHILL. Roman Remains. In Athen. September 7, 1901, 

F. HAVERFIELD describes the Roman remains at Inchtuthill, about 10 miles 
north of Perth. The Roman encampment is a rectangle of some 45 acres, 
with a still visible earthen rampart and ditch. An ancient road approaches 
it. Roman pottery, remains of buildings, including a bath-house, and 
one coin came to light. Other Roman sites in Scotland are mentioned. 
The camp at Inchtuthill may be connected with Agricola's campaigns, but 
its date is uncertain. 

LONDON. Acquisitions of the British Museum in 1899. Prehis- 
toric, British, and Teutonic. Stone implements and weapons from England, 
Ireland, Russia, the Dardanelles, Egypt, and the Libyan Desert; a gold 
collar from Portugal, the finest relic of the bronze age found in that 
country; two groups of gold jewellery from Wales, one of them dated at 
300 A.D. ; various bronze objects of Anglo-Saxon times, including a jug 
similar to those in Frankish graves on the Rhine; Visigothic inscribed 
bronzes from Spain, and gold ornaments from Hungary; a Frankish 
brooch; Viking ornaments from Tromso, Norway. (C. H. READ, Arch. 
Anz. 1901, pp. 160-161.) 

Department of Egyptian and Assyrian Antiquities. Egyptian: By pur- 
chase, forty-seven numbers, from all periods, including partly mummified 
bodies of the fair-skinned pre-dynastic inhabitants of Upper Egypt, terra- 
cotta models of houses of early dynasties, stelae, statues, stone vases, 
wooden figures, gold and other rings, miscellaneous bronze objects, and a 
valuable collection of scarabs covering three thousand years. By gift, 
chiefly miscellaneous objects, many with inscriptions, from the graves of 
the earliest kings at Abydos, from the Egypt Exploration Fund. 

Assyrian : More than thirteen hundred tablets from Lower Babylonia, 
including documents and contracts from the time of the kings of Ur 
and Babylon between 2500 and 2000 B.C., and others from the reigns of 
Cambyses and Darius the Great, and fourteen numbers of miscellaneous 
articles, including inscriptions from about 4500 B.C. and 2500 B.C., a 
bronze figure, stone carvings, and engraved seals. (E. A. WALLIS BUDGE, 
Arch. Anz. 1901, pp. 155-157.) 

Department of*Greek and Roman Antiquities. By purchase, gold objects, 
chiefly jewellery, and part of a Mycenaean standard-weight bar, from 
Cyprus; silverware belonging to the Utian family, found near Corno ; 
twenty engraved gems, largely Mycenaean, Hittite, and Greek work, from 
Cyprus ; bronze mirrors, pens, fibulae, and a statuette ; lead weights from 
Bulgaria and Syria; terra-cotta moulds for stamped bowls, from Arezzo, 
and a Clazomenian sarcophagus with double-profiled sphinx ; an Athenian 



88 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

alabastron and two white lecythi, a red-figured crater from the end of the 
fifth century, an Apulian amphora (Polymestor) formerly in Naples, and 
other pottery from Italy, Syria, and Thera. By gift, gems from Mycenaean 
tombs in Melos ; a slab from the facade of Agamemnon's tomb at Mycenae ; 
vase fragments from Naucratis ; Graeco-Phoenician terra-cottas from a cave 
in Cyprus ; a cast of the inscribed pillar from the " tomb of Romulus " ; 
fragments of pottery from First Dynasty tombs at Abydos ; and Mycenaean 
shards from Tel-el- A rnarna. (A. S. MURRAY, Arch. Anz. 1901, pp. 157-160.) 

Coins and Medals. The 509 additions to the Greek series, and 20 to 
the Roman, include many new, unique, or rare specimens, and many of 
great beauty and perfect preservation. The oldest is, perhaps, an Aegine- 
tan didrachm of 550-500 B.C. A coin of the Achaean League, of about 
370 B.C., is nearly a century earlier than the political importance of the 
League. Coins of Asia Minor throw light on the position of Dioshieron, 
Saitta, and Tomaris in Lydia, and on the name of the river Sindros, hitherto 
called Senaros. Another shows that Eumenia in Phrygia was for a time 
called Fulvia, after Antony's first wife. Parthian coins give portraits of 
several kings, and help to settle the doubtful chronology of the Arsacid 
period. (B. V. HEAD, Arch. Anz. 1901, pp. 161-163.) 

OXFORD. Acquisitions of the Ashmolean Museum in 1900. 
Egyptian. From the Egypt Exploration Fund : terra-cotta seal impressions 
and miscellaneous objects of ivory, crystal, wood, stone, and copper from 
the graves of the kings of the First Dynasty, at Abydos ; fragments of an 
early yellowish pottery with linear decoration, called Aegean by Petrie, but 
similar to Egyptian specimens of about 4400 B.C. already in the museum. 
From the Egyptian Research Account: contents of tombs of the Twelfth, 
Thirteenth, and Eighteenth Dynasties, in the last, imported Cyprian ware 
and the earliest dated Egyptian object of iron. 

Early Greek and Oriental. Marble vases, pottery, stone weapons and 
idols, from the Island civilization; a unique Mycenaean silver statuette; 
a gold Hittite button ; a gold and iron dish from Malta, Phoenician work 
of the seventh century. 

Classic Greek. Four fine vases of the fifth and fourth centuries ; shards 
of Ionic and Attic vases of 650-400 B.C., many with dedicatory inscriptions, 
from the excavations at Naucratis in 1899. 

Local. Coins and other small objects from a Roman and pre-Roman 
settlement at Woodeaton, the coins covering the first four centuries of the 
Empire, and including those of Carausius and Allectus. (A. J. EVANS, Arch. 
Anz. 1901, pp. 163-165.) 

AFRICA 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL WORK IN NORTHERN AFRICA. In 

B. Arch. C. T. January, 1901, pp. ix-xxviii, are brief reports of topo- 
graphical and archaeological investigations in Tunisia and Algeria, a 
description of the discoveries at Thugga (with the text* of four inscrip- 
tions), and notes on recent discoveries. An inscription from Bernelle is 
published, consisting of a dedication to Pluto Augustus M. Aurelius. The 
titles of Marcus Aurelius are incompletely given. Ibid. February, pp. vi- 
xxi, various further discoveries are mentioned, among them that of a 
Roman mausoleum in the ravine of Maktar, near the Roman port of Ain- 
el-Bab. The mausoleum itself is destroyed. The relief which adorned 



AFRICA] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1901 89 

the facade represented a sacrifice by seven persons. The inscription, of 
a date before Caracalla, mentions a man whose surname is Tiprunitanus. 
Other inscriptions were found in the same necropolis. Ibid. March, pp. vii- 
xiv, are further reports, including the text of seven inscriptions and the 
description of a series of lamps acquired by the Bardo Museum. Ibid. 
May, pp. xiv-xxxiii, further reports include the description of several 
rather poor sculptures, the most interesting of which is, perhaps, a statu- 
ette of black marble, representing a negro holding a dove. This was 
found at Sousse, and at the same spot the remains of a Roman villa came 
to light. In it were several mosaics, of poor workmanship. The most 
interesting represents the rape of Ganymede. Lamps from the necropolis 
of Bou-Hajar, near Lemta, and from a necropolis near Sfax, are described. 
Ibid. June, pp. iv-xiii, are brief reports from several places. Fifteen 
inscriptions are published, among them six milestones from Chihat, 9 km. 
northeast of Ngaous. Ibid. July, pp. viii-xx, are further reports, with the 
text of fifteen inscriptions. Excavations are continuing at Dougga, Car- 
thage, and Djerba, and have begun at Bou-Ghrara (Gigtris) with the 
Capitolium and its peribolus. Here several dedicatory inscriptions and 
fragments of sculpture have been found. 

CARTHAGE. Excavations in the Necropolis of St. Monica. 
In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1901, pp. 583-602 (4 pis.; 20 figs.), A. L. DELATTRE 
gives a report of his excavations in the Punic necropolis at Carthage. (See 
Ani. J. Arch. 1901, p. 114). The tombs were similar to those previously 
opened. The principal monuments discovered were stelae, terra-cotta figu- 
rines, bronze objects, and razors with engraved blades. Some Punic coins 
and inscriptions were also found. Each of the stelae published has, in a 
niche on the front, a relief representing the deceased. One of these niches 
has the form of an aedicula. One stele is almost a statue in the round ; the 
person represented is a young woman, fully draped. The lower part of the 
person is left in the form of a somewhat rounded block, but the upper part 
is completely worked as a statue. A bronze statuette, only 0.045 m. high 
represents a man wearing a sort of shawl. A fine bronze oenochoe has a 
handle formed by two nude male figures. The razors have handles in the 
form of the heads and necks of geese or swans. The blades are engraved 
with human figures, plant forms. ^tc.; in Egyptian style. One blade has on 
one side Isis nursing Horus, and on the other the crowned hawk (symbol of 
Horus) standing above a lotus flower. Similar razors, not recognized as 
such, were previously known. (See Am. J. Arch. 1900, p. 272.) That they 
are razors is seen by comparison with razors used by African negroes. The 
inscriptions published are simple Punic epitaphs. 

CARTHAGE. A Punic Inscription. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1901, 
p. 268, the discovery of a Punic inscription in the necropolis of St. Monica 
is reported. The fragment consists of twenty-five lines, chiefly an enumer- 
ation of magistrates. 

CARTHAGE. A Painted Sarcophagus. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1901, 
pp. 272-278, Father DELATTRE describes a marble sarcophagus of Punic date 
found in a tomb in the necropolis of St. Monica at Carthage. It is rectan- 
gular, and had a cover in the form of a tiled roof. It is adorned with ovules, 
rais de coeur, and meanders. The cover had numerous antefixes. In the 
pediments are two busts of a reddish brown color, with blue wings, a sort of 



90 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

spirits, each holding in his hand a disk and crescent. This is the second Punic 
marble sarcophagus found in this necropolis, and in its painting it is unique. 

KH AMISS A. A Keystone with a Relief and Inscription. In 
C. R. Acad. Insc. 1901, p. 344 (pi.), the keystone of an arched doorway 
from the theatre of Khamissa, discovered by S. Gsell, is published. On 
it is a relief representing, apparently, a theatrical mask. Below it is the 
inscription EVNVCHVS. This may be the title of the play of Terence, 
and is in that case an interesting proof that the plays of the classic 
Roman dramatists were not forgotten in imperial times, even in a distant 
province. 

LAMB AESIS. The Roman Camp. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1901, pp. 
626-634 (plan and pi. of inscription), R. CAGNAT reports that a large court, 
surrounded by porticos and chambers, has been laid bare. Two inscriptions 
are published, the first a dedication to Septimius Severus Caracalla, and to 
Julia, the wife of Severus, followed by a list of names of custodes armo- 
rum, the second a dedication to Minerva for the welfare of the emperor M. 
Aurelius Severus Alexander and Julia Mammaea, followed by a list of names 
of custodes armorum. 

THUGGA. The Theatre. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1901, pp. 269-271, 
is a report by Dr. CARTON on his excavations in the theatre at Thugga. 
The cavea was surmounted by a row of arcades having an inscription to L. 
Verus. There were twenty-six rows of seats divided by a stairway of fifty- 
two steps. Two upper maeniana, with six rows of seats, formed four cunei, 
and a lower maenianum, with seven rows of seats, formed two cunei. The 
semicircular orchestra was connected with the stage by two flights of 
steps. The floor of the scene had a mosaic laid in imitation of carpentry. 
Thefrons scaenae represented a colonnade, and had an inscription mention- 
ing the foundation of the building by P. Marcius Quadratus. Three doors 
led out from the back of the scene, and two more were at the ends. Under 
the scene was a low vaulted space 1 m. high. Back of the same was a small 
room from which the hyposcenium was reached. There were also several 
dressing-rooms, etc. Two stairways at the southwest corner of the scene- 
building gave access to the orchestra and to the stage for people coming 
from the city. Inscriptions found in the theatre include dedications to 
Ceres and to the Emperor Probus, and numerous cursus honorum. Two 
pedestals bear the name of the Pulleni, who were distinguished citizens of 
the place, and others record that two brothers, the Marcius Simplex, built 
the capitol. Their brother, Marcius Quadratus, built the theatre. Their 
father and another brother had statues in the theatre. Among works of 
sculpture found are a fine marble head of L. Yerus, and hands holding the 
globe, and two colossal female statues. 

BYZANTINE, MEDIAEVAL, AND RENAISSANCE ART 

GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 
A NEW JOURNAL FOR BYZANTINE ARCHAEOLOGY. A 

new journal for the study of Christian archaeology in the East has been 
started at Rome under the editorship of Dr. A. BAUMSTARK. Tt will be 
published semi-annually under the title, Romische Halbjahrhefte fur die 
Kunde des christlichen Orients. 



CHRISTIAN ART] AECHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1901 91 

PHOTOGRAPHIC APPARATUS FOR LIBRARIES. In the 
Centralblatt filr Bibliothekswesen, January-February, 1901, Dr. MALSDORF 
describes the apparatus best adapted for photographing manuscripts as 
developed by Dziatzko at Gottingen. The article is practically reproduced 
in the Bibl EC. Charles, 1901, pp. 145-149. 

FRIZZONI'S NOTES OF TR A VEL. Followers of FRIZZONI will 
be interested in the * Ricordi di un viaggio artistico oltralpe,' published by 
him in L'Arte, 1901, pp. 221-238. His travels took him to the Tyrol, Prague, 
Dresden, Berlin, Frankfort, Nuremberg, and Stuttgart, and his attention was 
occupied chiefly by the Italian paintings seen during his travels. 

VURLA (ASIA MINOR). Basilica and Baptistery. At a place 
known as Giil-Bagtsche, near Vurla (Clazomenae), have been uncovered the 
foundations of an early Christian basilica and baptistery. The basilica 
has externally a square but internally a round apse. The plan of its atrium, 
narthex, diaconicon, and adjoining rooms, is well preserved. The baptistery, 
though square in plan, may have been covered with a dome. Fragments of 
mosaic pavements and some inscriptions have been found. G. WEBER, in 
Byz. Z. 1901, pp. 568-573, assigns these buildings to the seventh century. 

STANO DI RAGUSA (DALM ATI A) . Discovery of an Early 
Christian Cemetery. At Stano di Ragusa (Dalmatia) have been dis- 
covered four sarcophagi and two brick tombs alongside of the communal 
road. All of the burials appear to belong to the fifth or sixth century. 
The most important is the sarcophagus of a priest Anastasius of the fifth 
century, not to be confused with St. Anastasius the martyr of Salona. It is 
inscribed Dep(ositio) et requies s(an)c(t)i ac venera(ndi) Anastasi pr(es}- 
b(ytert) d(ie) V Id(us) Mart(ias}, indict(ione) XV, post c(ori)s(ulatum) 
Severini v(iri) c(larissimi). (N. Bull. Arch. Crist. 1901, pp. 195-204.) 

BUDAPEST. Italian Paintings. The National Gallery at Budapest 
has recently acquired the following Italian paintings : a ' Holy Family,' by 
Palmezzano; a 'St. Jerome,' by Marco Basaiti, signed Marcus Baxaiti; a 
'Pieta,' of the Paduan School; a 'Madonna Enthroned,' by Girolamo da 
Santa Croce ; an * Aeneas and Dido,' of the Paduan School ; a ' Theseus and 
the Minotaur,' manner of Ercole di Robert! ; a * Christ Scourged,' signed by 
Pietro da Messina; a 'Madonna,' by Antonio Vivarini; a ' Madonna' by 
Antonio Mori da Carpi ; a ' Male Portrait,' School of Moroni ; a ' Male Por- 
trait,' by Moretto da Brescia ; and a ' St. Louis (?),' by J. B. Moroni. (L' Arte, 
1901, p. 24.) 

PALESTINE 

JERUSALEM. Christian Mosaics. Adjoining the mosaics repre- 
senting Orpheus and his followers, also two women, Theodosia and Georgia, 
and a hunting scene (Am. J. Arch. 1901, p. 366), a portion has recently 
been uncovered on which is represented a Greek cross. It is published by 
J. ANGELINI in N. Bull. Arch. Crist. 1901, pp. 217-219, as a Christian monu- 
ment of the fifth or sixth century. 

NAZARETH. Excavations. In excavating in the vicinity of the 
Sanctuary of the Annunciation there have been discovered remains of deco- 
rative marble, mosaics, lamps, coins, and other objects above the site of a 
tomb containing a well. From its locality this is supposed to be the sanc- 
tuary mentioned by Arculphus De locis sanctis, ch. xxvi, as the domus in qua 
noster nutritus est Salvator. (N. Bull. Arch. Crist. 1901, pp. 149-151.) 



92 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 



ITALY 

FLORENCE. The ' San Girolamo ' of Andrea del Castagno. The 

' San Girolamo ' of Andrea del Castagno, of which Vasari speaks so highly, 
is reported to have been recently discovered at Florence, on the altar of the 
Chapel Montaguti, in the church of S. Annunziata. The picture was hidden 
behind a painting of Alessandro Allori. (Athen. July 20, 1901.) 

Recent Acquisitions of the Uffizi. The following recent acquisi- 
tions of the Uffizi Gallery are described by Emile Jacobsen in Gaz. B.-A. 
1901, pp. 412-424: (1) Lorenzo di Credi, 'Venus'; (2) Botticelli, 'Ado- 
ration of the Magi'; (3) School of Botticelli, 'Madonna Enthroned, with 
Saints ' ; (4) Boltraffio, ' Profile of a Young Man ' ; (5) Sebastiano del 
Piombo, ' Portrait of a Man ' ; (6) Paul Veronese, ' The Rescue of Moses ' ; 
(7) Tintoretto, ' Leda ' ; (8) Salvator Rosa, ' Job visited by His Friends ' ; 
(9) Salvator Rosa, 'Landscape'; (10) Guido Reni, 'Susanna at the Bath'; 
(11) Guido Reni, ' Madonna della Neve ' ; (12) Jan van Huysum, ' Flowers ' ; 
(13) Van Dyck, ' Portrait of the Two Brothers, Bernard and John Lennox.' 

Four Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of Benvenuto Cellini. 
Benvenuto Cellini was born November 1, 1500. The commemorative exer- 
cises planned by the Societa Italiana per V Arte Pubblica for November, 1900, 
were postponed until the spring of 1901. A memorial stone was set up on 
his house, a bust of Cellini was erected upon the Ponte Vecchio, and interest- 
ing exhibitions of his productions were held in the Museo dell' Opera del 
Duomo, and in the sacristies of Santa Trinita, San Lorenzo, and Santa Maria 
Novella. (L' Arte, 1901, pp. 214-216.) 

The Fagade of San Lorenzo. The fa9ade of San Lorenzo, for which 
no design was left by Brunelleschi, has remained a blank wall without 
architectural decoration. As the result of a competition held in 1900, seven 
architects were selected who are to offer designs in a second competition. 
The designs of these architects as well as those of Giuliano da Sangallo and 
Michelangelo are published by J. B. SUPINO in L' Arte, 1901, pp. 245-262. 

MILAN. The Cathedral in the Fifteenth Century. Notwithstand- 
ing the nine volumes of the Annali della Fabrica del Duomo and all that has 
been published by Boito, Carotti, Beltrami, and Meyer concerning the Cathe- 
dral of Milan, FRANCESCO MALAGUZZI VALERI finds a series of unpublished 
documents concerning the Cathedral in the fifteenth century which he pub- 
lishes in Rep. f. K. 1901, pp. 87-102, 230-240. The series begins with a 
document dated November 22, 1471, confirming the appointment of Gio- 
vanni da Solario as engineer ; other documents give historical data concern- 
ing the construction and ornamentation of the ciborium. 

Acquisitions of the Archaeological Museum. The Archaeological 
Museum at Milan has recently acquired a Renaissance marble female mask, 
a fifteenth century wooden statue of a saint, a bust having the characteristics 
of the work of Leone Leoni and Pompeo Leoni, a terra-cotta mantelpiece from 
near Cremona, and a fine collection of books and keys. (L* A rte, 1901, p. 140.) 

Notable Italian Paintings. The late director Giuseppe Bertini was 
the active agent in acquiring for the museums of Milan a number of notable 
Italian paintings. These embrace paintings by Bramantino, Bernardino 
Luini, Gaudenzio Ferrari, and Boltraffio. An account of these is given by 
G. FRIZZONI in L' Arte, 1901, pp. 93-110. 



CHRISTIAN AIM] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1901 93 

Frescoes by Leonardo in the Castle. In 1893 the task of restoring 
the frescoes by Leonardo da Vinci in the ' Camera grande delle assi ' of the 
Castle of Milan was begun. Owing to the expense involved the work has 
remained unfinished. Through the munificence of a lawyer, Pietro Volpi 
Bassani, the work will be continued under the competent direction of Luca 
Beltrami. (' Arte, 1901, p. 139.) 

NAPLES. French Gothic Altar in the Church of Sta. Chiara. 
The government architect, Ettore Bernich, has discovered documents, for the 
most part inedited, which present a clear idea of the church of Sta. Chiara as 
built by Robert of Anjou (1310-1340). Behind the present barock altar he 
has found the original French Gothic altar and has recovered some of the 
statuettes with which it was adorned. (Z' Arte, 1901, p. 295.) 

REGGIO EMILIA. The Baptismal Font. The baptismal font at 
Reggio Emilia, had, until the beginning of the nineteenth century, a richly 
carved hemispherical cover. The design for this cover by Matteo della 
Tarsia has been found in the Episcopal Archives of Reggio Emilia, and is 
published by G. FERRARI in L' Arte, 1901, pp. 198-199. 

ROMAGN A. Little Known Works of Art. G. BEDESCHI, in 
L' Arte, 1901, pp. 201-202, draws attention to some little known works of art 
in Romagna. At Cotignola he makes special mention of the sumptuous 
tomb of Fra Rinaldo Graziani (f 1529) at Bagnacavalla, of four choir books 
with fine miniatures, an eighth century ciborium, fourteenth century frescoes, 
and a well-carved sepulchral slab ; at Lugo, of several interesting buildings ; 
and at Sant 1 Agata sul Santerno, of an imposing terra-cotta cornice which 
formerly adorned the old church of Sant' Agata. 

ROME. An Ancient Baptistery. In the N. Bull Arch. Crist. 1901, 
pp. 71-111, an ancient baptistry is described by O. MARUCCHI. It was found 
in a passageway leading from a chamber excavated in the cemetery of St. 
Priscilla on the Via Salaria. The font or tank is 26 feet long by 10| feet 
wide. About an arch inside of the tank is a Latin inscription : " If any one 
thirst let him come." In the Gesta of Pope Liberius it is stated that when 
he was banished from Rome (in 355 A.D.), he took up his residence three 
miles out, and baptized 4012 persons at Easter in the "cemetery of Ostriano, 
where Peter the Apostle baptized." The font just discovered is in Marucchi's 
opinion the " Fons Petri" mentioned in the itineraries. DUCHESNE, in a 
supplementary note, thinks Marucchi's conjecture is not improbable. The 
crypt containing the baptistery was found in 1888 by G. B. De Rossi, who 
recognized its importance, but it was closed and not reopened until 1900. 

Bones under the Church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo. Beneath the 
church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo was found, in 1887, the house of the mar- 
tyrs, Giovanni and Paolo. During the past summer there has come to light 
below the church a pit, surrounded by brickwork to appear like a cylindrical 
support, in which were found the bones of at least ten persons. O. MA- 
RUCCHI, in the N". Bull. Arch'. Crist. 1901, pp. 175-176, suggests that these 
may be the remains of the martyrs named Scillitani, put to death under 
Marcus Aurelius in the year 180 A.D. Their bodies were known to have 
been transported to this church in the ninth century. 

Graves at Sta. Agnese. A thorough exploration of the church of 
Sta. Agnese in the Via Nomentana has been undertaken at the expense of 
Cardinal Kopp. Under the pavement of this apse two layers of tombs have 



94 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

been found. The tipper layer consists of brick coffins covered or lined with 
marble slabs. On one of these is carved a portrait of St. Peter. These tombs 
belong to the fourth century. The lower tier contains one or two galleries 
cut in the solid rock, and lined with loculi which have never been opened. 
One belongs to a Marcellinus, buried May 6, 394 A.D. ; another to an Eme- 
rentius, a third to a Hagnes, a fourth to a Turtura. (LANCIANI, A then. 
December 21, 1901.) 

Excavations in the Church of Sta. Maria Antiqua. In the N. Bull. 
Arch. Crist. 1901, pp. 172-174, MARUCCHI publishes a photograph showing the 
most recent condition of the excavations in the Church of Sta. Maria Antiqua 
in the Roman Forum. The discovery of the foundations of the octagonal 
pulpit, mentioned in the Liber Pontificalis as the gift of Pope John VII, 
affords a new argument in favor of the identification of this church as Sta. 
Maria Antiqua. In the excavations of the church an important early Chris- 
tian sarcophagus was discovered, which is assigned by MARUCCHI in N. Bull. 
Arch. Crist. 1901, pp. 205-216, to the fourth century. On it are represented 
the Baptism of Christ, the story of Jonah, the Good Shepherd, an Orans 
(the Church), and a seated figure (the defunct). MARUCCHI suggests that 
the concatenation of subjects indicated that the departed, having been 
baptized, would be raised from the dead and gathered with the elect into the 
garden of Paradise. 

Discoveries at San Saba. M. E. CANNIZZARO gives in Not. Scavi, 
1901, pp. 10-14 (fig.), a brief account of discoveries at San Saba on the 
Aventine. In 1205 A.D. were erected a basilica and a convent, both sur- 
rounded by a wall. The basilica had three naves, the central one represent- 
ing an earlier church of the Greek monks, who occupied this site from 600 to 
1100. Each nave ended in an apse. There was a portico in front, within 
which was the principal entrance. There was another entrance in the left 
aisle. Projecting from this aisle was an oratory, which had formed part of 
an earlier structure. The convent consisted of a small cloister, with a sec- 
ond story on only one side. 

Continuation of Di Rossi's Roma Sotteranea. The great work by 
Di Rossi will be continued by his pupils and published under the auspices 
of the Commissione di Archeologia Sacra. It will be published in fascicoli, 
the earliest treating of the catacomb of Domitilla, then of the catacombs of 
the Via Nomentana, and of the Salaria Vecchia, and of St. Hippolytus and 
Pretextatus, then the catacombs of Priscilla, of Peter and Marcellinus, and 
of Traso. (N. Bull. Arch. Crist. 1901, pp. 229-231.) 

Recently discovered Frescoes by Pietro Cavallini. In L' Arte, 
1901, pp. 239-244, FEDERICO HERMANIN gives an account of the frescoes 
recently discovered in the church of Sta. Cecilia in Trastevere. They con- 
sist of a glorified Christ surrounded by angels, archangels, and cherubim 
above figures of the Virgin, the Baptist, and the Apostles. Other frescoes 
represent the Dream of Jacob, Esau at the bed of Isaac, St. Christopher, the 
Annunciation, and the Last Judgment. A comparison with the mosaics of 
Sta. Maria in Trastevere indicate that the frescoes were painted by Pietro 
Cavallini, who was associated with Arnolfo di Cambio in Rome, and with 
Cimabue at Assisi. The frescoes may be assigned to the years 1291-1294, 
and in many details anticipated and influenced the work of Giotto. He 
concludes that Pietro Cavallini was " veramente il novatore, il prime pittore 



CHRISTIAN ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1901 95 

della nuova maniera," and promises a more fully illustrated publication of 
these frescoes in Vol. V of the Galleria Nazionale. 

The Madonna del Rosario. The Madonna del Rosario, the master- 
piece of Sassoferrato, was stolen from the Church of Sta. Sabina on the 
Aventine in the night of July 22, 1901. It was recovered, however, some 
two months later. (LANCIANI, Athen. October 26, 1901.) 

SARDINIA. Early Christian Monuments. In the N. Bull. Arch. 
Crist. 1901, pp. 61-69, GIOVANNI PINZA publishes some notes on the Christian 
cemetery at Bonaria near Cagliari, and on a subterranean Christian chapel 
near Bonorva. From the catacombs of Bonaria he reproduces an interesting 
fresco in which the story of Jonah and that of the Apostles as fishers of men 
are depicted in the same picture. The subterranean chapel appears to 
have been once a Roman tomb. 

URBINO. In honor of Giovanni Santi. On June 2, 1901, a memo- 
rial stone was placed in the house where Giovanni Santi lived at Urbino. 
The inscription, written by Professor Marchigiani, reads: Qui visse e 
lavorb \ Giovanni Santi \ Pittore eccellente e poeta \ primo maestro \ al Jiglio 
Raffaello. An exhibition of fourteen of his paintings and photographs 
of many other paintings was held in the Ducal Palace. (L' Arte, 1901, 
p. 217.) 

VENICE. Restoration of S. Stefano. The Church of S. Stefano, 
Venice, 1294-1325, ranked by Sansovino for its size and beauty as second 
only to S. Marco, is being restored. The removal of the whitewash from 
its walls has revealed a red and white brickwork, of animated design on the 
short wall and of simpler and more sober design on the long walls. Al- 
though it is now impossible to restore altogether the original character of the 
church, much will be done in this direction. (L' Arte, 1901, pp. 140-141.) 

Acquisitions of the Museo Civico. The Museo Civico of Venice has 
recently acquired by gift a Madonna by Bartolomeo Montagna, and another 
by Bartolomeo Vivarini, which once formed the central part of a polyptych. 
(L' Arte, 1901, p. 294.) 

FRANCE 

BAZARNES (YONNE). Chapel of St. Quentin. Until recently 
there existed at Bazarnes a chapel dedicated to St. Quintinus, a Roman 
senator of the third century. Beneath it was a spring to which invalid 
children were brought during the Middle Ages and in modern times. The 
building consecrated in 1275 by Erard de Lezinnes, Bishop of Auxerre, was 
erected at a much earlier date. The Abbe POULAINE suggests that excava- 
tions be undertaken with the hope of discovering pagan votive offerings 
near this ancient oratory. (B. Arch. C. T. March, 1901, p. 3.) 

BEAUNE. Mural Paintings of the Fifteenth Century. In the 
church of Xotre Dame de Beaune, in the fifteenth century chapel called Le 
Grand Christ, a large and fine mural painting has recently been uncovered. 
It represents the 'Raising of Lazarus.' HENRI CHABEUF, in the R. Art 
Chre't. 1901, pp. 508-510 attributes it to a Flemish painter and suggests the 
name of Pierre Spicker. It was painted for Cardinal Jean Rolin, son of 
the famous Chancellor Nicolas Rolin. 

LYONS. A Lost Mosaic. In the apse of the church of St. Jean 
Baptiste at Lyons in the ninth century was a mosaic, reminding one of 
the well-known mosaic in St. Pudentiana, Rome. On it was represented the 



96 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

city of Jerusalem. Reference is made to it by Florus, deacon of Lyons, in 
the following lines (Migne, Patrol. Lat. cxix, 259) : 

" Marty ribus subter venerabilis emicat aula : 
Martyribus supra Christus rex praesidet altus, 
Circumstant miris animalia mystica formis 
Nocte dieque hymnis trinum inclainantia numen. 
Adstat apostolicus pariter chorus ore corusco 
Cum Christus adveniet certo qui tempore judex, 
Vivaque Hierusalem agno illustrante refulgens, 
Quatuor uno agitat paradisi flumina fonte." 

(Bull. Hist. Dioc. Lyon, 1901, pp. 276-277.) 

GRANDMONT. The Manuscripts of the Abbaye de Grandmont. 

The abbey at Grandmont contains a number of manuscripts practically 
unknown, as students have usually confined their attention to the manu- 
scripts relating to the history of the order. A list of 113 of these manuscripts 
is published by C. COUDERC in the Bill. EC. Charles, 1901, pp. 362-373. 

GRENOBLE. Acquisitions of the Museum. Colonel de Beylie 
has recently presented to the museum at Grenoble five paintings. Four 
are by Zurburan and represent the ' Annunciation,' the 'Nativity,' the 
' Adoration of the Magi,' and the * Circumcision.' The fifth is by Velasquez 
and represents 'St. Hernandez.' The same gentleman has enriched the 
museum with gifts from India and China. (Chron. d. Arts, 1901, p. 200.) 

PARIS. Acquisitions of the Louvre. The Louvre has recently re- 
ceived from Baron A. de Rothschild a fine collection of ecclesiastical goldsmith 
work of the thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries, con- 
sisting of reliquaries, statuettes, medallions, boxes, rings, and other objects. 
With the collection was also a triptych by Albrecht Diirer, and a relief of the 
' Madonna and Child' by Desiderio. (Chron. d. Arts, 1901, p. 226.) 

Muse'e de Cluny. The Musee de Cluny has recently been enriched by 
fourteen objects from the Baron A. de Rothschild. Among them is a 
diptvch by Wohlgemuth and a painting by Van Orley. (Chron. d. Arts, 
1901, p. 227.) 

Merovingian Inscriptions. The celebrated Barberini ivory, published 
first by Gori in 1759 and by Molinier in 1896, has recently been acquired by 
the Louvre. It is described by G. SCHLUMBERGER in the Mon. Men. Acad. 
Insc. (Mon. Plot.) vii, fasc. 13, pp. 79-94, and by H. OMONT in the Journal 
des Savants, 1901, pp. 101-105, and Bibl. c. Charles, 1901, pp. 152-155. It 
contains a long list of names of Christians living on the Rhine and espe- 
cially at Treves. 

The Palaeographic Collection of Pierre Hamon. One of the earliest 
French palaeographic collections was made by Pierre Hamon in 1566-1567. 
It is now preserved in the Bibliotheque Nationale, arid is described by 
H. OMONT in Bibl. c. Charles, 1901, pp. 57-73. 

Archives for French Religious History. A new publication entitled 
Archives dei'Histoire Religieuse de la France was begun in 1901. It has been 
entrusted to competent specialists for the publication of (1) ecclesiastical 
documents; (2) administrative documents; (3) judicatory documents; 
(4) non-Catholic documents ; (5) private documents. The publication is 
issued from the house of A. Picard et fils, Paris. 



CHRISTIAN ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1901 97 



GERMANY 

BERLIN. A Statuette of Apollo by Michelangelo. In the Jb. 

Preuss. Kunsts. 1901, pp. 88-89, W. BODE publishes an unfinished statuette 
of Apollo, attributed by him and by ADOLF HILDEBRAND to Michelangelo. 
The statuette was once in the Villa Borghese, and was sold from the Villino 
Borghese to G. Ferroni for 25 francs. Dr. Bode purchased it from Ferroni 
for a moderate sum, and presented it to the Berlin Museum. 

Two Fine Portraits by Van Dyck. In the Jb. Preuss. Kunsts. 1901, 
pp. 200-206, F. LABAN publishes two fine portraits in the Berlin Gallery. 
They represent a Genoese senator and his wife, and once belonged to the 
collection of Sir Robert Peel. 

COLOGNE. "Wall-paintings from the Late Middle Ages. In the 
Haus Glesch in Cologne were discovered, in 1896, the first-known instances 
on the lower Rhine of the decoration of house-walls with paintings of non- 
sacred scenes. These are, however, of moral tendency, and are described, 
with wood-cut, by ANTON KISA in Jb. V. Alt. Rh. 107 (1901), pp. 279-285. 

MUNICH. Exhibition of Renaissance Art. From June 3 to Sep- 
tember 30, 1901, there was held at Munich an exhibition of works of 
Renaissance art. It consisted of Flemish, German, and Italian paint- 
ings, sculptures, tapestries, and objects in ivory, enamel, bronze, faience, 
etc. An account of this exhibition is given by G. FRIZZOXI in Chron. d. 
Arts, 1901, pp. 260-261. 

WURZBURG. Sculptures by Riemenschneider. Two figures, a 
Madonna and a St. Barbara, by Riemenschneider, the famous fifteenth 
century sculptor in wood, have recently been discovered at Wiirzburg, of 
which town he was at one time burgomaster. Wiirzburg possesses a large 
number of this artist's works, and the Town Council intends to devote a 
museum to them. (Athen. November 16, 1901.) 

HOLLAND AND BELGIUM 

AMSTERDAM. Acquisitions by the Royal Museum. In the 
Rep. f. K. 1901, pp. 167-194, E. JACOBSEN gives a description of the 
paintings in the Rijksmuseum which were not enumerated in the cata- 
logue of 1898. There are here described 190 paintings of the Dutch and 
Flemish schools, many of which are by well-known masters. 

ANTWERP. Discovery of Frescoes. In a house formerly belong- 
ing to a patrician family at Antwerp, now being arranged as a dispensary 
for the Sisters of St. Vincent de Paul, has been discovered an interesting 
series of mural paintings of the late fifteenth or early sixteenth century. 
They represent Sibyls. (R. Art Chre't. 1901, pp. 541-542.) 

MONS. GHENT. Mediaeval Flemish Sculptures. At Mons, 
in the church of S. Wandru, is a statue of the archangel Michael, which 
was long concealed in the crypt. It is similar in type to the S. Michael 
in the painting of the i Last Judgment,' by Roger van der Weyden, in the 
same church. At Ghent there has recently been discovered a ceiling beam 
of the thirteenth century, on which are sculptured heads of poetic character 
and graceful execution. (Chron. d. Arts, 1901, pp. 282-283.) 

CARE OF MONUMENTS IN BELGIUM. The Bulletin de la Com- 
mission Roy ale d'Art et d'Arche'ologie, Vol. XXXIX, Nos. 9-10, contains a 



98 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

report of the General Secretary, M. Massaux, and the reports from the 
various provinces, which show considerable activity in behalf of the pres- 
ervation of mediaeval buildings, whether ecclesiastical, civic, or domestic. 

GREAT BRITAIN 

LONDON. British Museum Exhibition of Drawings. Among 
the acquisitions of recent years, now on exhibition in the Department of 
Engravings in the British Museum, are a fine drawing of a Pietk by 
Michelangelo, a grotesque head by Leonardo, three saints by Paul Veronese, 
and others by Tintoretto and Andrea del Sarto. (L' Arte, 1901, p. 292.) 

THE BRITISH ARCHAEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION AT 
NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE. The fifty-eighth annual congress of the 
Association was held at Newcastle-on-Tyne, July 18-26, 1901. Addresses 
were delivered, and sites of historical and archaeological interest were 
visited. An account of the congress is given in Athen. July 27, August 
3 and 10, 1901. 

THE ROYAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE AT NOT- 
TINGHAM. The Institute held its fifty-ninth annual meeting at Not- 
tingham, July 23-31, 1901. An account of the addresses delivered, and 
of the visits to sites of archaeological interest in and near Nottingham, 
is contained in Athen. August 3 and 10, 1901. 



ABBREVIATIONS 

Abh. : Abhandlungen. Acad. : Academy (of London). Am. Ant. : Ameri- 
can Antiquarian. Am. J. Arch. : American Journal of Archaeology. Ami d. 
Mon. : Ami des Monuments. Ann. d. 1st. : Annali dell' Istituto. Anz. Schw. 
Alt. : Anzeiger fiir Schweizerische Altertumskunde. Arch. Ael. : Archaeologia 
Aeliana. Arch.-Ep. Mitth. : Archaol.-epigraph. Mittheil. (Vienna). Arch. 
Anz. : Archaologischer Anzeiger. Arch. Portug. : O Archeologo Portugus. 
Arch. Eec. : Architectural Record. Arch. Hess. Ges. : Archiv fur Hessische 
Geschichte und Altertumskunde. Arch. Eel. : Archiv fiir Religionswissenschaft. 
Arch. d. Miss. : Archives de Missions Scientifiques et Litte"raires. Arch. Stor. 
d. Art. : Archivio Storico dell' Arte. Arch. Stor. Lomb. : Archivio storico lom- 
bardo. Arch. Stor. Nap. : Archivio Storico Provincie Napolitane. Arch. Stor. 
Patr. : Archivio della r. societa romana di storia patria. Athen. : Athenaeum 
(of London). 

Beitr. Ass. : Beitrage zur Assyriologie. Berl. Akad. : Preussische Akademie 
der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Berl. Phil. W. : Berliner Philologische Wochen- 
schrift. Berl. Stud. : Berliner Studien. Bibl. EC. Chartes : Bibliotheque de 
1'Ecole des Chartes. B. Ac. Hist. : Boletin de la real Academia de la Historia. 
B. Arch. d. M. : Bulletin Arche'ol. du Ministere. B. Arch. C. T. : Bulletin 
Arche'ologique du Comite" des Travaux hist, et scient. B.C.H. : Bulletin de 
Correspondance Helle"nique. B. Inst. Eg. : Bulletin de 1'Institut Egyptien 
(Cairo). B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. : Bulletin et Me"moires de la Socie'te' des An- 
tiquaires de France. B. Soc. Anth. : Bulletin de la Socie'te' d'Anthropologie de 
Paris. B. Soc. Yonne : Bulletin de la Socie'te' des Sciences historiques et natu- 
relles de 1' Yonne. B. Mon.: Bulletin Monumental. B. Arch. Stor. Dal.: 
Bullettino di Archeologia e Storia Dalmata. B. Com. Eoma: Bullettino d. 
Commissione Archeologica Comunale di Roma. Bull. d. 1st. . Bullettino dell* 
Istituto. B. Arch. Crist. : Bullettino di Archeologia Cristiana. B. Paletn. It. : 
Bullettino di Paletnologia Italiana. Byz. Z. : Byzantinische Zeitschrift. 

Chron. d. Arts : Chronique des Arts. Cl. E. : Classical Review. C. E. 
Acad. Insc. : Comptes Rendus de I'Acad&nie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres. 
C.I. A.: Corpus Inscriptionum Atticarum. C.I.G.: Corpus Inscriptionum 
Graecarum. C.I.G.S.: Corpus Inscriptionum Graeciae Septentrionalis. C.I.L.: 
Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. C.I.S. : Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum. 

AeXr. 'Apx-: Ae\rLov ' Apxato\oyiic6i>. D. & S. Diet. Ant. : Dictionnaire des 
Antiquity's grecques et romaines par Ch. Daremberg et Edm. Saglio, avec le con- 
cours de E. Pettier. 

Echos d'Or.: Les Echos d'Orient (Constantinople). *E0. 'Apx-: 'E^^epls 
'ApxaioXoyiKJ. Eph. Epig. : Ephemeris Epigraphica. 

Fundb. Schwab. : Fundberichte aus Schwaben, herausgegeben vom wurttem- 
bergischen anthropologischen Verein. 

G-az. B.-A. : Gazette des Beaux- Arts. 

I.Gr. A.: Inscriptiones Graecae Antiquissimae, ed. Roehl. J. G. Ins.: In- 
scriptiones Graecarum Insularum. /. G. Sic. It. : Inscriptiones Graecae Siciliae 
et Italiae. Intermediate : IntermMiaire de chercheurs et des curieux. 

Jb. Alt. Ges. L. P. : Neue Jahrbticher fiir das klassische Altertum, Geschichte 
und deutsche Litteratur und fiir Padagogik. Jb. Arch. I. : Jahrbuch d. k. d. 
Archaol. Instituts. Jb. Phil. Pad. : Neue Jahrbiicher fiir Philologie und Pada- 
gogik (Fleckeisen's Jahrbiicher). Jb. Preuss. Kunsts.: Jahrbuch d. k. Preuss. 

99 



Kunstsammlungen. Jb. V. Alt. Rh. : Jahrbiicher des Vereins von Alterthums- 
freunden im Rheinlande. Jb. Ver. Dill. : Jahrbuch des Vereins Dillingen. 
Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. : Jahreshefte des oesterreichischen archaologischen Insti- 
tutes. J. Asiat. : Journal Asiatique. J. Am. Or. 8. : Journal of American 
Oriental Society. J. Anth. Inst. : Journal of the Anthropological Institute of 
Great Britain and Ireland. J. Br. Arch. Ass. : Journal of the British Archae- 
ological Association. J.H.S.: Journal of Hellenic Studies. J. Int. Arch. 
Num. : AttOvys 'E</>77/ie/>Js TTJS J/O/UOTXCITIKT/S dpxcuo\o7/as, Journal international 
d'arche'ologie numismatique (Athens). 

Kb. Gesammtver: Korrespondenzblatt des Gesammtvereins der deutschen 
Geschichts- und Altertumsvereine. Kb. Wd. Z. Ges. K. : Korrespondenzblatt 
der Westdeutschen Zeitschrift ftir Geschichte und Kunst. Kunstchron. : Kunst- 
chronik. 

Lex. Myth. : Ausfiihrliches Lexikon der griechischen und romischen Mytho- 
logie, herausgegeben von W. H. Roscher (Leipsic, Teubner). 

Mel. Arch. Hist. . Melanges d'Arche"ologie et d'Histoire (of French School in 
Rome). Athen. Mitth. : Mittheilungen d. k. d. Archaol. Instituts, Athen. Abth. 
Horn. Mitth. : Mittheilungen d. k. d. Archaol. Instituts, Rom. Abth. Mitth. 
Anth. Ges.: Mittheilungen der anthropologischen Gesellschaft in Wien. Mitth. 
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schichtsforschung. Mitth. Vorderas. Ges. : Mittheilungen der vorderasiatischen 
Gesellschaft. Mon. Antichi: Monumenti Antichi (of Accad. d. Lincei). Mon. 
Mem. Acad. Insc. : Monuments et Me"moires pub. par 1'Acad. des Inscriptions, 
etc. Mun. Akad. : Koniglich Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaf ten, Miin- 
chen. Mus. Ital. : Museo Italiano di Antichita Classiche. 

N. D. Alt. : Nachrichten iiber deutsche Altertumsfunde. Not. Scavi : Notizie 
degli Scavi di Antichita. Num. Chron. : Numismatic Chronicle. N. Arch. 
Ven. : Nuovo Archivio Veneto. N. Bull. Arch. Crist. : Nuova Bullettino di 
Archeologia cristiana. 

Pal. Ex. Fund : Palestine Exploration Fund. UpaKTiKd : Ilpa/cn/cii 7-775 tv 
AOrfvais dp^ato\oyiKijs eratpcias. 

R. Tr. Eg. Ass. : Recueil de travaux relatifs & la philologie et a Parche"ologie 
e'gyptiennes et assyriennes. Reliq. : Reliquary and Illustrated Archaeologist. 
Rend. Ace. Lincei : Rendiconti d. r. Accademia dei Liiicei. Rep. f. K. : Re- 
pertorium fiir Kunstwissenschaft. R. Assoc. Bare. : Revista da la Associacion 
artistico-arqueologico Barcelonesa. R. Arch. Bibl. Mus. : Revista di Archives, 
Bibliotecas, y Museos. R. Arch. : Revue Arche'ologique. R. Art Anc. Mod. : 
Revue de 1'Art ancien et moderne. R. Beige Num. : Revue Beige de Numisma- 
tique. R. Bibl. : Revue Biblique Internationale. R. Grit. : Revue Critique. 
R. Art Chret. : Revue de PArt Chretien. R. Hist. d. Rel. : Revue de PHistoire 
des Religions. R. Or. Lat. : Revue de POrient Latin. R. ^Ep. r M. Fr. : Revue 
Epigraphique du Midi de la France. R. Et. Gr. : Revue des Etudes Grecques. 
R. Et. J. : Revue des Etudes Juives. R. Num. : Revue Numismatique. R. 
Sem. : Revue Se'mitique. Rhein. Mus. : Rheinisches Museum fiir Philologie, 
Neue Folge. R. Abruzz. : Rivista Abruzzese di Scienze, Lettere ed Arte. II. 
Ital. Num. : Rivista Italiana Numismatica. R. Stor. Calabr. : Rivista Storica 
Calabrese. R. Stor. Ital. : Rivista Storica Italiana. Rom. Quart. : Roinische 
Quartalschrift ftir christliche Altertumskunde und fiir Kirchengeschichte. 

Sachs. Ges.: Sachsische Gesellschaft (Leipsic). S. G.D.I. : Sammlung der 
Griechischen Dialekt-Inschriften. Sitzb. : Sitzungsberichte. S. Rom. d. Stor. 
Pat. : Societa Romana di Storia Patria. Soc. Ant. Fr. : SociSte" des Antiquaires 
de France. Soc. Ant. : Society of Antiquaries. S. Bibl. Arch. : Society of 
Biblical Archaeology, Proceedings. 

'E?r. : Qpg.KiKij 'Eirerripis, tT-/i<riov 8r)fj.o<rtevfJ.a T^S tv 'Ad^vai$ 0pq.Ki.KTJs 



Wiener Z. Morgenl. : Wiener Zeitschrift fiir die Kunde des Morgenlandes. 

Z. D. Pal. V. : Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palestina Vereins. Z. Aeg. Sp. 
Alt. : Zeitschrift fiir Aegyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde. Z. Assyr. : 
Zeitschrift fiir Assyriologie. Z. Bild. K. : Zeitschrift fiir Bildende Kunst. 
Z. Ethn. : Zeitschrift fiir Ethnologie. Z. Mini. Alt. : Zeitschrift des Miin- 
chener Alterthumsvereins. Z. Num. : Zeitschrift fiir Numismatik. 

100 



Archaeological 
Institute 
of America 



CRETAN EXPEDITION 1 

XXI 

GORTYNA 



I. SOME CONTRIBUTIONS TO ITS TOPOGRAPHY 

THE researches which I made in the central part of Crete 
during the spring and summer of 1894, had for their principal 
aim to mark all the points of this complex region in which 
traces of the Mycenaean civilization came to light ; to complete, 
to the best of my power, the observations made by others before 
me, especially by Halbherr, Fabricius, Mariani, and Evans, 
and to obtain some results of a general character in this order 
of explorations which gave signs of being largely fruitful. 

The great valley of Messara and the regions bordering there- 
upon had already yielded certain traces of primitive settlements, 
some of the Mycenaean age, others of epochs of an earlier 
civilization. Hence, it was natural I should be inspired with 
the lively desire to examine whether Gortyna also, a city which 
became so important a centre in the classic times, had been 
itself a seat of this same Mycenaean culture, which discoveries 
had already shown flourishing in the early days of other illus- 
trious localities of the historic age. (Cf. Fig. 1.) 

I must, however, confess at once that such exploration, di- 
rected especially around the Hill of Haghios Joannis, at a short 
distance from Haghioi Deca, in the place where rose the Acropo- 
lis of Gortyna, was not crowned with the success anticipated. 

1 Continued from Vol. V, p. 451. 

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 101 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. VI (1902), No. 2. 



102 



ANTONIO TAEAMELLI 



The acropolis of H. Joannis is now wholly covered with the 
ruins of so many strata of habitations, that the traces of the 
primitive "Aegean or Mycenaean " seat must be in that place 




quite buried beneath heaps of ruins. And as circumstances 
did not admit of a systematic excavation, I was forced to 
renounce my original plan and hence leave unanswered the 
question I had asked myself ; that is, if the importance of 



GORTYNA 103 

the Mycenaean centre in this place on the banks of the Le- 
thaeus could have been in any way the prelude to the impor- 
tant position occupied by Gortyna in epochs nearer to us, 
when social order, industry, and art shone brightly in her as 
in a powerful metropolis. 

The Mycenaean goal having thus completely escaped me, 
but wishing nevertheless to meet the wishes of Professor 
Halbherr, who had requested me to study that locality, I 
thought of directing my researches to the clearing up of the 
topography of the acropolis and its surroundings, and to the 
examination of a sufficiently remarkable number of interest- 
ing remains which relate to epochs much more recent, but 
still ancient enough to be worth collecting before the violent 
action of the elements and still more that of man, combine 
to hasten their utter destruction. 

The vast plain of Massara, extending seawards from the 
slopes of the hills flanking it on the north, is completely 
scattered over with monumental memorials of the past. It 
is an area in which one comes continually upon the ruins of 
colonnades, public buildings, thermae, etc., giving some idea 
of the vastness and riches of this seat of the Roman Pro- 
consul. But if the remains still visible are many, still 
more apparent are the signs of the increasing destruction 
to which they are subjected ! The renewed cultivation by 
the Greek peasants of the valley is by degrees reclaiming 
this plain so long abandoned. But it is at the expense of 
the ancient monuments of Gortyna ; since the most impor- 
tant ruins are in course of destruction to furnish material to 
build miserable settlers' cabins, dry walls to divide the vari- 
ous fields as limitations of property, etc. Whoever, therefore, 
would expect to find in the Gortynian plain all the buildings 
given by Tournefort in his Journey in the Levant (Fig. 2), 
would greatly err, since the destruction during the course of 
a century has progressed immensely ; and if the hopes of a 
systematic excavator can still be many, the fruits to be gath- 
ered from the monuments above ground are so much the fewer. 



104 



ANTONIO TAEAMELLI 



From the vastness of the field, I considered the problem 
of the general topography of Gortyna insoluble. I confined 
myself therefore within more modest limits. Comparing the 
state in which the ruins of the Acropolis were found, with 
their condition a score of years ago or so when seen by Pash- 
le} r , Spratt, and others, I understood it would not be altogether 
lost labor to gather as much as could be still ascertained about 
the Acropolis itself; only regretting that the impossibility of 
excavating and the want of geodetic means obliged me to re- 




FIGURE 2. TOURNEFORT'S VIEW OF GORTYNA AND ACROPOLIS. 

nounce the attempt to draw up a complete scientific plan, and 
limit myself to sketches, and simple statements of facts, not 
illustrated by deeper researches. Thus they who will have the 
good fortune to succeed me in that field will perhaps have to 
find fault with me for much inexactness. But I was anxious 
to begin the important topographical study of the great Cretan 
cities, and to clear the way for those who will be able to pro- 
ceed with it under more favorable circumstances. I hope, 
therefore, my successors will bear in mind the unfavorable 
circumstances and excuse me for whatever involuntary mis- 
takes I may have made. 



GOETYNA 105 

THE ACROPOLIS AND THE LARGE THEATRE 

It is known to the students of Cretan antiquities that the 
city of Gortyna, which was in its most flourishing period dur- 
ing the Roman dominion in the island, spread widely over the 
plain now occupied by the four villages of H. Deca, Mitropolis, 
Choustouliana, and Ambeluso, between the torrent now called 
Mitropolipotamos, or Mitropolianos, and the extreme southern 
declivities of the mountains which form the watershed of 
Crete, and close on the north the plain of Messara. From 
these lower slopes, somewhat projecting toward the plain, 
detaches itself a counterfort or spur, which dominates the 
plain at an equal distance between H. Deca and Mitropolis. 

This hill of St. John, as it is now called, was the ancient 
acropolis of Gortyna (Fig. 3). As appears from the plan, 
this hill, composed of a polygonal compact mass of chalk- 
schist, has the form nearly of a cone with the point turned 
toward the mountain. The point of the cone is due to the 
confluence of two torrents. One of these flows from the 
centre of the island, with a considerable quantity of peren- 
nial water, descending from its upper valley through a deep 
gorge, as savage as are all the mountain clefts of Crete, 
and makes a course for itself through the plain, traversing 
the space where stand the ruins of Gortyna. It is to this 
narrow stream, bearing its silver thread of waters, sparkling 
between the oleanders even during the greatest summer 
heats, that belongs of right the glorious name of Lethaeus. 
The Acropolis is then deeply cut into, at its northeast base, 
by the deep furrow opened in preceding geological epochs 
by the above watercourse ; and on this side the declivity is 
very steep from the summit down, leaving almost no space 
for human habitation ; also the northwest face is, in part, 
a sheer precipice toward a rivulet (quite dry during the 
hot season), which meets the course of the Lethaeus at the 
north point of the Acropolis, descending by other terraced 
slopes from the tongue of rock which connects the Acropolis 

























FIGURE 3. THE ACROPOLIS OF GORTYNA : GENERAL PLAN. 



GOETYNA 107 

with the chain of calcareous hills rising above it toward the 
northwest. If the northeast and northwest flanks of the 
Acropolis are scarcely accessible, in the other directions, 
however, the hill sinks gradually toward the plain, especially 
on the south and southwestern slopes, and leaves a space suf- 
ficiently ample for habitation. The summit of the Acropolis 
lifts its steep form, according to the axis of the hill, from 
north to southwest, in a height of 150 m. and a medium 
breadth of 50 m. From this description it results that the 
upper part of the hill, about 80 m. above the plain of Messara, 
would form a natural fortress, easily defensible even from the 
western side, where the hill joins the rest of the mountain, 
since it rises not less than 40 m. over this tongue of earth. 

No spring of water is at present to be found in these hills, 
nor in ancient times perhaps were they better provided by 
nature; certainly, the numerous houses whose traces still 
remain required for the needs of their inhabitants those great 
aqueducts which are still admired, and will form in part the 
subject of this our short description of the Acropolis. 

At present the Acropolis, save at the points where the preci- 
pice descends sheer down to the valley, is covered over with 
ancient ruins and modern walls built with ancient material by 
the peasants of the neighboring villages, either to support 
the scanty soil, or for marking boundaries, or, still better, to 
clear as well as possible the ground recently restored to the 
cultivation of grain. And where the yellow ears of wheat do 
not raise their heads among the ruins, the scarlet poppy, the 
cardus spinosus, and other plants bear witness to the fertility 
of that thin soil. They are, however, serious obstacles to the 
exact restoration of the ancient remains. 

The long existence of Gortyna and the succession of build- 
ings even on the Acropolis were the reason why the more 
ancient disappeared, either destroyed or built over by the 
newer, or deeply buried under posterior foundations, or by 
the accumulation of demolished material throughout so many 
centuries. To all this, in the case of the Gortynian Acropolis, 



108 ANTONIO TAEAMELLI 

is to be added the steep incline of nearly all the flanks of the 
hill, which hastened the splitting of those buildings built against 
them. And this is the cause why no edifices of the Mycenaean 
age are to be identified at Gortyna, but only such as date from 
the Roman or Byzantine period ; while on the acropoleis of 
Goulas, Axos, Praesos, and other places in the island, ruins 
of the older period remain visible. Indirect proofs, however, 
are not wanting at Gortyna, as will be seen further on, of the 
existence of monumental buildings of the Hellenic age. 

Here, however, as at Cnossos, Lyttos, Chersonesus, etc., 
what impresses the mind of the student are the works of the 
Roman conquerors; and they are works of peace and public 
utility, which constrain him to consider the Roman domination 
in the island as an epoch of peace and prosperity, if not the 
only one, certainly amongst the few which this poor island 
enjoyed. For any one going from H. Deca toward the hill 
of the Acropolis, the first group of ruins which presents itself 
is that of the Roman Theatre, situated on the sides of the 
hill, at the southeast, a few yards above the Lethaeus. 

From the descriptions in Spratt's Travels in Crete, 1 this 
building, now reduced to utter ruin, was examined early in the 
present century by order of Veli Pasha, and on that occasion 
was found a statue representing the Bull of Gortyna. The 
discovery of this bull, which refers to the Rape of Europa 
legend, is remembered by all the old peasants of the district ; 
and when I went to Bobia, in the declivities of the southern 
chain of Messara, there was shown to me a plinth in marble, 
with roughened surface, and upon this plinth the still project- 
ing four hoofs of an ox ; by the unanimous agreement of these 
peasants, this marble fragment also came from Veli Pasha's 
excavation in the theatre. The state of the theatre when 
Spratt saw it must have scarcely differed from that in which 
I saw it; he gives measurements that approximate mine, but 
his notices are very incomplete, and are quite insufficient to 
give any idea of the edifice. 

1 II, p. 29. 



GOETYNA 



109 



The theatre must have been in a very different condition 
when seen by the Venetian traveller Onorio Belli, who leaves a 




FIGURE 4. THEATRE AT GORTYNA, NEAR THE LETHAEUS. 

The scale is in metres. 

memorial of it in his valuable sketches which have been partly 
published by Mr. Falkener. 

In the plan here subjoined, prepared according to my meas- 
ures and observations (Fig. 4), the data given by Belli are also 



110 



ANTONIO TARAMELLI 



taken into account ; by means of dotted lines are indicated the 
monumental stage and the lateral limits of the orchestra. The 
ranges of seats, and the stairs of the cavea, now in great part 
vanished, must have still been visible to the Venetian traveller, 
since they partly correspond with what I have been able to 
verify. The plan given by me and the section added thereto 
(Fig. 5) make it unnecessary for me to offer an extended 
description of these remains. 




FIGURE 5. THEATRE NEAR THE LETHAEUS AT GORTYNA : SECTION. 

The greater part of the cavea rests upon the flanks of the 
hills, turned toward the south, so that the spectators had for 
a background the broad valley of Gortyna, dropping gradually 
between the mountains toward the azure gulf of Messara ; the 
stage must have been wholly constructed. The cavea was sup- 
ported in its extreme wings by stout walls, against which leant 
the ascending ranges of the seats. These great walls, like all 
the works of the Roman age, were built with an internal kernel 
of emplecton, composed of fragments of stone bound together 
with very hard mortar, and were faced outside with brickwork, 
courses of which crossed the mass of the emplecton to render it 
more regular and compact. This procedure we find in all the 



GORTYNA 111 

works of Roman builders ; not only at Gortyna and throughout 
Crete, but in all places where the traces of their mighty works 
are to be found. 

The dimensions of the theatre as measured by me, or such 
as I infer they must have been, on comparing Belli's data, 
are as follows : 

Perimeter of the cavea 140.00 m. 

Section visible of space for spectators . . 21.60 " 

Complete section " " . . 29.00 " 

Section of upper zone 7.50 " 

Section of lower zone 13.00 " 

Breadth of upper gallery 3.00 " 

Breadth of lower gallery 4.20 " 

Probable breadth of orchestra 28.00 

In the wall surrounding and supporting the cavea, as can be 
seen from the plan and from the section (Figs. 4 and 5), in a 
thickness of 2.20 m., are the doors which gave access to the 
theatre from the hill, and probably from a terrace cut in the 
rock of the Acropolis. This terrace went all round the high- 
est part of the theatre, for the purpose of preventing it from 
being flooded by the rain-water flowing down the hill at this 
point, which is very precipitous, though it has traces of build- 
ings scattered over it. 

How high this outer wall of the cavea was, it is now impossi- 
ble to tell ; it is now quite demolished, but the traces of it are 
still visible, as also the passages from the outside to the inte- 
rior of the theatre; besides the middle entrance, 1.85 m. wide, 
there were two others, one on each side, 1.50 m. wide. 

The cavea seems to have been divided into two unequal parts 
by a broad ambulacrum, or passage, situated in such a way that 
the upper zone was the narrowest. This ambulacrum is 3.60 m. 
broad ; the wall which supports the upper zone is of bricks 
faced with poros-stone. Another ambulacrum, or gallery, 2 m. 
wide, went round the summit of the cavea and gave access to 
the various staircases. 

The nature of the rock, in thin, not very compact strata, did 
not allow of its being cut into rows of seats, as was the case 



112 ANTONIO TAEAMELLI 

in so many theatres of antiquity, such as at Syracuse; thus 
here the various graduated ranges of seats must have been 
constructed of masonry. The action of the elements and 
the devastating hand of man have contributed to overturn 
everything ; the stone seats have nearly disappeared altogether, 
and the material went to fill up the orchestra and bury the 
stage. From the traces remaining we may conjecture, how- 
ever, that the rows of steps were eleven in the upper zone and 
eighteen in the lower, and were 40 cm. wide to about 60 cm. 
deep. These are about the same dimensions that we find in all 
the Roman theatres of the best epoch, whether in the great 
capitals or in provincial centres. I quote, for example, the 
theatre of Atteia (Ashaga-Beikoi), described by Fabricius, in 
the district of Pergamon, where the steps are 42 cm. in breadth 
and 66 cm. in depth. It is impossible to say what was the form 
of the seats ; it is certain, however, they were made of bricks 
covered with slabs of poros-stone. The cavea is now alto- 
gether in ruins, nor is there any hope that excavations will 
throw light upon its character. We may cherish more hope 
as regards the stage ; a systematic excavation might reveal 
whether the not very frequent form of the stage (placed so 
far from the cavea) , as transmitted to us in Belli's plan, can 
be really verified. 

THE THEATRE NEAR THE PYTHION 

The same point has still to be cleared up in the case of an- 
other theatre at Gortyna. It is that situated at the back of 
the Pythion, at the " Vigles," where Professor Halbherr made 
his interesting excavations in 1886-87. It returned to the 
light of day at the time of my visit to H. Deca ; but it also 
bears witness to the progress of destruction since Onorio 
Belli's visit, and unfortunately the devastation is by no means 
arrested. No arguments and advice on my part could avail 
to dissuade the ignorant peasants from their purpose of strip- 
ping the edifice revealed to them by chance under a heap of 
detritus of the fine blocks of poros-stoue which still formed 



GOETYNA 113 

its arches and adorned its walls. In face of this destruction 
it seemed to me necessary to suspend for a short time my 
diligent examination of the Acropolis to study the facts here 
coming to light but fated to vanish under the cruel hand of 
the peasant; and therefore I ask forgiveness if I interrupt 
for a moment the description of the Acropolis and lead my 
reader down into the plain, near the temple of the Pythian 
Apollo, in the locality of the " Vigles," where were discovered 
real treasures for science, and where so many others await 
future archaeologists. 

This place, called the " Vigles," owes its name to the fact 
that there the great mass of ruins, comprising the Pythion, 
the theatre, and other edifices, constitutes an actual hill, rising 
from 7 to 8 m. above the surrounding plain, which it commands 
after the fashion of a watch-tower (ySfyXa). The name is a 
Byzantine corruption of the Latin Vigilia, or station for guards ; 
and there was doubtless such a station kept here in the times 
when the Gortynian plain was exposed to the incursions of the 
Saracen and Arab corsairs, of whom we shall frequently have 
to make mention during the course of the present article. 

To make briefer my description of this smaller theatre, which 
was probably connected with the .worship of Apollo, I here add 
the plan (Fig. 6) and the section (Fig. 7), according to my 
measurements, completed according to the restoration given by 
Belli and edited by Falkener. 

Captain Spratt was not able to recognize this theatre near 
the Pythion because .of the still greater masses of ruins which, 
at the time of his visit, encumbered even more than now the 
plain of Gortyna. He only mentions it as the ruins of an 
indeterminate circular edifice, and marks it in his little plan, 
Brick-ruin. 1 

What was still visible at the time of my exploration was 
nearly the whole cavea except the two wings and the lower 
ranges of seats ; the orchestra, the stage, and the buildings 
behind it were buried beneath a field of corn which grew in 

1 Spratt, op. cit., vol. II, p. 28. 



114 



ANTONIO TAEAMELLI 



marvellous fertility on a soil all scattered over with broken 
bricks and stones. At the same time, by studying the visible 
remains along with those coming to light while the peasants 
were carrying off fine pieces of poros-stone, to employ them 
for new purposes, one may form an idea of the theatre. It is, 




G ;'.") 



r kf~ 




QORTYNA 

PLAN OF THE THEATRE. AT THE "vi&LES* NEAR THE PYTHION 



FIGURE 6. THEATRE NEAR THE PYTHION AT GORTYNA : GROUND PLAN. 
Scale in metres. 

therefore, desirable that a regular excavation should be made, 
for the thorough examination of the stage, in order to find 
proofs of the singular arrangements given by Belli in his plan. 
I ought to observe that, if even there may have once been 
a Greek theatre on this spot, contemporaneous with the con- 
structions of the Pythion, what we have now here is entirely 



GOETTNA 



115 



a Roman edifice, as we may infer both from its general plan 
and from technical and architectural peculiarities. Although 
partly hidden by the soil and destroyed, the essential elements 
were still enough preserved to enable me to gather data for 
the plan and section. 

Differing from the Acropolis theatre, which for the greater 
part was excavated in the rock, the " Vigles " theatre was 




QORTYNA 

SECTION OF THE THEATRE! AT ThELYLGLIiS' NEAR THE PYTH1ON 



FIGURE 7. THEATRE NEAR THE PYTHION AT GORTYNA : SECTION. 



completely built of masonry, as also the cavea, which has two 
zones of seats and the stage now entirely buried. 

The perimeter of the cavea is 102.00 m., and is marked by 
a massive wall 1.30 m. in thickness. Into this, as in other 
Roman theatres, open both the fauces, which give access to the 
orchestra, and the arcades which give light to the lower corri- 
dors, to the ambulacra, and to the cavea. Almost the whole 
of this powerful wall was, at a later time, despoiled of its exte- 
rior facing ; but in the places where this is partly preserved, 
one can plainly see, as in the other Roman constructions at 



116 ANTONIO TARAMELLI 

Gortyna, that it was composed of an internal nucleus of emplec- 
ton, as already described, bound from space to space by a double 
course of large bricks that served to give to the wall the neces- 
sary consistence and strength. The external face of the wall, 
on the other hand, was covered by a band of large and hand- 
some bricks disposed in rib fashion or pattern, so as to present 
a smooth surface, solid and elegant at the same time. To give 
the perimetral wall a still greater resistance to the weight of 
the internal building, it was strengthened by thick buttresses 
disposed at a medium distance of about 3 m. apart, and pro- 
jecting about 0.70 m. Between these buttresses opened the 
fauces and the arcades. 

The lower fauces, covered with vaulting from which the 
outer dressing in slabs of poros-stone had been removed, were 
buried up to the top ; but from the measurement of their width, 
2.40 m., we may suppose they were 4.70 m. in height. They 
were ten in number, on each wing of the theatre. In the cen- 
tre was an entrance, which had from its position a greater 
importance ; the ambulacrum, to which the central entrance led, 
from what I could verify by crawling on all fours between 
the ground and the ceiling, had its lateral walls dressed with 
slabs of stone alternated with the screens of brick. 

As is plainly seen in the section, all round the summa cavea, 
between the perimetral wall and the highest range of seats, 
went an ambulacrum 2.50 m. broad, which must have led by 
the various staircases to the various tiers of seats. Below this 
ambulacrum were the vaulted corridors, 6 and 4 m. high and 
1.80 m. wide, destined to facilitate circulation in the theatre, 
and to lighten the mass, of construction which supported the 
highest ambulacrum. The tiers of seats were set upon vaulted 
spaces, between pilasters ; these spaces were disposed in rays, 
and formed the skeleton of the cavea. 

Between the summa cavea and the lower ran an ambulacrum 
3 m. broad, also supported by a vaulted corridor, which I saw, 
still in excellent preservation. The difference in height be- 
tween the summa cavea and the lower is 1.80 in.; I could not 



GORTYNA 



117 



ascertain with any certainty where was the passage between 
the one and the other zone of the cavea ; by comparing it with 
other Roman theatres, and especially those of Asia Minor, we 
might be able to imagine a pair of staircases, not very wide, 
leaning against the wall of the gallery and following its curve. 
The covered corridor, which went round under this ambula- 
crum, and of which I was able to make exact measurements, 
was, as I said, well preserved in its various parts. It was the 
very beautiful blocks of poros-ston& forming the vaulted ceiling 
which attracted the greed of some peasants of the place intent 
on building their farmhouses. The walls of the ambulacrum 
appeared to be dressed with bands of bricks alternating with 
bands of stone ; entirely in stone, however, was the fine barrel- 
vaulted ceiling, which had an elevation of 2 m. and a thick- 
ness at the keystone of 1 m. 

The stones of this ceiling, which fit accurately into each other, 
bore some letters and signs which served probably either for the 
stonecutters or the masons the letters were these : M E. We 
frequently meet also with these other signs : A T. 

Not less well preserved than this passage or corridor was the 
other, which was situated at the right extremity of the cavea and 
led from the grand gallery to the orchestra. At its opening 
into the central corridor it was 2.05 m. in width and 3.80 m. 
in height, and then gradually narrowed toward the orchestra, 
following the incline of 
the steps of the cavea infe- 
rior. This passage also 
had walls of brick with 
bands of stone; strength- 
ened (as appears in the 
plan) from space to space 
by pilasters in stone. 

The joining and binding 
of one block with the other was effected, not only by great 
precision of labor, but by means of handsome bronze clamps 
and wings 15 cm. long and 5 cm. wide (Fig. 8). 






FIGURE 8. 



-BRONZE CLAMPS FROM A WALL 
NEAR THE PYTHION. 



118 ANTONIO TAEAMELLI 

These qualities, which indicate a true perfection of labor, 
would, but for the sad vicissitudes endured by this edifice, 
have handed it down to us in a marvellous state of preserva- 
tion, such as I witnessed in those portions whose fate it was 
to disappear under rude hands before my eyes. 

The orchestra and the stage, as I have said, were completely 
buried ; nor could I ascertain whether the dispositions of the 
wings and the stage attributed by Belli to this theatre really 
existed. For the rest, from the variation that I could observe 
between Belli's plan and my own, it seems that the Venetian 
traveller was not always exact, or rather had not always the 
facilities for making complete and definitive observations. I 
think, therefore, that a regular excavation in the stage and the 
portion behind it would make us acquainted with the traces of 
the building which Belli calls the "Portico." This building 
as well as the theatre of the Acropolis, as described by him, 
and the two theatres of Hierapytna remind us strikingly of 
the general scheme of the Thersilion of Megalopolis (Arcadia), 
which has been illustrated by Gardner, Dorpfeld, and others. 

THE AQUEDUCT 

But now it is time to return to the Acropolis. Close to its 
theatre already described we see the remains of a construction, 
which was destined to serve as a reservoir for water, probably 
for the use of the theatre, where fountains and jets of water 
would certainly not be wanting, according to Roman custom, 
to refresh the spectator and to cool the plants and flowers laid 
out for his delectation. 

This reservoir of water, which, however, is partly destroyed 
by the giving way of the ground, was, as appears from Fig. 10, 
a small rectangular basin about 4 m. long by 3.80 m. broad. 
The available internal space being 1.50 in. in width, the 
walls presented a thickness of 1.10 m., and were composed 
(as we have already seen in the walls of the theatres) of the 
extremely compact kernel of emplecton, protected by an exter- 
nal face of split stones, of moderate dimensions, and accurately 



GOETYNA 



119 



disposed in courses; the interior was covered with a strong 
impermeable stratum formed of mortar with pounded pottery 
strongly compressed. This system, which gave to the reser- 




FIGURES 9, 10. RESERVOIRS FOR WATER, NEAR THE THEATRE ON 
THE ACROPOLIS. 

voir the highest degree of impermeability possible, we find 
employed not only on the Acropolis of Gortyna for cisterns 
and aqueducts, but in all Cretan baths or aqueducts, as observed 
by Halbherr and by me at Lebena, and especially in the mag- 



120 ANTONIO TAEAMELLI 

nificent works connected with the aqueduct of Chersonesus also 
examined by me in the course of an exploration in Pediada. 

In the reservoir near the theatre were still visible the traces 
of a vaulted ceiling, built of bricks and about a metre thick. 
This roof was to preserve the water from evaporation and 
prevent it from feeling the action of the strong solar rays. 
Beside the ruin of this reservoir there were others, less dis- 
tinguishable ; they all stood in some relation to the theatre. 
These reservoirs were fed by an aqueduct of great dimen- 
sions, and since with these hydraulic constructions are con- 
nected all, or nearly all, the buildings which we still find on 
the slopes of the Acropolis, I think this the proper place in 
which to sum up my remarks about this important aqueduct. 
It is but imperfectly described in Spratt's work, and it bears 
comparison with the best Roman aqueducts of the East. 1 

For a city so large and extensive as was Gortyna in Roman 
times, an immense volume of water would certainly be neces- 
sary, when we consider the extreme heat in the plain and the 
hygienic and refined habits of the Roman or Romanized popu- 
lation. 

If the Greek inhabitants could content themselves with the 
scanty springs issuing from the neighboring mountain, or with 
the waters of the Lethaeus, it was not so with the Romans, who 
required an abundant supply of water. This was to be found 
only in the centre of the island, in the huge ravines of that 
great collector of humidity, the Cretan giant, Mount Ida. It 
is known that this calcareous mass is pierced in every direction 
with enormous clefts and cracks, ploughing the surface all over. 
Through these disappear the melted snow and rains, and filter 
down, to reappear at a lower level in the hills and at the foot 
of the mountain in purest and most abundant springs of water, 
which the ancients consecrated to the serene divinities of the 
streams and woods. 

1 Those of Constantinople ; Cod. Tlieod. vi. 4, 30 ; Koudelet, Addit. aux 
Comment, de Frontin, p. 42, pi. xix ; Von Hammer, Constantinopel u. Bospho- 
rus, p. 507, 7. 



GORTYNA 



121 



To one of these fountains, situated on the southern slopes of 
Ida, the Romans had recourse to supply Gortyna and the plain 
of Messara with water, in obedience to the Vitruvian precept 
of drawing water solely from the mountains. For the pur- 
pose of seeing how the plans were made for turning the water 
into the aqueduct, I betook myself to this same place, which is 
situated at about three hours from Gortyna. If my reader will 




PHAISTOS 

:' 
H Joannes 



FIGURE 11. PROBABLE COURSE or THE AQUEDUCT OF GORTYNA. 

permit me, I will lead him also thither for a short time, ascend- 
ing out of the sultry plain to rest awhile in the cool and fra- 
grant oasis of Zaro (Fig. 11). 

From the southeast declivities of the higher range of Ida 
(now called Nida by the Cretans) there spreads a copious rami- 
fication of valleys, all very steep and rich in springs, which, 
uniting together a little above the village of Courtes (a spot 
now well-known in Cretan archaeology), form a pretty abun- 
dant stream, which flows by Potamitis and Vori and falls not 



122 ANTONIO TAEAMELLI 

far from Dibaki into the gravelly and muddy malarious marshes 
of the Geropotamos. The valley, which more than the others 
winds into the heart of the chain, and cuts it most deeply, even 
to reaching the watershed of the island, is that which has for 
its chief town the smiling village of Zaro (Za/oo), composed of 
two hundred and fifty Christian houses and thirty Turkish, 
in a pleasant and healthy situation, being dominated by the 
mountain peaks and girdled with woods of pine and fir ; while 
the narrow level spaces and the first inclines are smiling with 
cultivated fields and orchards. The salubrity of the place 
and also its relative wealth are due to the very remarkable 
abundance of water. It was for just this reason that I went 
in search of the sources of the Gortynian aqueduct to Zaro, 
attracted thither by indications given me by the peasants as to 
a spring near that village called 77 ftdva rov vepov, 'the fount 
of water.' Such indications had not deceived me, since at 
thirty minutes to the north of the village, at a little distance 
from the gorge opening into the valley of Vrontisi, I found 
the locality called rj o-Tepva, where there is in fact the ancient 
cistern, still well preserved, and the spring full and abundant 
as ever. As may be seen from the plan (Fig. 11), the dis- 
tance from Zaro to Gortyna is considerable, and it is a proof 
of the wealth and influence of the city, which could supply 
itself from such a distance with an unfailing supply of purest 
water. 

At the mouth of the gorge, called from the cistern TO (frapdyyi 
n}? (rrepvas, near the torrent which escapes from it, and just at 
the back of the steep cliff, is, in an excellent state of preserva- 
tion, the edifice destined to capture and collect the water, the 
caput aquae, which I represent here in plan and section (Figs. 
12, 13 a, and 13 5). It was a rectangular construction 37 m. long 
and about 5 wide ; the height of the piscina (pool), still visi- 
ble, was 4m. It was attached, or built into the mountain by a 
spur of masonry, 0.70 m. broad, constructed to strengthen the 
building and protect it against eventual floods of the torrent. 
The edifice, solidly built, had walls 1.40 m. in thickness, in 



GOETYNA 



123 



solid emplecton, 1 laid in strata by means of double courses of 
brick; this brick dressing had in great part disappeared. It 
is a noticeable fact that the northern wall of the edifice rises 
2.30 m. higher than the south wall, which arrangement I con- 
sider to have been made to protect the roof of the cistern from 
the stones which often fell from the rocks above. And the 
effects of this natural bombardment were in several places visi- 




NA \ \ *vt ^^^%^%%!%^^ 

AwVfeP ^^r T ~* 



^ j:\^ ;J^ - -^ 



^^jT,. " ^=^B ^~ - - .. '--^ 

55=^ ^^^_T_'^^^<L_ 

,/T^e%^ ^ ' /", //L^&t. ^-^ 

* /i^^^fe^' >x ^ // > 

jt / ', j*JS~smas!m^n'i'* r s^ 
f$ 




'AA- 



FIGURE 12. THE CAPUT AQUAE: GROUND PLAN. 

ble, this kind of parapet being here and there dismantled by 
the fall of calcareous blocks, which rolled down with every 
change of weather. The roof of the caput aquae, however, 
formed of strong concrete, had resisted so effectually that it 
was not possible for me to penetrate the interior, the chan- 
nel being altogether obstructed by the trunk of a flourishing 

1 It is the construction we shall meet with so frequently in the Cretan monu- 
ments often met with in Rome and the Roman, provinces; for example, in 
the aqueduct of Merida in Spain. De Laborde, Voy. Pitt, en Espagne, p. 112, 
and pis. cl-clii. 



124 



ANTONIO TARAMELLI 



green carob tree. The form and position of this channel, 
however, were quite well denned, as it was placed in the 




FIGURE 13 a. THE CAPUT AQUAE: SECTION. 

high portion of the cistern in such a way as to serve well as 
a filter, collecting the waters already cleared and freed from 
the earth they contained in suspension. In the place where 




FIGURE 13 6. THE CAPUT AQUAE : SECTION. 

the Romans had built this vast caput aquae there now only 
flows a thin silver thread of purest water at the rate of two or 
three litres a second ; but at a few hundred metres more to the 



GOETYNA 125 

east of this point, we find, in the midst of an uncertain and 
watery soil, robed with an exuberance of flowery vegetation, 
the ancient fountain, which escaping from the bondage imposed 
upon it by man's hand, bubbles forth limpid and serene, nour- 
ishing with its cool and azure waters the privets and water- 
lilies that encircle it in a gay garland. It is in the presence of 
such springs, bursting forth beneficent and abundant in a hot 
and thirsty land, inhabited by a lively and imaginative peo- 
ple, that we can fully comprehend the power of the poetry of 
nature that fills the life of the Hellenic race. 

Even now the fountain which the peasants distinguish by 
the name of Aijudvas, from the surrounding less important 
springs, issues from the mountain limpid and quite free from 
suspended material. She leaves the calcareous grit behind 
during her subterranean course, and springs to light well 
clarified, with scarcely a trace of deposits of carbonates either 
in the aqueduct or in the various reservoirs or " castelli " 
through which lies her course. 

We have said that the mouth of the caput aquae continu- 
ally fed the aqueduct from the superficies of the volume of 
water, and not from its base ; but alas ! the first segment 
of the aqueduct immediately contiguous to the caput aquae 
had been demolished by the peasants. A few metres, how- 
ever, from that point we find the aqueduct again clinging to 
the cliff and almost completely preserved, as given here in 
Fig. 14. An extent 100 in. in length and 4.70 in height still 
presented itself, constructed in solid masonry and emplecton, 
dressed with courses of split stones. In this very powerful 
wall of more than 2 m. in thickness ran the water-channel (the 
aqueduct proper), 0.80 cm. deep and 0.50 cm. wide to 35 cm. 
at bottom. It was entirely dressed with a twofold layer of 
mortar and pounded shells, and must have been closed over 
with a low vault which, according to the rules of Pliny and 
Frontinus, protected the water from the impurities of the rain 
and the solar rays. To be sure, in this portion of the aque- 
duct the protecting roof was wanting, but the traces of it were 



126 



ANTONIO TAEAMELLI 



distinctly visible. The extreme care taken by the Romans to 
preserve the purity of the aqueducts especially to guard 
against injurious leakages into it is revealed here by a 
whole system of drainage represented in Figs. 14 and 15, 
consisting in small arched channels 0.45 cm. high and 0.60 
cm. wide, which at distances of from 20 to 25 m. from 




FIGURE 14. AQUEDUCT BETWEEN ZAR6 AND GORTYNA : WATER CHANNEL. 

each other crossed with a slight incline the line of the aque- 
duct. These little channels served to drain off the rain and 
other waters of the cliff against which the aqueduct was 
built, and which in the course of time would have damaged 
the masonry of the aqueduct. 

The aqueduct, beginning more than thirty-five kilometres 
from Gortyna, started from this smiling scene of its origin 



GOETYNA 



127 



in a southeasterly direction, crossed the valley of Zaro, and 
touched those of Panagia, Moroni, and Pluti. 

For various reasons depending on the state of the island and 
the restricted time allowed me, I was not able to follow the 
whole course of the aqueduct, which will be the object of 
future researches. We shall meet it again, however, at a few 
kilometres' distance from the upper entrance of the gloomy and 
frightful gorge which opens into the Gortynian plain. 




FIGURE 15. CHANNEL OF AQUEDUCT FROM ZARO TO GORTYNA. 

Before, however, leaving the cool valley of Zaro, I must men- 
tion that near the spring some remains exist, apparently of a 
Roman villa, as may be seen in the accompanying plan (Fig. 16). 
There was still above ground a sort of entrance passage 8 m. 
long and 5 m. broad, leading into a spacious chamber 30 m. 
long and about 9 m. wide. 

The solidity of the walls, built in solid emplecton and dressed 
in beautiful bricks disposed with the greatest accuracy, lead me 
to suppose it the villa of some rich citizen of Gortyna, where 
the beauty and salubrity of this mountain resort could not 



128 



ANTONIO TAEAMELLI 



have escaped attention ; and I recommend the site to some 
future explorers of the island as a possible field for important 
discoveries. 

If we have not been able to accompany the aqueduct along 
its whole course from Zaro to the valley of Messara, we, how- 




FIGURE 16. FOUNTAINS NEAR A ROMAN VILLA. 

ever, meet it again at the entrance of the gorge, about 500 m. 
from the Gortynian Acropolis, with a truly surprising group of 
constructions. As is seen in the sketch of the general plan 
(Fig. 17), we find the aqueduct branching off into two parallel 
watercourses, 43 m. apart from one another, along the right 



GOETYNA 



129 




130 ANTONIO TARAMELLI 

flank of the valley at a great height (about 100 m.) above the 
river a disposition necessary for conveying the water to the 
higher quarters of the city. 

From the absence of all deposits in both of the channels, we 
may venture to assert that this is one and the same aqueduct 
originating at Zaro ; and that, at a certain point which I have 
not yet been able to determine, the main line was divided into 
two parallel branches destined to supply the various parts of 
the city. 

I remarked the two aqueducts at the point where, from the 
higher slopes, they gradually descend along the side of the val- 
ley, following its curves into a little dell near the place called 
V TO /A\O, from a mill which forms a characteristic spot in the 
depth of the (papdyyt, gorge. 

Of these two aqueducts, the higher seems to have been larger 
than the other; they are, however, constructed exactly alike, 
and with the same scrupulous care to preserve the water from 
the sun's rays. Both are supported along the side of the moun- 
tain, and placed upon a ridge of the steep declivity, and con- 
structed in emplecton with the external face in split stones laid 
in courses. The channel, lined with a strong stratum of mortar 
and pounded shells (as before described), had a different form 
in the two aqueducts and in the various points in which I made 
my sections. 

The higher aqueduct has its channel mostly rectangular, 
0.65 m. in height and 56 m. in breadth, narrowing a little at 
the top. In some places, however, especially near the Acropo- 
lis and toward the mouth of some one of the reservoirs or 
pools, the channel becomes narrower and is 1 m. high, show- 
ing that peculiar section, large at the bottom and narrow at 
the top, which is found in the Roman aqueducts, and which 
is in accordance with the rules prescribed by the Roman archi- 
tects (Fig. 18). The construction of the aqueduct is 1.70 m. 
high and 1.80 m. in thickness. 

The lower aqueduct, on the other hand, preserves always the 
same section and has at least for the stretch near the Acropo- 



GOETYNA 



131 



lis the same volume of water (0.55 x 0.45 m.; see Fig. 19). 
The construction of this aqueduct for the stretch aforesaid is 
only 1.10 m. in height and about 1 m. broad; but it is to be 
noticed that it was this lower aqueduct which, as we shall see, 
had for the most part to supply the many sluices that fed the 
lower quarters of the city ; hence, in its earlier course, it would 
be considerably larger. 

Both the aqueducts had the channels covered in masonry for 
the above-mentioned purposes. At some points were evident 




FIGURE 18. SECTION OF THE AQUEDUCT (UPPER). 

repairs made at epochs of lesser prosperity and with greatly 
inferior work. 

As is seen in the plan given (Fig. 17) and from Fig. 20, one 
of the most remarkable works of the Gortynian aqueduct was 
a great siphon : a fine application of the principle of equilib- 
rium of liquids well known to Roman hydraulists, and largely 
applied in the aqueducts of the Campagna and the Provinces. 1 

From the aqueduct starts, perpendicularly to its axis, a chan- 
nel, resembling it as to section and dressing, which after the 

1 The aqueducts of Patara, Texier, Desc de VAsie Mineure, III, p. 224, 
pi. clxxix ; also aqueducts of Lugdunum (Lyons) ; Bonardet, Add. aux Com- 
ment, de Frontin, etc. 



132 



ANTONIO TARAMELLI 



course of little more than a metre enters a chamber, 3.20 m. 
wide and certainly more than 3 m. long, constructed in emplecton 
varied by courses of bricks, and dressed externally with bricks 
and internally with the usual impermeable lining. From this 
chamber, certainly destined to collect the water and give it the 
needful pressure to make the spring across the gorge and to rise 
again to the same height on the opposite ascent, the aqueduct 
turned off, descending a very steep incline for a space of 11 m. 




FIGURE 19. SECTION OF THE AQUEDUCT (LOWER). 

It is to be noted that besides this conduit which detaches itself 
from the aqueduct, there was another (Fig. 20), which about 
10 m. higher up left the aqueduct in an oblique direction to 
join the descending channel, perhaps for the purpose of dimin- 
ishing the pressure of the water on the walls of the siphon. 
After this stretch of sheer descent, the aqueduct has a more 
level course, in which the channel presents in the plan some 
angles and curves intended to arrest the impetuosity of the 
water that comes from a distance, and from higher levels in 
a closed channel, at a naturally ever increasing speed. 



GORTYNA 



133 



The aqueduct afterwards begins the descent again, but very 
gradually ; the channel is elevated for a space of 9 m. as the 
mountain descends, until the aqueduct reaches a height of 5 m. 
along the road which skirts the gorge, a road that certainly 





FIGURE 20. PLAN OF THE SIPHON IN THE AQUEDUCT NEAR THE LETHAEUS. 

followed the line of a very ancient way, along which this water- 
course reared its massive pile, which was strong enough to defy 
with impunity the enormous pressure of the water at this point, 
and far more effectually than the strongest metal conduit system 
could have done. 

Skirting this kind of pile it passes the present mule path 



134 ANTONIO TABAMELLI 

to Rafti ; and as from certain substructions and foundations 
recognizable lower down, we may suppose that this path 
follows the line of an ancient road, there is little doubt that at 
this point the siphon had an arch, now destroyed, under which 
the road passed. After the interruption by the mule path of 
about 8 m., we see a stretch of the aqueduct of some metres 
reaching the edge of the torrent, which runs here imprisoned 
between steep banks about 20 m. high. Notwithstanding all 
my researches in the depths of the gorge, I was quite unable 
to discover whether the aqueduct made a sheer descent at this 
spot to the bed of the stream, to reascend to its own level 
again, or whether it spanned the gorge with a bold arch 25 m. 
broad. This supposition does not seem to me tenable, because 
even allowing for the great and continual force of the torrent, 
some traces of the viaduct and fragments of the arch would 
have surely remained in the bed of the stream. But not to 
lose time in conjectures, and keeping to facts, we must ob- 
serve that on, the left bank of the gorge, opposite the pile on 
the right, the channel of the aqueduct is again seen in the 
steep wall of rock, ascending toward a chamber placed almost 
at an equal height with the siphon. Alas ! the denudation of 
that precipitous rock, totally divested of vegetation, left me 
without possibility of foothold to examine that part of the 
siphon accurately. It was at the same time quite plain that 
the aqueduct from that chamber, ever clinging to the flank of the 
mountain, proceeded with a slow and regular decline along the 
whole gorge in front of the Acropolis; until having reached 
the mouth of the valley it bent suddenly eastward, gliding close 
to the hill, and thus becoming a kind of general provider from 
which detached themselves the various conduits for supplying 
the villas and the quarter situated in the region now occupied 
by the village of H. Deca. In this section, the aqueduct, 
known to the peasants with the name of /cajjiapd/aa, and di- 
rected toward the east, was a construction about 1.70 m. high 
and the same in breadth, with a channel 0.50 m. wide by 
65 cm. high. Figure 21, here subjoined, gives a section of 



GOETYNA 



135 



a portion of this aqueduct in the plain, situated near the 
church of St. Titus, and probably destined to bring the water 
to a large group of buildings, called the Megali Porta, and 
which for various reasons I am inclined to think the Thermae 
of the city. But let us return to the gorge. After the ruins 
of the siphon, the aqueduct in its twofold course passes near 
the ruins of a little Byzantine chapel, which, built of fragmen- 
tary material and near the mule path, is supported on evident 
traces of ancient foundation walls (Fig. 22). We advance 
then (the two branches of the aqueduct always approaching 




f\ 



FIGURE 21. THE AQUEDUCT ON LEVEL GROUND. 



nearer) into the valley of the pvd/ci, which skirts the Acropolis 
on the northwest, ascending it almost entirely near the point at 
which the hill of the Acropolis joins the mountain. At this 
point, the two lines of aqueduct approach very near, the one 
remaining, however, about 5 m. lower than the other, and cross- 
ing the valley here also with a siphon bridge, of less grand 
dimensions, however, than that already described. 

Here also the structure is much ruined; but the right 
shoulder of the bridge, or viaduct, is visible for a space of 
7 m. in length by 3 m. in width, with 4 m. in height; con- 
structed as usual in emplecton with facings of split stones, 
and the open arches of the viaduct regularly disposed. 



136 



ANTONIO TAEAMELLI 



Along the other side of the pvdxi, but about 5 m. lower, as 
already said, is the other branch, distant 12 m. from the right 
one; built as usual of emplecton and dressed with alternate 
strata of stones and bricks; of this branch portions of the 
arch built with large bricks were still visible. Although 
12 m. did not make too vast a span for the arch of a Roman 
engineer (that across the river Lys on the road to Summum 




FIGURE 22. PLAN OF A RUINED BYZANTINE CHURCH NEAR THE LETHAEUS. 

Poeninum in the Val d' Aosta, is more than twice as wide, 
30.50 m.), I must say that in the present case it was but 
small, and that the aqueduct spanned the pvd/a with two 
arches of about 5 m. each, resting on a pile of about 2 m. 
in thickness. 

As the left pile, lower than the other, carries the channel of 
the lower aqueduct, while the right pile bears the traces of the 
upper channel, we may assume that the bridge had two stories, 
either obtained by a second row of arches built above the first, 



GOETYNA 137 

or by an elevation supported upon the lower arcade, as is fre- 
quently the case in the aqueducts of the Roman provinces. 1 

On the declivity of the Acropolis, we find the traces of a 
new forking of the aqueduct : two arms, bent first toward the 
northeast point of the Acropolis, make another turn in the 
gorge and coast the eastern side ; the other branch bends 
southwards, skirting the western slope of the Acropolis, and 
then sinks with a rapid incline toward that part of the city 
situated west of the Lethaeus, where now are the fields of 
Ambelouso. This section of aqueduct in one point below the 
Acropolis passes into the ground for about a hundred metres, 
keeping at a depth of from 8 m. to 12 m., and this for the 
purpose of avoiding a spur of the Acropolis. In this tract 
of cuniculus (subterranean conduit) is still visible and well 
preserved one of the wells which, as prescribed by hydraulic 
rules, served for ventilating the underground channel. 2 The 
well (Fig. 23) in quadrate section, at the mouth measuring 
1.50 m., is 12 m. deep, reaching the channel, which I have 
been able to follow for 45 m. in the plain until it again 
ascended to the surface. The well was accurately built in 
split stones, and in the portions nearer the surface was re- 
stored at a less ancient date, as it served the peasants for 
drawing up water from a spring which followed, and still fol- 
lows, this underground passage excavated by the hand of man. 

The two parallel channels which make the round of the 
Acropolis, entering the horrid gorge, are in many places 
cracked and broken from the steepness of the rock ; and 
their course is therefore quite visible, as well as their con- 
struction. 

The upper aqueduct, although its whole course can be fol- 
lowed upon the slopes of the Acropolis and its formation 
studied, is the one which has suffered most from the action 

1 Examples of double lines of arches : Segovia, Gomez de Sammasuta, El 
Agueducto de Segovia, Madrid, 1820 ; Canina, Arch. Bom. p. clxvi ; that of 
Tarragona, Laborde, Voy. Pitt, en Espagne, I, p. 32; Gard, near Nimes, 
Menard, Hist. Ant. Nismes, p. 69. 

2 Pliny, Nat. Hist, xxxi, 31 ; Vitruv. viii, 7. 



138 



ANTONIO TAEAMELLI 



of time and the conditions of the soil. But if it is badly 
preserved, there are, on the other hand, quite visible some 
constructions connected with it. One of these is a vast rec- 
tangular enclosure formed by a stout wall, of the thickness of 
2 m., with the external facing of stones carefully disposed 
and based upon a kind of step in larger stones, and for the 
most part buried. 'Toward the interior the wall of this vast 
chamber was about 2 m. high, with a kind of stone bench, 




FIGURE 23. WELL INTO THE AQUEDUCT NEAR THE ACROPOLIS. 

0.70 m. broad, running all round at the half height of the 
wall. From the traces which were visible without attempt- 
ing excavations, the whole floor was laid down with an imper- 
meable pavement ; it is certain that at the distance of 8 m. 
the upper aqueduct was visible in this direction. Above the 
northwest wall of this chamber was founded the wall defend- 
ing the Acropolis, of which we shall speak farther on, and the 
ruins of which had invaded our ground. As there was no 
trace of any roof, this could not have been a reservoir for 
water; but there had probably been an exedra for gymnastic 



GOETYNA 



139 



exercises in Greek and Roman ages upon this hill, and here 
might have been the swimming-bath for the youths of Gor- 
tyna in connection with it. After this piscina the upper 
aqueduct proceeded toward the west, and then south, but 
the remains are only visible for a short distance. 

Also for reservoirs were destined two buildings, which are 
connected with the lower aqueduct. They are of lesser dimen- 
sions than the above, but of equally perfect execution. 

Another chamber, situated about 0.50 m. southeast of the 
theatre, 3.50 x 3.50 m. square, and 1 m. above ground, was 
so well preserved with its internal coating as to be still quite 
fit to use as a bath. 

Along with all these hydraulic studies I must also place this 
fragmentary Roman inscription, found in a stable of the vil- 
lage of H. Deca, where it does duty as the architrave of the 
door. The stone is calcareous, of the island ; the greatest 
height of the portion preserved is 0.52 m. ; width, 0.35 m. 
Size of letters, 0.04 m. 



for 

OM/I -A 
SQDEADN 




Au~\relius 

A]ntoninus 

t]rib. pot . . . 

viam a . . . 

usque ad nym[phaeum~\ 

ex pecuni . . . 

atqu~]e aedic 

iussit 



From the epigraphic characters such inscription would seem 
to refer to Elagabalus (A.D. 218-222), because his title was 



140 ANTONIO TABAMELLI 

precisely Imp. Caesar M. Aurelius Antoninus, and his sympa- 
thies for the Oriental provinces of the empire are well known. 
From the context of the inscription it would seem to relate to 
a road, made by order of the Emperor, which led from a given 
point to a nymphaeum. Given the enormous quantities of 
ruins still unexplored in the plain of Gortyna, it is quite out- 
side our present business to inquire as to which of these the 
nymphaeum of the inscription would be applicable. 

II. THE FORTIFICATIONS OF THE ACROPOLIS 

The idea of an Acropolis naturally leads us to think of a 
wall of defence behind which the garrisons sheltered them- 
selves ; for no matter how strong a position may be in itself, 
a strengthening of the weak points was never neglected in the 
acropoleis or fortresses of all places and all times, as in Aero- 
Corinth, Chateau Gaillard, Suse, and the entrenched camps 
that surround the historic heights of Rivoli. 

The hill also of H. loannis is surrounded near the summit by 
a girdle of wall, in part demolished, but the line of which it is 
still quite possible to follow, as is given in the general plan of 
the Acropolis (see Fig. 3), and from the various sketches 
added here. 

As the hill of 'the Acropolis (as already said) rises with a 
continuous ascent, and has at the summit but a circumscribed 
tract of level ground, almost a great " ass's back " or convex- 
ity, it is evident that the wall of circumvallation must be 
always built close to the steep edge of the Acropolis, and hence 
exposed, like other edifices, as already mentioned, to the crum- 
bling of the rock. Examining the general plan of the walls, it 
is certainly possible to form a clear idea of their course ; it will 
be proper here to add some touches and some reflections upon 
the particulars of the wall itself and its mode of construction, 
the only data which can serve us for ascertaining approxi- 
mately the epoch to which we can carry it back. 

The wall of circumvallation of the Acropolis has a circuit of 



GOETYNA 141 

about 500 m. ; it is hence a not indifferent circuit, nor less 
than that of various ancient castles or strongholds. In general 
this wall marks the point at which the sides of the Acropolis 
fall sheer down from that convex back which forms the summit 
of it, and they have hence a not easily accessible front turned 
everywhere to the enemy, according to the military principle 
adopted in all ages, to render the approach of the assailants as 
difficult as possible. 

Commencing our circuit from the northern extremity of the 
Acropolis, we perceive the wall of circumvallation, for a space 
of 33 m., rising from the ground at the medium height of 
5.50 m. to 6.10 m. at the highest point, and with a thickness 
of more than 2 m. For this length the wall still preserves, in 
part, its exterior facing of great blocks of poros-stone, well 
squared and carefully placed, derived, as we shall see later, 
from other preexisting buildings, demolished either before or 
on occasion of the erection of this defence ; however, great 
part of this outer facing has fallen, the lower part of the wall 
having been stripped, either during a siege, or more proba- 
bly by the peasants in search of material for their huts in the 
plain. With a sudden angle at the northwest extremity, an 
angle which almost indicates the vertex of the great triangle 
formed by the Acropolis, the wall turns toward west-south- 
west, rising from a rather broader base than the rest of the 
wall, to a height of more than 4.50 m., for a stretch of about 
23 m., in which were still preserved in part both the outer 
dressings in great blocks of poros-stone, which enclosed the 
kernel of diamicton or emplecton. 

After this section of 23 m., the wall on the west side has an 
interruption ; its course, however, is quite visible. From the 
traces remaining, a sharp drawing-in of the line of wall is 
perceptible, following the shape of the hill. At 70 m. from 
the northwest angle we come upon the wall again for a space 
of 13 m., but only the internal formation is preserved; and, 
after a long gap of about 40 m., where only a few traces are 
left, we come again upon the wall, well preserved and of a 



142 



ANTONIO TAEAMELLI 



medium height of 4 m., which runs with a slight bend eastward 
for a space of about 26 m. After this we come upon a sort of 
large tower, projecting 7.50 m. from the line of wall, with a 
front of about 10 m. This kind of tower, the base of which 
is formed by a spur of the mountain, is only preserved in its 
lower portions for 3 m. or 4 m. of the height, and hence we 
cannot tell whether an actual tower was here erected, with 
upper floors, or whether this was merely a projection of the 




FIGURE 24. VIEW OF THE POLYGONAL BASTION (FROM THE NORTH). 

wall of circumvallation to strengthen the angle which here 
presented itself. 

From this kind of tower the wall, always visible and elevated 
some metres above ground, directs itself toward the south with 
an oblique line, dominating the weak point of the Acropolis ; 
that is to say, where the declivity of the hill is least abrupt, 
and where it joins on to the neighboring mountain. At this 
point the wall presented a tower, in form of an irregular poly- 
gon, forming a projecting spur, almost a bastion, of the maxi- 
mum height, still preserved, of 6 in. This tower, the sketch 
of which I here give (Fig. 24), consists of a stout mass of 



GOETYNA 143 

masonry, 2.90 m. in thickness, made in the usual manner, and 
faced externally with regular bands of small split stones. In the 
lower part, however, project from the ground courses of stones 
of greater dimensions, forming a strong basement. This large 
tower encloses in its interior a chamber 5.20 m. in length by 
3.40 m. wide, with walls curved toward the outside. Traces 
of the vaulted roof are still visible, which collapsed inter- 
nally. These ruins and the giving way of the soil outside 
the wall prevent us from discovering the mode of access to 
this tower chamber, which might also have been a reservoir 
for water. 

From this point the wall took a direction toward the south- 
west angle, whence suddenly it turned eastward, still supported 
on the precipitous flank of the Acropolis. The southern front, 
scarcely visible any longer above ground, was rectilinear, with- 
out projections of any kind. This was a point at which the 
Acropolis dropped sheer down several metres, and this natural 
rock fortress is crowned with the wall of circumvallation, which 
at no time needed to be very high in this place. 

Having reached the southeast angle, the wall skirts the great 
reservoir, mentioned on p. 118, above which it rears itself nearly 
5m., presenting a face overlaid with large and fine slabs and 
blocks of poros, as well as architectural elements of the most 
varied kinds, not to mention fragments of inscriptions. Scarcely 
past the grand reservoir, the wall continues along the east- 
ern side of the hill with a broken line, somewhat drawing in- 
ward (see Fig. 3), until it comes round to the northeast front, 
whence we started. 

In this portion of its course the wall of circumvallation 
presents neither towers nor other works of defence, but is, in 
almost all its parts, composed of a double line, one lower than^ 
the other, as if intended for additional support, carefully built 
with blocks of equal dimensions ; these were apparently ter- 
race walls of the good Roman period, used later to strengthen 
the wall of circumvallation, and can be easily followed, al- 
though scarcely above ground, and almost everywhere built, 



144 ANTONIO TAEAMELLI 

especially the exterior portions, of handsome stones of regular 
cut and arrangement. 

Though it is possible to follow nearly the whole circuit 
of the wall, it escaped me where the gate of access to the 
enclosure defended by that wall could have been placed, 
especially as no traces remain anywhere of works for the 
defence of a gate ; still, I am inclined to think, from reasons 
I shall give later, that the entrance was from the southern 
side, by means of an inclined plane cut in the rock itself. 
Similarly, the special provisions for defending the wall escaped 
me, such as the path for the patrols and the parapet, since 
along the whole line of circumvallation the upper portions 
are utterly lost. 

The line of the walls having been examined, it remains for us 
to consider somewhat more fully their construction and plan, 
that we may arrive, if possible, at a conclusion as to the epoch 
when these walls were erected. As I was able to remark in the 
portions of the line still preserved, for example, on the north 
front or at the square tower, or in the front above the grand 
reservoir, the wall was composed, according to what we see 
in a great number of ancient buildings, externally, of large and 
coarse materials irregularly arranged, while the internal por- 
tions consisted of stones carefully cut and well placed, which, 
from the steep declivity of the ground, are nearly always out 
of sight. The kernel of the wall is composed of an emplecton, 
or rubbish-work of the most ill-matched elements, pebbles, 
stones, broken pieces of marble and pottery, architectural 
fragments, all bound in abundant and exceedingly viscous 
mortar (Fig. 25). This mortar is so strong that not only has 
the emplecton resisted in places where the whole external fac- 
ing has been broken off, but also where the lower courses are 
wanting, some of the stones are actually held together by the 
mortar itself. This emplecton, unlike the method followed in 
the edifices of the best Roman period, a splendid example of 
which outside Rome remains in the Cinta Augustea of Turin 
(Augusta Taurinorum), is not regularly laid in strata, divided 



GOETYNA 



145 



by courses of stone or bricks which serve to bind the wall, 
as in the walls of the theatre of the " Vigles," in the greater 
part of the Roman buildings at Gortyna, and elsewhere, 1 
but it forms a whole compact mass, as in the walls of Per- 
gamon and other cities of Asia Minor. 2 In this body, which 
was naturally formed by degrees as the two facings rose, there 
is now and then some great block of the external covering 
which penetrates inward more than the rest, thus serving to 




FIGURE 25. SECTION OF THE CIRCUIT WALL OF THE ACROPOLIS. 

bind and consolidate this emplecton, on which depended the 
greater resistance of the wall. 

The two spaces in which are still preserved in great part 
the facings or coatings, are the north front and that of the 
west ; but also in other points of the circumvallation the 
process is manifest of applying to the outer side of the wall 
all the larger blocks of stone which we had the fortune to find 
in the Acropolis itself. And that all these were material de- 

1 Durm, Handbuch der Architectur : die Baukunst der Romer, pp. 140 ff. 

2 Fabricius, ' Eine Pergamenische Landstadt,' Athen. Mitth. XI, p. 6. 






146 ANTONIO TARAMELLI 

rived from other buildings can be seen, not only from examin- 
ing all their elements and architectural fragments, but also 
from the fact that the greater number of the stones, also on the 
sides built up in the wall, presented that beautiful warm tint 
acquired by this stone in the sun's rays, which could cer- 
tainly not have been the effect of its long sojourn in the inside 
of the wall of circumvallation. 

Examining one portion of the line of wall where the facing 
is most preserved, as on the east side near the reservoir (pis- 
cina^, we perceived, among the other architectural elements 
there walled in, a great block of jt?on?s-stone, constituting the 
roof of a small aedicula. As it was split in two, the section 
was visible which presented the form of the tympanum, with 
an elegant profile ; at a little distance were met with pieces of 
little fluted columns of the same material belonging, probably, 
to the same aedicula. Embedded in the same wall near the 
vertex of the triangle I found a terminus, or cippus, in poros- 
stone, which bore on its surface some signs scratched with the 
compass about which I cannot decide whether they were the 
work of some idler or of an architect. Thus, also, near 
the northeast angle of the Acropolis, I found a fine frag- 
ment of the frieze of a Doric cornice, perhaps belonging to 
the same edifice, with its guttae well preserved, with its lions' 
faces sculptured in fine work, which I here present, along with 
the Latin inscriptions, in Fig. 26. And likewise continuing 
along this east front and the north front of the circumvalla- 
tion, it was easy to distinguish amongst the walled-in masses 
the various portions, almost the disjecta membra of other 
monuments, so that we are induced to think that the build- 
ers of this line of walls, like the engineers of Aurelian at Rome, 
made up their minds to use for their works of defence what- 
ever material came to hand from the demolition of the build- 
ings in their way as they traced the line of wall, thus saving 
themselves the carriage of bricks and stones from a distance. 
This remark, made by Lanciani and others as regards Rome, is 
equally applicable to the Acropolis of Gortyna, and it may per- 



GORTYNA 147 

haps assist us in imagining for the construction of this modest 
work of defence a cause not less urgent and terrible than 
that which counselled the provision of Aurelian with respect 
to the capital of the Empire. We are therefore very far 
from the epoch in which Gortyna could aspire to the Homeric 
title of reixLoeacra ; instead of that we are in an epoch of great 
decadence, contemporaneous with, or perhaps subsequent to, 
the fall of the Roman Empire. This is confirmed also by the 
presence of the epigraphic material which I could discover shut 
up in the walls, and which, perhaps, is but a small portion 
of what still remains hidden there. 

The epigraphic fragments found in various places on the 
walls, or enclosed within them, are the following, which I here 
reproduce, although insignificant for the greater part, in 
order that they may throw some light on the question. 

(1) In the eastern wall, near the piscina, a block of poros- 
stone, irregular in shape and the surface much corroded, about 
0.50 x 0.60 m. in dimensions, has these letters, 0.15 cm., much 
erased : 




(2) Fragment of a />0r0s-stone slab decorated above with an 
elegant module, in which were traces of a colored ornament in 
azure and brown (perhaps once red). This fragment was a 
portion of a sepulchral monument, and measures 0.32 m. high, 
0.72 m. long, 0.26 m. in thickness; the letters, elegant, api- 
cated, and well cut, are 0.042 m. high, and show traces of red 

coloring. 

AEINOKAH 

SQMENQ 



It was walled in on the north front of the circumvallation. 



148 



ANTONIO TAKAMELH 



(3) Walled into the north front near the northwest angle 
is the following block of poros-stone bearing part of a metri- 
cal inscription. The inscribed face of this block measures 
0.92 m. in length and 0.35 m. in height by a thickness of 
more than 0.60 m. The letters, partly obliterated, have the 
height of 0.055 m. 



i^OYNEKAKEKPOTTIAAIME 
ANEAAHNE^TE^EBQNA 

YNKAEINOMS1 
^A NAT A A M ATTATP! ! 




We have here what remains of a dedication of an agonistic sub- 
ject, in three hexameters and one pentameter. I am indebted to 
Professor Comparetti for much light on the fragment and for 
the restorations here offered. The inscription treats of a cer- 
tain Sebon, who was proclaimed victor in the public games at 
Athens (and elsewhere), and, perhaps, at Olympia, in Pan- 
Hellenic contests. It is impossible to determine in what 
special events he was victorious, whether in wrestling, in 
the pancratium, or in some other event, and I cannot there- 
fore attempt definitively to restore the first two verses. The 
second and third verses are so mutilated that they afford even 
less ; we do not know whether the subject of o-rrjcrav is Ke/cpo- 
Trt&u, Hav\\7)ves being in a different sentence. As a possi- 
bility, the following restoration is offered : 



/ca . 



(?) pev aed\(t)v~\ ovveica Ke/cp07riSai p 

.] Have\\rfvei re 2e/3&>m 
Toprvvicov acrrjet avv K\eivo [/z,a^ot<rt (?) 



ica 



(4) Fragment of a votive altar or sepulchral monument 
in poros (Fig. 26) ; dimensions of the portion preserved, 
0.85 m., length; 0.51 m,, breadth; thickness, 0.30 m. The 
inscribed face presents at the top a cornice, 0.09 m. in height, 
and a lower one, 0.27 m. high. The stone has been sawn on 



GOETYNA 



149 



both sides ; and besides that, the right side, along its whole 
length below the inscription, shows a concavity, about which 
I could not decide whether it was originally hollowed out 
or was clue to a secondary use of the stone before its insertion 




S PHI LODE 
F- ET-VITV 
AG N V S - E T - V 
FIGURE 26. FRAGMENTS FROM THE WALL OF THE ACROPOLIS OF GORTYNA. 

in the wall. The letters of the inscription, originally colored 
in red, are in the first line 0.07 m. high, in the other two 0.06 m. 
This inscription is too fragmentary for restoration. The form 
of the letters, traced with singular elegance and care, seems to 
belong to the epoch between the Antonines and the Severi. 1 

1 Htibner, Exempla Script* Epig. fig. 79 seq. ; Cagnat, Cours d" 1 fipigraphie 
Latine, 3d ed. pi. i. 



150 ANTONIO TAEAMELLI 

These fragmentary inscriptions, insignificant as to their 
contents, offer us a terminus post quern: we may maintain 
that the circumvallation about which we are occupied must 
be ascribed to an age posterior to that of the Severi ; and, 
as we may suppose, to a time when the monuments of the 
Greek and imperial epochs were either already in ruins, 
or were, for some serious danger, or necessity of defence, 
thrown down to furnish material for the defenders of the 
Acropolis. 

In my opinion, this second hypothesis is the one to be pre- 
ferred, because the material employed does not seem to have 
suffered from atmospheric action, except on the face exposed 
to the sun in its original collocation. Another proof of the 
haste in which the work of demolition was carried on, along 
with the construction of the line of circumvallation, we have 
in the fact that many masses forcibly disjoined from their 
neighbors still preserve, in the appropriate hollows, the bronze 
clamps which united the blocks. It was the search after these 
bronze clamps, practised in epochs of great public distress, 
which caused the demolition of so many ancient buildings. 

And the occasions of threatened invasion, and consequent 
terror to the inhabitants of Gortyna, must have been frequent 
during the decline of the Roman Empire and under the 
Byzantine rule. Perhaps some more precise indications can 
be furnished us from considering the circumvallation itself. 

In fortresses of the good Roman period, situated upon 
mountain summits, we see the tendency to follow with the 
vallum (or trench) the circuit of the hill, in such a way as to 
have an irregular line of wall, and not in conformity with the 
traditional Roman type of the castrum ; here, however, in the 
Gortynian circuit of walls, we see applied several principles 
which are not found in towns belonging to the Greek and 
Roman world save at a given epoch and after contact with a 
determined military civilization. 

The broken lines, the acute angles destined to render less 
extended the rectilinear lines of the circumvallation, belong to 



GOETYNA 151 

the inheritance of military art in the Greek cities from their 
earliest origin. 

Setting aside the numerous proofs furnished by the excava- 
tions of the Mycenaean acropoleis of Tiryns, of Mycenae, of 
Troy, of Gha near Lake Copais, we can multiply the com- 
parisons of Hellenic and Hellenistic epochs ; broken lines are 
those of the fortifications of Athens, of Colophon, of Notion, 1 
of lasos. 2 Similarly very frequent is the application of the 
rectangular projections or towers, advancing more or less 
beyond the line, which are principally directed to strike the 
flank of the enemy advancing toward the foot of the wall. It 
is the system of all the Greek and Roman fortifications which 
we find applied in the defences of the colonies and of the vari- 
ous limites, and which takes its full development in the Aure- 
lian walls and in those of Constantinople ; where indeed the 
number of such rectangular projections or towers becomes 
exceedingly great. 3 

But the spur or polygonal bastion, dominating the weakest 
part of the Acropolis, is a fact less in keeping with the Graeco- 
Roman provisions of defence a fact in which we already find 
implicated the principle of abolishing dead angles, which is 
a principle exclusively oriental. The polygonal form which 
allows the defender to fight the enemy at all points, whether 
front or flank (according to Dieulafoy), we have to recognize 
at a very remote period in Assyria, a country of almost exclu- 
sively military civilization, whence it must have passed into all 
the countries anciently in contact with her. It is through this 
Assyrian influence that Dieulafoy explains some fortresses in 
the Upper Nile Valley, which at first sight would seem to belong 
to the post-Roman or Caliph era, so much do they resemble our 
fortifications of Gortyna ; but which instead must be ascribed 
to the conqueror of the Assyrians, Tuthmosis. This principle 

1 Schuchhardt, 'Colophon, Notion, Klaros,' Athen. Mitth. xi, p. 402. 

2 Fried. Walter, 'lasos,' Athen. Mitth. xiv, p. 137, figs. 1-4; Curtius, Stadt- 
gesch. Athens, pi. iv. 

3 Lanciani, op. cit., p. 68 ; Texier-Pullan, Byzantine Architecture, Military 
and Domestic Arch., pp. 23-54. 



152 



ANTONIO TAEAMELLI 



of defence passed later on from the Assyrians to the Persians, 
and from these crossed to the Parthians and the empire of the 
Sassanides ; then reached the Second Persian Empire, which 
transmitted it to the Byzantines. And the Byzantines, together 
with the other principle of multiplex lines of defence, of deep, 
wide trenches, applied widely the precepts of the military art 
learned from their terrible adversaries, in all those military 

works which, beginning 
with Justinian, the vari- 
ous emperors of the East 
initiated not only along 
all the frontiers of the 
Danube, Caucasus, the 
Euphrates, but in all 
the greater centres of 
the vast and declining 
Roman dominion. The 
fortifications of Trebi- 
zond, of Nicaea, of 
Thessalonica, of Con- 
stantinople, 1 show a step 
in advance compared 
with those of Rome, and 
present, instead of the 
jutting-out round towers, 
and the sharp angles, the 
principle inherited from 
the Persians to multiply 
the lines of obstacle to the assailant, to abolish dead angles where 
the enemy with slight loss could effect the approach to the walls. 2 
So that, admitting these considerations, suggested to me by 
Dieulafoy's important work upon Persian military art and the 

1 Dieulafoy, UAcrppole de Suse, pp. 202, 232, 442 ; Texier-Pullan, Byzan- 
tine Architecture, pp. 23, 24. 

2 Dieulafoy, CMteau Gaillard, etc., p. 352 ; Choisy, Hist, de r Architecture 
(Paris, 1899), I, pp. 147 ff. 




FIGURE 27. PLAN OF THE FORT OF KOUM- 
MEH IN EGYPT. (FROM DIEULAFOY, 
Acropole de Suse.) 



GOETYNA 



153 



influence it exercised upon neighboring nations, we can fairly 
ascribe this fortification of Gortyna to the times when the 
terrible incursions of the Scythians and Persians became gen- 
eral along the frontiers of the empire, and Justinian gave orders 
for the fortifying of all the strong places ; but the imperial 
troops not sufficing to defend such an extended line, territorial 
militia were created who had 
the charge of fortifying and 
defending the internal cities of 
Greece, the islands, Asia Minor, 
and the Archipelago. 1 There- 
fore the Gortynian fortress 
would represent this period in 
the life of the Empire of the 
East, when the alarm spread 
through the city for the urgen- 
tia imperil fata, and they had 
to provide for the defence of 



life and property, erecting with 
everything that came to hand 
a line of defence on the sum- 
mit of the hill of H. loannis. 
But the destruction of so 
many buildings and monu- 
ments of the classic and Roman 
age for the erection of this line FIGURE 28. 
of circumvallation may also 
have been the work of the 




FORT OF KOM-OMBO IN 
EGYPT. (FROM DIEULAFOY, Acro- 
poledeSuse . } 



Arabs; when, the attempt against Constantinople in 674 A.D. 
having failed, they succeeded in surprising and occupying Crete, 
making of it the centre of their incursions all over the Aegean 
Sea. 2 But we must keep in mind that the Arabs, in their contact 
with the Persians, learned the same principles of military art, 

1 Amm. Marcellinus, XVIII, 10 ; XIX, 2, 5, 8 ; XX, 6, 7 ; Hertzberg, Gesch. 
der Byzant. und des Osmanischen Reichs, p. 13. 

2 Hertzberg, op. tit., p. 58. 



154 ANTONIO TABAMELLI 

of which the Byzantines had already taken advantage ; and it is 
known how Mohammed, in fortifying Medina, had availed him- 
self of the work of the Persian Selmari, and that after him all 
the caliphs and sultans had in their armies a corps of Persian 
" sappers and miners " and engineers, 1 to whose famous work 
are due the marvellous fortress of Aleppo 2 and so many others 
in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt ; from whom came so wide a 
stream of instruction to the crusaders of the West. 3 The for- 
tress of Gortyna may have been the entrenched camp of this 
first Arab occupation in the seventh century, unless we should 
ascribe it to the period of the second Arab occupation of the 
island, which happened during the civil war occasioned by the 
usurpation of Thomas (823-826 A.D.), when the Caliph Habu- 
Hafs-Omar, at the head of his Andalusians, occupied Crete, 
which became for more than a century the resort of daring 
Andalusian, Syrian, and Egyptian corsairs, who with their 
continual piratic expeditions kept up a real blockade of the 
Aegean. This was the period of Crete's deepest desolation ; 
that is to say, the period when the tyranny of these brutal and 
warlike hordes effected the greatest diminution of the Christian 
population, and the widest destruction of the monuments of 
the Graeco-Roman and Byzantine civilization. If we think of 
this long, cruel period of Saracen domination, and of their des- 
perate resistance to the attacks of Nicephorus Phocas, who in 
961 won back the island of Crete to the empire, we may well 
imagine also that beneath these walls must have taken place 
some episode of that campaign which constitutes one of the 
greater glories of Nicephorus Phocas ; and a true glory because 
he withdrew the unhappy island for seven centuries from the 
Mussulman yoke, the terrible scourge which only recently 
is forever, God willing, removed from the land of Minos. 

1 Dieulafoy, Chateau Gaillard, p. 357, passim ; Aboulfeda, Hist. Arab, des 
Croises, p. 272. 

2 Girault de Pranzey, Monum. Arab. torn, xlviii ; cf. Prisse d' Avenues, Art 
Arabe, I, vi. 

8 Dieulafoy, op. cit. ; cf. Rey, tftude sur les Man. de VArchit. militaire des 
Croises, p. 47. 



GOETYNA 



155 



The elevated position of the Acropolis, protected by the wall 
of circumvallation, was occupied by the ruins of an imposing 
edifice, ruins called by the peasants TO Kao-rpi, and 
which we find summarily indicated in the view of Tournefort 
and in Spratt's plan of Gortyna, by the name of guard-house or 
prison. From the plan I here subjoin (Fig. 29), if compared 
with Spratt's, it is easy to form an idea how from Spratt's epoch 
down to our own, the building has fallen into increasingly ruin- 
ous condition, especially in its southern parts, and is now so 
filled up with rubbish as to render it quite impossible for the 
traveller of to-day to draw accurate plans or elevations of it. 




FIGURE 29. PLAN OF THE Kdo-rpo ON THE SUMMIT OF THE ACROPOLIS. 

The edifice, which occupies the whole southern part of the 
acropolis, as appears from the plan, is a spacious rectangular 
enclosure 59 m. in length and 24.50 m. in breadth, against 
which on the west and south lean other chambers of lesser 
dimensions, and regularly disposed. The large enclosure 
seemed not to have internal divisions, and included a great 
hall or court, surrounded perhaps by a portico. The walls 
enclosing it were almost entirely preserved, reaching on the 
west side the height of more than 8 m. from the ground. 
These walls, constructed with exceeding solidity and care, in 
the same way as we have already seen in the other Roman 



156 



ANTONIO TARAMELLI 



buildings of the city, still show evidently their duplex coating 
in large bricks, which closed in the interior kernel made in 
strata of very solid emplecton or zones of opus lateritium (Fig. 
30). The upper part of this wall seemed to offer some traces 
of where the vaulted roof had been attached, which covered a 
portico or ambulacrum surrounding the enclosure on the inside ; 
but it would require a more careful examination to verify all 
these details. The small chambers fronting the west wall of 
the enclosure had no communication with its interior ; but 
from the arrangement of the external coating of the wall of the 




FIGURE 30. SECTION OF THE WALLS OF THE Kderpo ON THE ACBOPOLIS. 

enclosure it would appear that they entered into the original 
plan of the building ; their mode of construction, however, 
is rather different, since the emplecton constituting their wall 
is coated with small split stones neatly placed in regular lines, 
alternating with courses of bricks ; the tops, however, are in 
stones of greater dimensions, regularly disposed. The rooms 
on the west side are nine in number; they are of the same 
dimensions, 9.50 m. in length by about 5 m. to 6 m. in width, 
preserving, however, an average of 5 m. ; they are all preserved 
up to the height of about 4 m. ; two only, those to the north, 
communicate with each other ; the others have entrance from 



GOETYNA 157 

the outside alone, by means of doors 1.50 m. wide. It would 
seem that 011 the south side also of this great enclosure were 
other small rooms of somewhat more spacious proportions, 
which formed a kind of wings flanking the principal entrance. 
This southern front had a width of 16 m., and showed 
distinctly two halls, of which in spite of the encumbering 
masses of rubbish it was possible to measure the dimensions 
(11 x 9.50 m.) (11 x 5.50 m.), and the dividing wall was 
about 1 m. in thickness. The fact that the entrance to this 
large building was from the south side, through a spacious 
door 3.50 m. wide, causes me to suppose that the access to 
the Acropolis, even in an age anterior to the construction of 
the fortifications, must have been from this side. There are 
other reasons for this belief. 

As to the use of this edifice and its form we can only make 
conjectures; the existence of agonistic inscriptions found on the 
Acropolis, as also the great wealth of hydraulic works, make us 
think of a gymnasium, with its palestra and its various apart- 
ments. Nevertheless, from its position, commanding not only 
the Acropolis, but the whole city, as also from its plan and 
structure, the hypothesis may be perhaps preferable which 
Spratt suggested ; namely, that this edifice might have been 
the statio of the Roman garrison of Gortyna. Evident are the 
analogies with the internal buildings of the Castro Pretorio at 
Rome ; but still more so with the stations of the various cohorts 
of the Vigili, as that of the seventh cohort in Trastevere or 
of the fifth on the Coelian, and of the sundry other military 
bodies encamped in the city, such as the Equites singulares, or 
milites peregrini, etc. 

It is indubitable from its structure that the building is 
Roman, and that it was in use until a late period is deduced 
from the fact that in one of the rooms on the western side, 
where are traces of a later restoration, we found some inscribed 
fragments of stone, which were used as material for reconstruc- 
tion. The inscriptions on these stones are given on the next 
page, though little can be made out of them. 



158 



ANTONIO TARAMELLI 



(d) 



e N0 
eeuu 
x pvce 
TPIA 

Fragment of calcareous slab, 0.35 x 
0.38 m. Letters 0.04. 

(6) A A M A C C I ' 

Hceixe 

I M 

Fragment of slab, 0.32 x 0.20 m. 
Letters 0.04. 



\/ 

ew 
eo 



Fragment of slab, 0.25 x 0.15 m. 
Letters 0.04. 




N 



K I|C A C 



Fragment of slab. Letters 0.04. 



Fragment of calcareous slab, 0.40 x 
0.23 m. Letters 0.04. 



These fragments, of slight importance in themselves, are only 
interesting as showing that at an already advanced epoch, the 
edifice, repaired, still served for some purpose. Probably even 
after the erection of the line of circumvallation, the building, 
situated in such a dominant position, and so solidly con- 
structed, continued in its military uses, and was occupied 
by the garrison of the little fortress to which was entrusted 
the defence of the sinking metropolis. 



III. SEPULCHRAL CELL ON THE ACROPOLIS 

Before leaving the Acropolis I must mention a building situ- 
ated on its western declivity, some 30 m. lower than the line of 
the wall. This is a small sepulchral cell of rectangular form, 
coyered with a vaulted ceiling, of which I give here a plan 
(Fig. 31). It is 2.40 m. in length by 2.10 m. in width, and 
was entered by a flight of steps. The side and end walls, 
coated in bricks, presented three arcosolia, each protecting a 
funerary niche 1.60 m. wide and about 0.50 m. deep, and the 



GORTTNA 



-159 



thickness of the arcosolium 0.30 m. The spring of the ceil- 
ings which covers the cell is of 1m., and the vault rests upon 
the two lateral walls slightly above the extrados of the two 
arcosolia, and the post of the arch is marked by a little band of 
bricks projecting. In the end wall, above the arcosolium, below 
the ceiling, is a rectangular niche of 0.40 x 0.45 m. and 0.30 m. 
deep. The arched ceiling is 
constructed of splinters of stones 
and much mortar. We remark 
that at the four sides there are 
four pipes of terra-cotta and am- 
phorae (long jars), which cross 
the massive ceiling, these latter 
destined to lighten the weight 
of it, and the former to ven- 
tilate perhaps the Jiypogaeum. 
While the lateral and end walls 
built of fine brick work, 




are 



M 



FIGURE 31. TOMB OP ROMAN 
TIMES ON THE ACROPOLIS. 



although with a plentiful pro- 
portion of mortar, the entrance 
wall is constructed in stones of various sizes and all derived 
from demolished buildings, from which we may infer that the 
question is here of a restoration, or a subsequent readaptation 
of the funerary cell. The small entrance door, 0.60 m. wide, 
has a stone architrave, and has two little niches, one on each 
side, and not very deep ; the ancient access to the hypogaeum 
was by means of a little staircase now completely buried ; one 
to-day enters through a breach made in the front wall by the 
seekers after treasures who have completely rifled the tomb 
of all its ornaments and otfrer contents. 



IV. ROMAN TOMB IN THE PLAIN 

Another tomb of the Roman age, very similar to this of the 
Acropolis, was examined by Professor Halbherr and by me in 
the plain at some distance from the high hill of H. loannis. 



160 ANTONIO TAEAMELL1 

In the course of my researches upon Gortynian topography, 
we were informed of the discovery of this tomb, which is not 
very far from the Lethaeus, on the road leading from H. Deca 
to Mitropolis, and about ten minutes from the Megali Porta. 
The locality where this tomb is situated, though included in 
the space attributed to the city of Gortyna, did not lead us 
to expect any group of ruins, although the boundary walls 
of the cornfields consisted entirely of ancient fragmentary 
material. 

The tomb then was not surrounded with habitations, nor 
was it at the same time isolated. Although here, as else- 
where, systematic examination was impossible for me, I found, 
nevertheless, evident traces of other tombs, such as frag- 
ments of sarcophagi, of plain stone coffins, found and broken 
by the peasants in field-labor or in searching after treasure. 

This tomb also had been greedily rummaged in hopes of 
treasure ; but when I saw it, it was still possible to take the 
sketches I add herewith, and which permit me to describe it 
more succinctly. (Fig. 32.) 

The tomb was a little subterranean cell of rectangular form 
3.20x2.80 m. and about 3 m. in height, and was entered by 
a staircase on the south 1.20 m. wide. It was constructed 
almost entirely in bricks, somewhat roughly, and embedded in 
a quantity of mortar ; it was, nevertheless, so solid as to come 
down to us almost intact. The sepulchral cell was covered 
by a high arched ceiling, about 1 m. high from the spring, 
marked by a very simple cornice of two courses of projecting 
bricks. The axis of the ceiling was from south to north par- 
allel to the two longer sides, and its section was scarcely 
less than circular. As is apparent from the accompanying 
drawings, the three walls of the cell placed at the sides and 
opposite the entrance wall, had each a large niche filling it 
almost entirely. This niche, nearly 60 cm. in depth, indicated 
that the thickness of each wall exceeded 1 m. 

The niches were covered by an arcosolium very well con- 
structed and resting upon two broad bases limiting the lower 



GOETYNA 



161 




II 



162 ANTONIO TAEAMELLI 

part of the niche itself. It was thus divided into two stories, 
each one forming a funeral couch. The upper one, formed of 
a slab of fine pores-stone from the labyrinth, beautifully lev- 
elled, and about 0.20 m. thick, rested upon the bases of the 
arcosolium; the height of* this space reserved for the upper 
story of the niche was 1.05 m. and the width about 2 m., and 
was given by the development of the arcosolium. More limited 
was the lower story, only 1.65 m. long and scarcely 0.40 high. 
The bottom of this lower bed was on a level with the floor of 
the cell, but divided from it by a slight kind of threshold in 
stone. In the entrance wall, on each side of the door, was 
another niche in the thickness of the wall, about 0.40 m. from 
the ground, 0.80 m. high, 0.60 m. w^ide, and 0.40 m. deep. 
The minor dimensions of these two niches indicate either that 
they were reserved for the bodies of children, or else were to 
contain small cinerary urns, in case the cell was to serve for 
successive sepulture. A little terra-cotta urn with rude orna- 
mentation was found broken near the left niche ; from its 
narrowness and its height, it indicated much more a cinerary 
urn than a receptacle for a child's body. The floor had been 
paved with slabs of stone, but they had all been taken up by 
the profaners of the grave, in the hopes of finding objects of 
value or coins. In stone were also the doorposts, the thresh- 
old, and architrave. It is impossible to say whether the 
door had also consisted of a stone slab, turning on hinges or 
was simply walled in ; thus also, the internal dispositions 
for the dead remained quite unknown to us, nor could we 
discover whether sarcophagi had been placed in the three 
large upper niches, or whether the dead had been simply de- 
posited in them and walled in with slabs as in the lower 
cubicula. No trace remained to throw any light upon these 
particulars, nor could we hear anything as to the objects 
found in the tomb from the proprietors of the place. 

Similarly every epigraphic indication is wanting, both within 
the tomb and externally : it is not, however, difficult to 
judge of the age of this subterranean cell from its style of con- 



GORTYNA 163 

struction, on technical Roman lines, since the whole plan and 
profile of it are perfectly similar to other hypogaea existing 
in the island, such as those of H. Thomas arid of Prinia. 
The tombs of these two localities are completely excavated in 
the rock, a calcareous Tertiary of very easy excavation ; 
whilst, on the contrary, in the alluvial plain of Gortyna, 
the sepulchral cell had to be entirely constructed of strong 
masonry in brick and stone. As Halbherr and Mariani have 
ascribed the above-mentioned tombs of H. Thomas 1 to a late 
Greek and a Roman epoch, I also am of opinion that to 
the same period may be ascribed these, our tombs of the plain, 
as well as that of the Gortynian Acropolis, which reveals very 
plain characters of a greater decadence. 

In accordance with the ancient custom of burial near and 
along the public roads, it is probable that such a road passed 
near the little cell, but no trace of it remains visible. If not 
difficult to fix approximatively the epoch of this tomb, its 
location, however, remains a puzzle, because there is no doubt 
that it is within the area of the city itself. And the exist- 
ence of a tomb, or perhaps even a group of tombs of the 
Roman epoch placed so near the dwellings of the living, is 
in direct contradiction to all we believe we know about the 
hygienic and funerary rules of the same age. Let me be 
permitted, however, to make an observation upon this subject, 
suggested to me by examining the ruins of Gortyna. Whoever 
makes a hasty tour through the zone extending around the 
Acropolis of H. loannis, comprising the fertile plain which 
extends from H. Deca as far as Mitropolis and Ambeluso, and 
then takes a southern direction almost to Choustouliana, will 
see how it is sprinkled all over with ruins ; some still impos- 
ing, like the Megali Porta, the amphitheatre, the so-called 
Praetorium ; others scarcely indicated by a few traces hardly 
above ground, and will easily be persuaded that the whole 

1 Halbherr, Museo Italiano, III, p. 687. Mariani, Monumenti antichi, VI, 
p. 332, fig. 88. I myself maintain elsewhere that the tombs excavated in the 
rock near Prinia (Malevisi) are of the Roman age. 



164 ANTONIO TAEAMELLI 

of this space was once, without interruption, occupied by 
the city. 

This being the case, we should have a city four times larger 
than the Candia of to-day, and should be forced to admit a 
population numerous in proportion to the means of the valley 
in which Gortyna rose, and to the character itself of the region 
whose capital she was. Hence, according to my conception, 
at the Roman epoch, the city must have been much more 
populous than earlier ; and according to the rules of comfort 
and ease prevailing in the dominating race in an epoch of pro- 
found peace, it was surrounded by gardens and groves which 
rendered more endurable during the hot season the residence 
in that sunny plain. The interior of the city would also 
abound in free spaces, well-planted and watered, the better 
class of dwellings grouped about the temples and other public 
edifices. Nor would tombs be wanting in these spaces, even 
in the times when hygienic and civic prescriptions were most 
respected. 

Later still, then, and contemporaneously with the progressive 
diminution of the population which accompanied and charac- 
terized the decay of the Roman power, the anaemia, as it 
were, of a once vigorous body, the inhabited quarters of 
Gortyna gradually became less populous, they shrank away, as 
it were, from each other slowly but continually ; and whilst the 
later inhabitants of Gortyna drew together about the Acropolis 
and upon it, the insecure and perhaps already unhealthy plain 
became by degrees a desert ; and amongst the ruins of its edi- 
fices, speedily invaded by the insolent vegetation, rose the 
poor chapels and modest sanctuaries of the New Faith 
sanctuaries around which, as centres, grew the present villages 
that occupy the once famous area of Gortyna. 

Besides these few buildings on the Acropolis and in the sur- 
rounding plain, I was able to examine some other ruins in the 
course of my peregrinations through the country during my 
not brief abode in H. Deca ; but partly from the very dilapi- 



GORTYNA 165 

dated state of those ruins, and partly from the impossibility 
of making at the moment detailed excavations, I fear my 
later notes would be still more imperfect than those already 
published. I therefore bring these memoranda to a conclusion, 
fervently hoping that the miserable conditions of that noble 
country being at last remedied forever, it may be possible to 
resume and bring to a successful issue an exploration which I 
do not doubt will be fruitful in important and satisfactory 
results. 

ANTONIO TARAMELLI. 

TURIN, 1899. 



archaeological 
Institute 
of America 



ARCHITECTURAL REFINEMENTS IN ITALIAN 
CHURCHES 1 



IN 1895 the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences author- 
ized and supported, on behalf of its then projected and now 
existing Museum, the making of a series of architectural sur- 
veys of Italian mediaeval churches and cathedrals. It was the 
purpose of these surveys to continue an investigation which 
had been originally undertaken in 1870, the results of which 
were published four years later. 2 

The publication of 1874 was generally limited to Pisa, but 
was of such a character as to preclude the idea that the phe- 
nomena described could have been locally limited to that town. 
It announced as constructive refinements a series of inconspicu- 
ous curves, obliquities, and asymmetrical measurements in the 
main lines and surfaces of the Pisa Cathedral which had never 
been previously catalogued or described. It announced other 
irregularities as constructive refinements which had been other- 
wise supposed to be accidental -- notably, the overhanging 
facade, which was supposed to be accidental by Mr. Ruskin. 3 
A system of illusion in perspective was also announced as 
having been employed at Pisa, notably in the interior of the 
Cathedral, and in the Church of S. Stefano, outside the walls, 
where this system was first observed. 

1 The matter of this Paper was laid before the annual meeting of the 
Archaeological Institute, in New York, December 27, 1901. The illustra- 
tions are accurate pen-and-ink drawings from photographs of the Brooklyn 
Institute survey of 1901, which were shown at this meeting. 

2 Scribner's Magazine, August, 1874, 'A Lost Art,' by W. H. Goodyear. 

3 Seven Lamps of Architecture, 'The Lamp of Life,' p. 158 (Sunnyside ed., 
1880). 

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 166 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. VI (1902), No. 2. 



REFINEMENTS IN ITALIAN CHURCHES 167 

This publication had thus catalogued a series of constructive 
variations in measurements, dimensions, and alignment, of a 
much more varied, more extended, and more persistent char- 
acter than those which had been noticed by Mr. Ruskin in 
the Seven Lamps of Architecture and in the Stones of Venice. 
The latter were limited to variations of intercolumniation or of 
arch construction. 

These various announcements tended to establish a new point 
of view in the study of mediaeval architecture and to vindicate 
for some of its monuments a quality of subtlety which had so 
far been considered to hold only of the temples of the Greeks. 
The original advice to publish was given by Jacob Burckhardt, 
then of the University of Basle, and during his lifetime the 
leading German authority on the general art history of Italy. 
He personally assured the writer of his ignorance of the facts 
which had been discovered ; and that these facts were not then 
known to other students of mediaeval architecture is attested 
by the standard publications of that date, as well as by others 
which are much more recent. 

The Brooklyn Institute surveys of 1895 covered a period of 
six months, and included observations in all the well-known 
cathedrals and churches of Italy, as well as in many of the 
minor churches and in some rarely visited localities. 

A very considerable number of churches and cathedrals were 
found to have no subtleties of construction. The individual 
mention and cataloguing of the buildings which are destitute 
of refinements will be one of the matters for publication in a 
book which is now in preparation and for Memoirs which have 
been announced by the Brooklyn Institute Museum. These 
publications will have the importance of showing that the less 
pretentious or more roughly and carelessly built churches are 
those generally destitute of refinements. In other words, the 
well-known and very prevalent irregularities, which are due 
to the use of heterogeneous materials from ancient buildings, 
or which are due to indifference to regularity and to rough 
construction, are insufficient explanations of the phenomena. 



168 WILLIAM H. GOODYEAR 

Many of the positive results of the surveys of 1895 have been 
published in the Architectural Record Quarterly Magazine 
(1896-1898). ! 

In the summer of 1901 these investigations were continued, 
with results which it is the design of the present article to 
summarize. The expense of this work was supported by a 
contribution of $500 from Mrs. August Lewis, of New York, 
who had contributed the same sum toward the surveys of 1895. 
These had been otherwise supported by a contribution of 11500 
from the Brooklyn Institute and by a contribution of $1500 from 
the writer. 

The special purpose of the visit to Italy of 1901 was partly 
to submit the phenomena, already announced as existing in 
St. Mark's at Venice and in the Pisa Cathedral, to the engi- 
neering architects at present in charge of those buildings and 
to obtain their verdict on the constructive facts. Their certifi- 
cates are appended (pp. 195, 196). Another purpose of the 
trip was to obtain photographs and measures, and to make 
more careful record, of some important facts which were 
insufficiently substantiated. 

The remarkable discovery had been made, in 1895, that deli- 
cate architectural curves were occasionally constructed by the 
mediaeval Italian builders, of a character which suggested a 
traditional inheritance, possibly through Byzantine sources, 
from ancient Greek art. These more delicate curves were 
not discovered in 1870, although there are many of them in 
the Pisa Cathedral. The suggestion of a historical connection 

1 Vol. VI, no. 1, 'Optical Refinements in Mediaeval Architecture'; vol. VI, 
no. 2, ' Perspective Illusions in Mediaeval Italian Churches ' ; vol. VI, no. 3, 

* Constructive Asymmetry in Mediaeval Italian Churches ' ; vol. VI, no. 4, 

* A Discovery of Horizontal Curves in Mediaeval Italian Architecture ' ; vol. 
VII, no. 1, 'A Discovery of the Entasis in Mediaeval Italian Architecture'; 
vol. VII, no. 2, 'An Echo from Evelyn's Diary'; vol. VII, no. 3, 'The 
Problem of the Leaning Tower of Pisa.' 

See also vol. IV, no. 4, ' A Discovery of Horizontal Curves in the Maison Carree 
at Nimes,' and vol. IX, no. 1, ' Horizontal Curves in Columbia University.' The 
Smithsonian Repo/ts for 1894 have republished the article on the Maison Carree. 
See also the American Journal of Archaeology, First Series, X, no. 1. 



REFINEMENTS IN ITALIAN CHURCHES 



169 



with ancient Greek art through Byzantine sources was, how- 
ever, originally made in 1874. The peculiar character and 
use of these curves were of such a nature as to react on 
some of the 
explanations 
which have 
been in vogue 
regarding the 
Greek curves, 
so as to sug- 
gest a prefer- 
ence for some 
of these expla- 
nations as 
compared with 
others. 

A peculiarly 
important in- 
stance of 
constructive 
curves had 
been surveyed 
and photo- 
graphed in 
1895, at Bo- 
logna, in the 
twelfth cen- 
tury Cloister 




FIGURE 1. HORIZONTAL CURVES IN PLAN, IN THE CLOISTER 
or THE CELESTINES AT BOLOGNA. 



(Drawing from a Brooklyn Institute photograph.) 



of the Celes- 

tines. The 

negatives 

were, however, broken in transit before prints had been taken 

from them. Without such photographs it was not possible 

to give convincing publicity to this discovery. In 1901 new 

photographs were made on all sides of the Cloister of the 

Celestines, some of which are published herewith (Figs. 1 




FIGURE 2. HORIZONTAL CURVES IN PLAN, IN THE CLOISTER OF THE 

CELESTINES AT BOLOGNA. 
(Drawing from a Brooklyn Institute photograph.) 



REFINEMENTS IN ITALIAN CHURCHES 



171 



and 2). The curves appear much stronger in the photo- 
graph than they do in the building, where they are so 
discounted by the eye into ordinary effects as to be incon- 
spicuous. The arcades of the cloister are about fifty feet in 
length on each side. The amount of the curve, which is 
practically uniform on all sides, is about five inches on each 
side, as measured on the parapet of the second story. There 




FIGURE 3. HORIZONTAL CURVES IN PLAN, IN THE CLOISTER OF S. ZENO 

AT VERONA. 
(Drawing from a Brooklyn Institute photograph.) 

are slight curves in the foundations on all sides of the clois- 
ter, and they are well accented in the lower part of the 
first story. 

Another important and similar instance was also surveyed 
and photographed in 1901, in the Cloister of S. Zeno at 
Verona (Fig. 3). An observation had been previously made 
here by a member of our party, in 1895, but without measures 
or photographs. 



172 WILLIAM H. GOODYEAR 

The great importance of these instances is that they offer 
satisfactory proof regarding the constructive intention of the 
builders. The curves of the Verona cloister are uniform in 
measurement and character on three sides of the court. They 
are not found on the fourth side, which is broken by a con- 
struction projecting into the court (Fig. 3). The dimensions 
of the court are about 72 x 80 feet in the length of the colon- 
nades. At the foundations of the parapets the curves measure 
on the three sides (west, south, and east), respectively, 0.12, 
0.11, 0.13 (foot decimals). At the bases of the columns they 
measure, respectively, 0.10, 0.15, 0.12 feet. In the cornice 
they measure about 0.40 feet, or approximately, five inches. 

With the exception mentioned for Verona, all the sides of 
the cloisters at Verona and Bologna are laid out in curves 
which are convex in plan to the centres of the courts. Such 
uniformity of direction eliminates the possible objection that 
carelessness of construction is a sufficient explanation. Another 
objection as to constructive intention is occasionally based on 
possible settlement of foundations ; but these curves are in plan, 
and not in elevation. 

A third possible objection as to constructive intention is con- 
nected with the action of thrust from a vaulting. In vaulted 
cloisters the ends of the cornices are " tied in " by the resistance 
of the arcades where they meet the thrust of the vaulting at 
right angles, whereas the thrust of the vaulting at the centre 
is not resisted by an opposing force and there is a consequent 
tendency to bulge outward at this point. But at Bologna, 
where the cloister is two-storied, the curves begin at the founda- 
tions and in the lower walls of the building ; and at Verona the 
curves begin in the foundations of the parapets, and they are 
also found in the bases of the columns which rest on the para- 
pets. Moreover, in both cases the ceilings of the cloisters are 
of timber, and not vaulted. The lower story at Bologna has 
also timber ceiling on the side from which the photographs 
are taken. The three other lower stories are vaulted, but 
there are no curves in the inner sides of the walls. These 



REFINEMENTS IN ITALIAN CHURCHES 173 

various facts offer convincing proof that constructive curves 
were employed by Italian mediaeval builders, and it is self- 
evident that they must have been employed with an aesthetic 
purpose. The question as to what this aesthetic purpose was, 
can hardly be considered debatable when the following facts 
are considered. 

In both cloisters the effect of the curves must be considered 
as intended from the standpoint within the cloister corridors, as 
well as from the standpoint in the court. In the corridors the 
curves are concave to the eye, but they are seen both in the 
lines above the level of the eye, and in the parapets below 
the level of the eye. Optically considered, the effects tend to 
be translated by the eye into the effect of curves in elevation. 
Concave curves above the eye appear to be descending curves 
in elevation; i.e. they appear to sag at the centre ; while con- 
cave curves below the eye tend to appear as rising curves in 
elevation. On the other hand, as seen from the court, the 
convex curves above the eye, of the cornices, tend to appear 
as rising curves in elevation ; whereas, the convex curves below 
the eye tend to appear as curves which sag downward. Under 
these circumstances no theory appears tenable, excepting that 
the curve was preferred to the formalism and rigidity of 
straight lines. This is an explanation which has already 
appeared satisfactory for the Greek curves to many experts, 
notably Burckhardt, Kugler, and Schnaase. 1 

Theories of a purpose of optical correction which have been 
offered for the Greek horizontal curves, 2 and to the effect that 
they were originally intended to correct an appearance of 
downward sagging, in lines which are actually straight, can- 
not be applied to these cloisters, because half of the curves 
employed actually do tend to sag, in optical effect. Hence if 
a historic connection with the Greek curves be admitted, it 

1 See, for instance, Burckhardt, Der Cicerone, p. 4. 

2 Penrose, Principles of Athenian Architecture, 1851, p. 78: "There can 
be little doubt that the origin of the horizontal curve was to obviate a disagree- 
able effect produced by the contrast of the horizontal with the inclined lines 
of a flat pediment." 



174 WILLIAM H. GOODYEAR 

would appear that these theories would also have to be 
abandoned, or modified. 

Such serious objections already exist, however, to the 
theories of Penrose, as advanced for the Greek curves, that 
they appear untenable even without this new and additional 
argument. 

For instance, the Brooklyn Institute Survey of 1895 has 
established the existence of curves in elevation on the sides of 
the temple of Concord at Girgenti, but it has also proven that 
there are no curves under the gables. This is apparently an 
unanswerable argument against the theory of Penrose that the 
Greek curves originated in the desire to avoid an effect of 
downward sagging in the entablature under the gable. It also 
antagonizes the view that the Greek curves were intended to 
correct other effects of sagging ; l for the tendency to an effect 
of sagging is certainly greater under the gable than it is on the 
flanks of the temple. It is doubtful if such an effect exists at 
all on the upper lines of the, sides of a Greek temple. At close 
range it certainly does not exist. (It has never been suggested 
by Penrose that it exists at all.) Other unanswerable objec- 
tions to the theories of Penrose have been advanced by 
Dr. Guido Hauck. 2 This publication very effectively sup- 
plements and largely supplants that of Thiersch, 3 who had 
already successfully shown the weak points of the theory of 
correction for the gable. It should, however, by no means be 
overlooked that Penrose must rank for all time as having by 
his surveys furnished the proofs for the existence of the curves 
in Greek architecture, although he was not the original dis- 
coverer of them. It must also be remarked that Penrose has 
not urged his theories as being final or as being the only ones 
possible, and he has himself mentioned aesthetic reasons as 

1 Burnouf , Revue de V Architecture, 1875, p. 146, and Thiersch, as below quoted. 

2 Guido Hauck, Die Subjective Perspective und die Horizontalen Curvaturen 
des Dorischen Styls. Stuttgart, 1879, Konrad Wittwer. Dr. Hauck was in 1879 
Professor of Descriptive Geometry in the Royal Technical High School of Berlin. 

3 * Optische Tauschungen auf dem Gebiete der Architectur,' in the Zeitschrift 
fur Bauwesen, XXIII. Berlin, 1873, Ernst & Korn. 



REFINEMENTS IN ITALIAN CHURCHES 175 

being probably contributory causes for the use of curves on 
the flanks of a temple. 1 

The curves of the quoted cloisters have a remarkable analogy 
with those of the second court of the Egyptian temple of 
Medinet Habou, 2 but they also differ from these. Both are 
alike in the important point that they are in plan, as distinct 
from curves in elevation, and in both cases they are convex 
to the centre of the court. But at Medinet Habou the curves 
are not appreciable in the lines of the bases of the columns, 
and there are no parapet curves to be considered. At Medinet 
Habou it might easily be conceded that the effect was solely 
contrived for the point of view in the court, where the curves 
are convex to the spectator and above the level of the eye. 
For all such points the optical effect of the curves is equiva- 
lent to that of a curve in elevation. In the case of the cloister 
curves, it has been shown that they appear to be of equal im- 
portance on the concave sides as well as on the convex sides, 
and that they appear to be of equal importance, whether seen 
from above or below the level of the eye. 

The remarkable ignorance of the experts who have made 
publications about the Greek curves, of the existence of the 
curves at Medinet Habou has been noted by me in another 
publication. 2 This ignorance is the more remarkable because 
the original discovery of the Greek curves by Pennethorne in 
1837, was owing to his previous discovery of the Egyptian 
curves. But although the Egyptian curves were observed by 
Pennethorne in 1833, they were not made known to the world 
until 1878. 3 It is easy to understand how they had not come 
to the knowledge of Hauck in 1879, and the publication of 
Thiersch was still earlier, in 1873. Penrose published in 1851. 

The mere existence of these Egyptian curves is sufficient to 
neutralize the gable theory of Penrose. The whole argument 
of the important publication of Hauck is also based on the 

1 See p. 79 of his cited work, referring to the beauty of a curved line. 

2 Architectural Record Quarterly, IV, no. 4. 

3 Pennethorne, Geometry and Optics of Ancient Architecture, 1878, p. 84. 



176 WILLIAM H. GOODYEAR 

assumption that horizontal curves were confined to the Doric 
style of Greek temple architecture, and his interesting argu- 
ment is therefore also neutralized by the existence of the 
Medinet Habou curves; provided it be conceded that the 
Greek curves are related to the Egyptian and that some 
common explanation ought to be found for both. 

I have previously published personal observations regarding 
other Egyptian curves, notably at Edfou. 1 It is probable that 
the curves of the Egyptian temple courts will be more care- 
fully considered when their analogies with those of mediaeval 
Italy have been made apparent. The probability that the 
Egyptian curves were the ancestors of the Greek curves leads 
to the remark that the Greek curves in plan have also so far 
been generally neglected by experts. Jacob Burckhardt is the 
only critic who has mentioned the curves in plan on the flanks 
of the temple of Neptune at Paestum as having an aesthetic 
purpose. 2 Their existence is unknown to the work of Penrose, 
and is presumed to be accidental by Thiersch. These curves 
have been photographed for the first time by the Brooklyn 
Institute Survey of 1895, and there appears to be no reason 
for doubting their constructive character as asserted by Burck- 
hardt. The curves of the Maison Carree at Ninies, which 
were discovered by me in 1891, are also curves in plan. 3 

The following points may therefore be summarized as being 
of importance in connection with the curves in the cloisters of 
Verona and Bologna : 

(a) They demonstrate that architectural refinements were 
employed in mediaeval architecture, and that they were not 
confined to the Greeks. 

(5) The refinements cannot have been employed for the 
correction of optical illusion. They must therefore represent 
a positive aesthetic preference for delicately curved lines as 

1 Architectural Record Quarterly, vol. IV, no. 4. 

2 Jacob Burckhardt, Der Cicerone, p. 4. 

3 Architectural Record Quarterly, vol. IV, no. 4 ; Smithsonian Report for 1894, 
pp. 573-588; American Journal of Archaeology, First Series, vol. X, no. 1. 



REFINEMENTS IN ITALIAN CHURCHES 111 

more pleasing than mathematically straight lines in architec- 
tural colonnades. 

0) The opinions of the German and French experts who 
have not favored the view that the Greek curves were origi- 
nally designed to correct a sagging effect are supported by 
this discovery. 1 

(d) The constructive curves in plan of Egyptian temple 
courts offer important analogies with the curves in the cloisters 
of Verona and Bologna. 2 

1 Boutmy, Le Parthenon et le Genie Grec, has advocated the theory that the 
purpose of the Greek curves was to accent the curvilinear perspective. This 
contention has been much more ably and explicitly developed by Hauck. It was 
originally suggested by Hoffer (Wiener Bauzeituny, 1838), but Hoffer also con- 
sidered the curves as giving life and beauty to the building and as superior to 
the more monotonous and colder effects of mathematically straight lines. A 
consensus of authorities is therefore to be noted (Burckhardt, Kugler, Schnaase, 
Hauck, Boutmy, Hoffer), who, though differing among themselves, still unite in 
not advocating the theory of correction. Reference to the theories of curvilinear 
perspective has been otherwise avoided in this Paper as unduly increasing its 
length. It must certainly be admitted that horizontal curves may have been 
used in different cases for different purposes both in Greece and mediaeval Italy, 
and there are cases of which it might be asserted that more than one purpose 
might be admitted. It is quite clear, however, that the cloister curves do not 
come inside the theories which have been advanced for curvilinear perspective. 

2 The twelfth century Cloister of Sassovivo, near Foligno, offers an instance of 
very regular and very delicate curves in plan, convex to the court on all sides. 

These curves are in the upper cornice lines, and they do not appear in the 
parapets. As this cloister is vaulted, we cannot positively assert that these 
curves have not been produced by thrust. The larger cloister of the Certosa of 
Pavia shows very delicate curves in the parapets and in the lines of the bases 
of the columns. They are in plan and convex to the court on all its sides, and 
amount to about 2 inches in a length of 130 paces. They are of slightly 
irregular character, but are perfectly sensible to the eye. A successful photo- 
graph was made here last summer. The original observation was made in 1895. 
No curves are visible here in the cornice lines. In 1901 1 reexamined the cloisters 
of St. John Lateran and S. Paolo Puori, at Rome, which are quoted in the 
Architectural Record Quarterly (VII, no. 1). The rough work of the masonry, 
the possibility of thrust, and the interference of the drain pipes with the line of 
vision (in the case of S. Paolo Fuori) led me to the conclusion that these are 
doubtful instances for constructive curves. (Many cloisters were examined 
both in 1895 and 1901, in which the lines were quite straight, both in the cornice 
and the parapets.) My own doubts as to the Roman cloisters named are con- 
nected with the question whether curves in the cornice lines were not sometimes 
worked in by constructive leaning forward of columns near the centre of each 
side. If some instance of such working in of a curve was conclusively proven, 



178 WILLIAM H. GOODYEAR 

The curves in cloisters are, however, only one phase of the 
use of constructive curves in Italian mediaeval architecture. 
I have already published many of these instances, which are 
especially numerous in the Pisa Cathedral and in St. Mark's 
at Venice. 1 Those which were discovered in 1895 were not at 
that time brought to the attention of the architects in charge 
of the buildings. In 1901 I submitted the discovered facts to 
the engineering architects who were respectively in charge of 
St. Mark's and of the Pisa Cathedral, and secured from them 
certificates verifying the constructive and intentional use of 
curves in these buildings. These certificates are appended. 
It will appear from Commendatore Saccardo's certificate that 
the concave curve in plan of the fagade of St. Mark's is 
known to him as an aesthetic device. (It was published by 
me in the Architectural Record, VI, no. 4, p. 489.) It may not 
be amiss to say here, that the earliest observed case of con- 
structive mediaeval curves is in S. Apollinare Nuovo at 
Ravenna (sixth century). 2 The latest observed case of classic 
curves is that of the Maison Carree at Nimes. 

The survey of 1901 was also successful in securing con- 
vincing evidence for the existence of constructive vertical 
curves in Italian mediaeval churches. Vertical curves are 
very generally exposed to the suspicion that they have been 
produced by thrust from vaultings or arches, because they 
frequently appear in the piers of vaulted churches at points 
where these piers are exposed to thrust from the aisle vault- 
ings. In 1895 I had observed instances in the Cathedral of 
Vicenza which were not exposed to this suspicion, but the 
observation was hurried, and no photographs were taken. 
In 1901 the facts were observed with greater deliberation, 
and photographs were successfully made (Fig. 4). 

it would react on my views about S. Paolo Fuori. There are some indications 
that this was done here, but the question is still in the balance. This question 
is also important for Sassovivo, where the columns distinctly lean outward 
toward the centres. The appearances here, to my observation (1895), favored 
the belief in a constructive lean. 

1 Architectural Record Quarterly, vol. VI, no. 4. 2 Ibid. 



REFINEMENTS IN ITALIAN CHURCHES 179 




FIGURE 4. DELICATE VERTICAL CURVES IN THE PILASTERS OP CHAPEL 

WALLS IN THE CATHEDRAL OF VICENZA. 
(Drawing from a Brooklyn Institute photograph.) 



180 



WILLIAM H. GOODYEAR 



In the Cathedral of Vicenza there are no aisles. Chapels 
separated by walls at right angles to the line of the nave, 
and about twenty-five feet deep, take their place. The 
pilasters, which face these walls fronting on the nave, are 
built in very delicate vertical curves. 




FIGURE 5. THE OUTWARD SPREAD OF THE PIERS IN ST. MARK'S AT VENICE.! 

From the Architectural Record Quarterly, vol. VII, no. 2. (Tracing from a 
Brooklyn Institute photograph.) 

An important instance of vertical pilaster curves which are 
not exposed to the suspicion of thrust was also surveyed and 
photographed in S. Paolo Ripa d' Arno, at Pisa, in 1901. It 
was announced in 1874, together with the vertical curves in 
the great pilasters at the junction of nave and transept in the 
Pisa Cathedral. 

1 See the appended certificate of Commendatore Pietro Saccardo, p. 195. 



REFINEMENTS IN ITALIAN CHURCHES 181 

The survey of 1895 discovered a certain number of Italian 
vaulted churches in which the piers of the nave, and some- 
times the exterior walls, were constructively leaned outward. 1 
These leans are so delicate as to be inconspicuous, and may 
have had the purpose of correcting for the interior an appear- 
ance of contraction, or narrowing in, of the upper vertical lines 
of the church, which would be due to the natural perspective. 
Such inclinations are, however, so obviously liable to be of acci- 
dental occurrence as a result of thrust, or of the settlement of 
foundations, that any announcements of their constructive exist- 
ence are peculiarly and justly exposed to scepticism. The facts 
are certainly very extraordinary, but all possible doubts have, 
notwithstanding, been removed by the observations of 1901. 
The engineering architect of St. Mark's has examined with me 
the facts as regards that church (Fig. 5), and his certificate is 
appended. The given device was even employed by Palladio 
in S, Giorgio Maggiore at Venice, and photographs have been 
taken in this church showing the phenomena under conditions 
which preclude any suggestion of thrust or settlement. 

The Gothic church of S. Agostino at Orvieto has walls 
which lean outward against buttresses, of the same date and 
construction, which lean inward. These have been photo- 
graphed (Fig. 6). 

The Church of S. Lorenzo at Vicenza has walls which lean 
outward against buttresses, of the same date and construction, 
whose exterior lines are perpendicular. These have been pho- 
tographed. The interior walls lean out not less than six inches 
in twenty-five feet. The walls are four feet thick, and the but- 
tresses are three feet wide at the base. 

Peculiarly important observations of the given refinement 
were made in 1895 in S. Ambrogio and S. Eustorgio at Milan 
and in S. Michele at Pavia, but in such haste that these obser- 
vations were unsupported at that time by detailed measure- 
ments and photographs. , In all these churches the aisles are 

1 Architectural Record Quarterly, vol. VII, no. 2, ' An Echo from Evelyn's 
Diary.' 



182 



WILLIAM H. GOODYEAR 



bordered by chapels with walls of very considerable depth, 
faced by pilasters which are not exposed to thrust. The 




FIGURE 6. S. AGOSTINO AT ORVIETO. 

The walls lean out against buttresses of the same date and construction which lean in. 
(Drawing from a Brooklyn Institute photograph.) 

outward leans have now been plumbed, in all these pilasters, 
and excellent photographs have been made of the phenomena 



REFINEMENTS IN ITALIAN CHURCHES 183 

in the Milan churches (Figs. 7, 8). In the right aisle of 
S. Ambrogio six pilasters have an average outward lean of 
4 inches in 13 feet. The maximum lean is 5| inches; the 
minimum lean is 2J inches. It is the minimum lean which 
is shown by the plumb-line in Fig. 7. The chapel walls are 
21 feet deep. In S. Eustorgio the average outward lean of 
the chapel pilasters is 4 inches in a height of 13 feet. As the 
phenomena are constant in all pilasters, and uniform in three 
separate churches which have these side chapels, there can be 
no doubt of constructive intention. 

Among my original observations of 1870 and original an- 
nouncements of 1874, regarding the Pisa Cathedral, it was 
observed and announced that the fagade was inclined for- 
ward by construction. The upper part of the fagade, however, 
bends back to the perpendicular (Fig. 9). The masonry 
measurements taken in 1895 placed this announcement be- 
yond any doubt in my own mind and that of my assistants, 
but the measurements, not having been published, were con- 
sequently not brought to the attention of Italian experts. 
Publication was subsequently made. 1 In 1901 I went over 
the cathedral with Signer Aimibale Messerini, the architect 
now in charge, and his certificate is appended (p. 195). The 
remarkable facts are now established beyond dispute. Photo- 
graphs were also taken, in 1901, of certain features of the 
construction of the fagades of S. Michele at Pavia and of 
S. Ambrogio at Milan which establish a similar constructive 
intention in these fagades. Both of them curve back to the 
perpendicular, and are erect in the upper portion (Figs. 10, 11). 

Of still greater interest is the discovery of a constructive 
leaning fagade in the Renaissance Church of S. Ambrogio at 
Genoa, dating about 1580. The present engineering architect 
in charge of this church has himself built the second story of 
the fagade. His certificate for the constructive lean of the 
lower portion is therefore of great interest. This certificate 
is appended (p. 194). The facts regarding S. Ambrogio 
1 Architectural Record Quarterly, vol. VII, no. 3. 



184 



WILLIAM H. GOODYEAR 




FIGURE 7. RIGHT AISLE OF S. AMBROGIO, MILAN. 

The plumb-line shows an outward lean of 2| inches in 13 feet. The maximum lean in 
this aisle is 5\ inches. The average lean is 4 inches. (Drawing from a Brooklyn 
Institute photograph.) 



REFINEMENTS IN ITALIAN CHURCHES 



185 




FIGURE 8. RIGHT AISLE OF S. EUSTORGIO, MILAN, LOOKING TOWARD THE 

FACADE. 

The average outward lean of the pilasters is 4 inches in 13 feet. (Drawing from a 
Brooklyn Institute photograph.) 



186 WILLIAM H. GOODYEAR 

were observed on the day of sailing from Genoa, in 1895, 
and could not be verified at that time (Figs. 12, 13). The 
lean amounts to about 8 inches in about 56 feet. 

The purpose of these various leaning facades may have been 
the same as that which leads us to tip a picture on a wall, 
that is, to avoid foreshortening. The return to the perpendicu- 
lar in the upper fagade at Pisa, at Pavia, and at Milan, is 
probably due to considerations of stability, and it may have 
also been connected with the preference of certain mediaeval 
builders for bends and curves of architectural lines and sur- 
faces. A similar construction in the facade of Notre Dame 
at Paris was announced by me at the Philadelphia General 
Meeting of the Archaeological Institute, in 1900. 1 

The lower columns of the facade of St. Mark's at Venice were 
observed by me, in 1870, as having a constructive forward lean 
(Fig. 14). The wall from which they project is perpendicular. 
Announcement of this was made after the surveys of 1895, 2 
but successful photographs were not then obtained. The 
picture now reproduced is one of four which are all good. It 
is, however, of more importance to state that this phenomenon 
has now been verified as constructive by the certificate of 
Commendatore Pietro Saccardo. The upper line of columns 
is perpendicular. The motive would appear to have been the 
preference for a bent or curving vertical line. If foreshort- 
ening alone were considered, the upper line of columns would 
also have leaned forward. This observation may throw light 
on the motive of the other leaning facades, just quoted, which 
bend back to the perpendicular. The amount of the lean is 
from 2 inches to 3| inches in a height of 9J feet. No col- 
umns are perpendicular, excepting those at the restored south- 
west angle. 

Measurements were made in 1901 which probably determine 
the much debated question regarding the cause of the incli- 
nation of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. They support the obser- 

1 American Journal of Archaeology, V (1901), p. 12. 

2 Architectural Record Quarterly, vol. VII, no. 3. 



REFINEMENTS IN ITALIAN CHURCHES 



187 




FIGURE 9. THE LEANING FAgADE OF PISA CATHEDRAL. 

From the Architectural Record Quarterly, vol. VII, no. 3. 1 Measurements in foot 
decimals are entered on the drawing. The entire amount of the inclination is 
about 17 inches. (Tracing from a Brooklyn Institute photograph.) 



1 See appended certificate of Signer Annibale Messerini. 



188 



WILLIAM H. GOODYEAR 




FIGURE 10. THE LEANING FACADE OP S. MICHELE, PAVIA. 

The inclination is about a foot, with return bend to the perpendicular (above the 
limit of the drawing). (Drawing from a Brooklyn Institute photograph.) 




FIGURE 11. THE LEANING FACADE or S. MICHELE, PA VIA. 

Detail showing the upward tilt of the base courses. (Drawing from a Brooklyn 
Institute photograph.) 



190 WILLIAM H. GOODYEAR 

vations published by Ranieri Grass! in 1837, 1 but supplement 
them by additional facts which add to their force and by meas- 
urements which he did not supply. Grassi observes that the 
spiral stairway in the cylindrical wall of the tower is built 
with gradually increasing height, as it turns from the north 
to the overhanging south side of the first story. He interprets 
this as showing the disposition of the builder to add to the 
weight of the cylindrical wall on the upper side of the lean 
and to diminish this weight on the overhanging side. He adds 
that on the south side of the tower the ceiling is tilted up 
so that, on the south side of the stairway, it is about half 
a braccio (12 inches) higher than on the north side. This 
extremely important fact he justly interprets as showing the 
wish of the builder to throw more of the weight above the 
ceiling on the inner wall, and less on the outer overhanging 
wall. No measurements are otherwise given for the heights 
of the stairway, and no mention is made of the fact that the 
variations in height continue in the upper stories of the tower. 
As regards even the first story, the statement is indefinite. It 
is only said that, if one raises the hand in the stairway on the 
north side of the tower, it touches the ceiling, and if the hand 
is raised in the stairway on the south side of the tower, it does 
not reach the ceiling. 

When exact measurements are taken, the following facts 
appear. The entrance to the spiral stairway on the left of 
the entrance door is at a point midway between the north 
and the south sides of the tower, the latter being the over- 
hanging side. At its entrance the stairway has a height of 
7.94 feet. On the highest step of the north side (the thirteenth 
step) the height is 7.63 feet. On the step corresponding to 
the greatest lean on the south side (the forty-sixth step) the 
height of the ceiling from the step line is 8.12 feet on the upper 
side, and 9.17 feet on the lower side. The step inclines with 
the lean, and dips down 0.34 feet. Thus the south side of the 
stairway is actually 1.05 feet higher than the north side, in 

1 Descrizione di Pisa, vol. II, p. 97. 




FIGURE 12. THE LEANING FACADE or S. AMBROGIO, GENOA. 

The inclination of the first story is about 8 inches in 56 feet. (Drawing from a 
Brooklyn Institute photograph.) See appended certificate for construction. 



192 



WILLIAM H. GOODYEAR 



a width of only 3.61 feet. The south side of the ceiling is 
0.71 feet (or 8J inches) above the level of the north side, in 
this width. Then, adding the two differing measures of the 




FIGURE 13. THE LEANING FACADE or S. AMBROGIO, GENOA. 

Detail of the base courses, showing an oblique cutting of the pilaster. (Drawing 
from a Brooklyn Institute photograph.) 

walls at this point and dividing by two, to obtain the average 
or central height of the stairway at this point, we find it to 
be a foot higher than it is at the thirteenth step. 

If we now follow the rising spiral to the north side, it gradu- 
ally grows lower in height, to the amount of 10 inches (0.84 




FIGURE 14. DETAIL OF THE FACADE OF ST. MARK'S, VENICE. 

The columns lean out from 2 inches to 3k inches in a height of 9 feet. (Drawing from 
a Brooklyn Institute photograph.) See appended certificate for construction. 



194 WILLIAM H. GOODYEAR 

feet) at the seventy-ninth step. As the spiral turns toward 
the overhanging south side, the height gradually rises 8 inches 
(0.65 feet) to the one hundred and fifteenth step (which is 
about the centre of the overhanging side). In the next half- 
turn to the north side the height lowers 14 inches (1.18 
feet). 1 Beyond this point to the next central point on the 
south side, there is no appreciable variation; and the spiral 
stairway ends before another turn is completed. 

There are thus four separate changes in the height of the 
stairway (without counting the difference of about 4 inches 
between the entrance and the thirteenth step), all of which can 
be explained on the theory of an intentional inclination, and all 
of which would be positively incomprehensible on any other 
theory. To these facts must be added the significant one 
regarding the inward downward tilt of the stairway ceiling 
on the overhanging side of the first story. When the deli- 
cate masonry arrangements are considered, by which these 
variations of height and of level are gradually and insen- 
sibly obtained, there does not appear to be any explanation 
possible excepting that of intentional construction. 

WILLIAM H. GOODYEAR. 

MUSEUM OF THE BROOKLYN INSTITUTE 
OF ARTS AND SCIENCES. 



CERTIFICATES 

I 

GENOVA, Piazza Invrea 8. 
Sig. WM. H. GOODYEAR: 

Per aderire al desiderio dalla Signoria vostra espressomi eccomi ad 
esporle alcune notizie a riguardo della facciata della Chiesa di S. Ambrogio. 
La detta facciata venne eseguita soltanto in parte, cioe pel tratto inferiors 
all' epoca della costruzione della chiesa nel 1580, cioe verso la fine del 
secolo sedicesimo. 

1 There is an intermediate variation between these points, culminating at the 
centre of the east side in a rise of 18 inches. There is no obvious explanation 
for this change, and it is the only one which breaks the rule of a graduated and 
unbroken sequence. 



REFINEMENTS IN ITALIAN CHURCHES 195 

Recentemente, cioe negli anni 1891, 92, 93, per cura e spese del bene- 
merito Prevosto di detta chiesa 1' Abbate Poggi, si precede tte alia ripara- 
zione della parte esistente di detta facciata, ed a completare la medesima 
venne costrutta a nuovo la parte superiore. 

In tale circostanza si ebbe a costatare che la parte inferiore di detta 
facciata aveva una inclinazione sulla verticale o strapiombo di M. 0.20 circa 
sopra un altezza approssimativa di M. 15. 

Naturalmente la parte superiore venne costrutta senza alcuna inclina- 
zione. L' inclinazione della parte inferiore non si crede debba attribuirsi 
a spinte interne degli archi o ad altra causa di deterioramento, giacche in tel 
caso si avrebbero delle deformazioni parziali sulla detta facciata, mentre 
invece una tale inclinazione e in certo modo costante su tutta la facciata 
e le decorazioni della stessa si trovano orizzontali e non inclinati nel senso 
dello strapiombo. Per cui si deve credere che la stessa si a stata costrutta 
fin da principio con detta inclinazione. 

Ing. Arch. LUIGI DE ANDREIS, 

Direttore dei lavori di detta facciata. 

GENOVA, li 22 Luglio, 1901. 



II 

PISA, li 9 Agosto, 1901. 
Ill mo Sig. GOODYEAR: 

Ho esaminato le misure da Lei prese nei monumenti di Pisa e posso 
affermare che le prove sono complete per le cose segue nti. 

1. Che la facciata della Cattedrale di Pisa e stata inclinata per inten- 
zione nella originale costruzione. 

2. Che tutte le curve di questo edificio sono state fatte con intenzione 
nella originale costruzione, sia le curve orizzontali come quelle verticali. 

3. Che le linee oblique delle gallerie interne, sono state costrutte nel 
modo che oggi si vede. 

4. Che la grande cornice esterna e obliqua pure per costruzione. 

Con ogni ossequio, 

Delia S.Y. Ill ma , 

Devot mo , . 

Ing. ANNIBALE MESSERINI. 



Ill 

BASILICA DI S. MARCO 

IN VENEZIA. 

DIREZIONE DEI RESTAURI 
E DELLO STUDIO DI MOSAICO. 

VENEZTA, 19 Agosto, 1901. 
CHIARISSIMO SIGNORE : 

Permettemi anzitutto che mi congratuli con Voi degli important! studi 
che andate facendo da molti anni sopra i monumenti antichi e in ispecie 
intorno a certe particolaritk di costruzione in gran parte sin qui ignorate 



196 WILLIAM H. GOODYEAR 

e che rivelano sapient! e ingegnosi artifizi usati dagli architetti che li 
eressero, per ottenere effetti prospettivi singolari. Gia si sapeva corne, per 
esempio, ne' monumenti di architettura medioevale si avesse il costume 
d' inclinare all' inf uori i frontoni e le cuspidi con gli ornamenti sovrapposti, 
come si fa anche in oggi per i quadri e per le statue. In particolare questo 
artifizio vedesi usato assai marcatamente nelle cuspidi della facciata princi- 
pale della nostra Basilica di San Marco ; non cosi in quelle delle facciate 
laterali, perche F architetto che le ricostrui, nei restauri di circa trenta anni 
or sono, non capi il magistero che aveva presieduto al loro collocamento e le 
mise a piombo. Lo stesso artifizio vedesi usato nella Porta della Carta del 
Palazzo Ducale e in tanti altri monumenti anche fuori di Venezia, come 
per esempio nel Sepolcro degli Scaligeri a Verona. Si sa del pari che nella 
stessa nostra Basilica la facciata principale e disposta in curva sensibilmente 
rientrante. 

Cosi i sei minareti della stessa facciata non sono eguali in altezza, ma 
vanno salendo da una parte e dall' altra verso la cuspide centrale. Che si fa 
eccezione quello dell' angolo sud-ovest, egli e perche fu rifatto in seguito ad 
un incendio e chi lo rifece non s' accorse dell' artifizio e lo costrusse eguale 
al penultimo. 

Voi poi trovaste nuove particolaritk di questo genere che io aveva sempre 
creduto accidentali, ma che essendo comuni a tanti altri monumenti 
devono accettarsi quali veri artifizi di costruzione. Tali sono le colonne 
della facciata della nostra Basilica sensibilmente pendenti all' infuori 
iielP ordine inferiore e a piombo nel superiore. Tali sono pure i piedritti 
interni sostinenti le volte maggiori che P inclinano all' indentro, aumen- 
tando cosi notevolmente la corda dell' arco che si corrisponde, in confronto 
della base, senza che P arco presenti qualsiasi abbassamento o deformazione ; 
il che dimostrerebbe che cosi fossero stati disposti fino dall' origine. Tali 
sono finalmente i parapetti delle gallerie composti a plutei, che vanno da un 
arcata all' altra lungo le braccia della crociera, i quali sono marcatamente 
curvilinee con la convessita all' insu. Bisogna certo ammettere che special- 
mente in quest' ultimo esempio qualche deformazione possa essere stata 
causata, o per lo meno aumentata, dallo squilibrio dei pesi delle masse 
murali sopra un terreno cedevole come quello di Venezia. Tuttavia il caso 
e troppo costante perche si possa ammetterlo siccome puramente accidentale 
in via assoluta. 

Del resto gli studi che voi andate facendo sono molto interessanti e 
possono condurre anche ad altre scoperte piii important! ancora; per cui 
sono a congratularmene e in pari tempo vi prego di credermi quale ho 
P onore di professarmi. 

Vostro dev. servo, 

PIETRO SACCARDO. 

Sig. Wm. H. Goodyear, Curatore delle Belle Arti 
nel Museo di Brooklyn a Nuova York. 



1901 
July December 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS 1 

SUMMARIES OF ORIGINAL ARTICLES CHIEFLY IN 
RECENT PERIODICALS 



GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 

The Representation of the Gallop in Art. In R. Arch. XXXIX,. 
1901, pp. 1-11 (3 figs.), S. REINACH concludes his discussion of the repre- 
sentation of the gallop. The relations of Europe with the Tartars and 
Chinese began in the thirteenth century, but the first definite mention of 
Chinese porcelain is in the fifteenth century. From that time, importations, 
of Chinese porcelain become more frequent. Mongol types appear in paint- 
ings of Pisariello and other Italian artists. The galop volant is familiar to 
the Chinese. It appears in European art toward the close of the eighteenth 
century, and its appearance may be due, at least in part, to the influence of' 
Chinese art. The article closes with a brief resume of the results of the= 
whole discussion. 

Costume Deformities. In the New York Medical Journal, October 26" r 
1901 (6 pp. ; 6 figs.), Dr. E. H. BRADFORD calls attention to the deformities 
produced by costumes, especially by the modern corsets, suspenders, hose 
supporters, and skirts hung from the waist. Examples of normal and ab- 
normal figures are given. Even ancient Greek statues show some slight 
costume deformities, due to the wearing of the girdle. 

Ancient Places and Names of Places. In R. A re h. XXXVIII, 1901, 
pp. 395-406, VICTOR BKRARD continues his discussion of the Phoenicians 
and the Odyssey. (See Am. J. Arch. 1901, pp. 226, 453.) He discusses the 
objects in which the Phoenicians traded, especially the linens and purple 
cloths, and in connection with the latter, the purple fisheries. The city of . 
Cyparissus is identified with Ambrysus. Iron, used chiefly for utensils, is 
briefly treated. It was found in many places in Greece and elsewhere. 
Ibid. XXXIX, pp. 93-109, ^aA/cos, which Berard thinks is bronze, is dis- 

1 The departments of Archaeological News and Discussions and of Bibliography of 
Archaeological Books are conducted hy Professor FOWLER, Editor-in-charge, assisted 
by Miss MARY H. BUCKINGHAM, Professor HARRY E. BURTON, Professor JAMES C. 
EGBERT, JR., Professor ELMER T. MERRILL, Dr. GEORGE N. OLCOTT, Professor 
JAMES M. PATON, and the Editors, especially Professor MARQUAND. 

No attempt is made to include in the present number of the JOURNAL material 
published after December 31, 1901. 

For an explanation of the abbreviations, see pp. 99, 100. 

197 



198 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

cussed. The numerous ancient sources of tin are mentioned, and the 
importance of the Phoenicians as manufacturers and traders in bronze is 
emphasized. Just as several of the Greek words for garments are of 
Phoenician origin, so several of the names of weapons are Phoenician. 
Chalcis probably never had copper mines, but may have been a place where 
copper objects were made, or at least sold. Several place-names, on the 
island of Elba, in Italy, and elsewhere, are shown to be Phoenician. Ibid. 
pp. 213-228, glass ware and ornaments are discussed. The water route from 
the Mediterranean to the Baltic by way of the Volga was known in very 
early times. Many Semitic names and other traces of Phoenician traders 
are found along the Mediterranean coast of Asia Minor, and in the regions 
by the Dardanelles and the Black Sea. Other ancient river routes are dis- 
cussed. Ibid. pp. 401-424, the frequent recurrence of the numbers six and 
seven in the Homeric poems is adduced as evidence of strong Phoenician 
influence. The names of birds, /o/v (*??> /cava, /cavr^), di/OTraia, aieros, 
O-KWI//, and <O>AO/, seal, are transcribed from Semitic originals. The island of 
Santorin once had a Phoenician settlement. The Greek name, Thera, is from 
the Semitic Tar, and is identical in meaning with the other Greek name of 
the island, KaAAi'oTvy. Other " doublet names " of Greek and Phoenician 
origin are mentioned. This series of articles is to be published by Colin, 
under the title, Les Pheniciens et VOdyssee. 

Egyptian Cutting-out Tools. In Biblia, November, 1901, pp. 247-249 
(fig.), W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE discusses a series of knife blades of peculiar 
shapes. These he explains as tools intended for cutting out textile fabrics, 
as scissors were not known to the Egyptians. 

The Wall of Anastasius at Constantinople and the Dobrudja 
Walls. These two lines of defence were inspected by C. SCHUCHHARDT 
in 1898. The former, running from the Sea of Marmora to the Black Sea, 
about thirty-five miles west of the Bosphorus, is buried under accumulations 
of earth ; but its structure of masonry and concrete can be discovered, as 
well as the towers, gate-posts, and camps. Inscriptions show that it was in 
use in the tenth century. Of the three walls running from the Black Sea at 
Tomi to the Danube, it is found that the earliest is an earthwork erected by 
barbarians against the Romans, that the second is a genuine Roman work 
similar to the limes of the Province of Germany, and that the third, or stone 
wall, belongs to the fourth century, and has some markedly German features. 
A full account will be published by the native scholar, Tocilescu, who has 
been carrying on the excavations. (Jb. Arch. I. XVI, iii, 1901, pp. 107-127; 
pi. ; 31 cuts.) 

The Neolithic Epoch in the Tonsus Valley (Eastern Roumelia). 
In R. Arch. XXXIX, 1901, pp. 328-349 (18 figs.), JEROME, of the Augustines 
of the Assumption, describes his collection of antiquities from the Tell 
Racheff, near Jamboli. Among these are only two small pieces of bronze 
and five horn utensils. Objects of prehistoric pottery number seventy-four, 
seven pyramidal weights (?), two balls, seven figurines (three of which 
represent animals), two moulds, and fifty-one vases of various shapes, with 
linear and geometrical ornaments. 

Connection between Mycenaean Civilization and Italy. Objects 
of Mycenaean manufacture found on the Scoglio del Tonno at Tarentum, in 
a stratum resting upon a terramara, show a connection between the civiliza- 



GENERAL] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1901 199 

tion of Mycenae and the last period of the Italian bronze age, which is the 
time of the terramare. (Q. QUAGLIATI, B. Paletn. It. 1900, pp. 285-288; 
2 figs.) 

Pliny as an Historian of Art. In Jb. Arch. I. XVI, 1901, pp. 75-107, 
D. DETLEFSEN discusses Pliny's own contribution to Books XXXIV- 
XXXVI of the Hist. Nat., and his use of Varro's Hebdomades. He finds 
that passages in XXXIV and XXXV (bronze sculpture arid painting) and 
the larger part of XXXVI (marble sculpture, for which literary sources were 
apparently scanty) are taken from a catalogue of the works of art in temples 
and public places in Rome, forming part of the censor's report of 73 A.D. 
These passages are distinguished by a topographical arrangement according 
to the fourteen regions of the city and by a prescribed form of statement. 
Additions to the items are from Pliny's own observation, being either in- 
formation derived from the inscriptions on the bases of statues, or references 
to popular estimation of the works or to their standing in the Temple of 
Peace (75 A.D.) or in other buildings of Vespasian. In the indices, Pliny 
distinguishes the original portions by giving numbers. It seems probable 
that he had a large share in preparing this official catalogue, perhaps as 
curator operum publicorum. 

Hermes-Thoth. In Jb. V. Alt. Fr. 107 (1901), pp. 45-49 (woodcuts), 
A. FURTWANGLER adds further remarks on the Hermes-Thoth (Hermes 
with a feather quill rising from his hair) to his article in Jb. V. Alt. Rh. 
103, pp. 6 if., and G. LOESCHCKE publishes a similar marble head of Hermes 
now in the museum at Bonn. 

Five-wells Tumulus, Derbyshire, England. In Reliq. VII, 1901, pp. 
229-242 (14 fig's.), JOHN WARD describes in some detail the Five-wells 
tumulus in Derbyshire. The tumulus is nearly circular, and has two cham- 
bers, each entered by a passage. At different times, skulls and other human 
remains have been found in it. Flint instruments and other objects show 
that the tumulus belongs to the pre-metallic age. 

Megalithic Monuments of the Province of Constantine. In R. 
Arch. XXXIX, 1901, pp. 21-34 (8 figs.), Commandant CH. MAUMENE de- 
scribes monuments of the plateaux of the province of Constantine in Africa. 
These are circular in shape, of different sizes and different degrees of care in 
construction. The fundamental form is that of a dolmen surrounded by a 
cromlech. They have been regarded as prehistoric or as the work of some 
race which held temporary possession of the country. Roman inscriptions 
found on stones used .in building some of them show that they are not pre- 
historic. They are really the work of the Berber inhabitants, the remote 
ancestors of the present Chaouias. Other buildings of the region are shown 
to belong to the same people. 

The Harbors of Carthage. R. OEHLER'S fourth article on the harbors 
of Carthage (cf. Am. J. Arch. 1900, p. 547) consists largely of extracts, with 
comment, from the report of the French ensign Hantz, who took up the work 
of Lieutenant de Roquefeuil. Remains of a mole inclosing the southern half 
of the bay of El Kram, south of Falbe's quadrilateral, are taken by Hantz to 
be remains of Scipio's mole; and on them he bases an explanation of the 
siege of 147 B.C., which is not accepted as conclusive by Oehler. (Arch. 
Anz. 1901, 3, pp. 140-147; 3 cuts.) 

The Tomb of the Christian. In the Scientific American, October 17, 



200 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

1901, is a description (1 fig.) and brief history of the so-called tomb of the 
Christian, supposed to be that of Juba II, the most striking burial monu- 
ment of northern Africa. 

ASIA 

Sogdianus, King of the Persians. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1901, pp. 
482-493, J. OPPERT discusses a cuneiform inscription on marble published 
by Scheil (Notes d'epigraphie et d'archeologie assyriennes, No. LVI). He finds 
it to be a forgery, but a forgery copied from a lost inscription which he 
restores to read : " Sogdianus, Achaemenides, King of Babylon (or of the 
countries). In the time when I built this house for the residence of my 
royalty on the land of Babylon, that which is the centre of Babylon ..." 
This Sogdianus, one of the natural sons of Artaxerxes I, reigned for some 
six and a half months from January to July, 424 B.C. His name is probably 
derived from the country of his birth, Sogdiana. The chronology of the 
Persian kings is discussed. 

P. J. Mariette's Notes on Baalbek and Palmyra. In the library of 
the Institut de France are copies of Robert Wood's Ruins of Heliopolis, other- 
wise Baalbek (London, 1757), and Ruins of Palmyra, otherwise Tedmor in the 
Desert (London, 1753), which once belonged to P. J. Marie tte. At the back 
of the Palmyra there are bound into the volume a review of the book by Bar- 
thelemy; Reflexions on the Alphabet and Language of Palmyra, by Barthe- 
lemy ; two inscriptions of Palmyra ; a manuscript letter by a French traveller 
named Granger, to the Count of Maurepas ; some researches on Palmyra by 
Mariette ; a view of Palmyra drawn by Mariette after an original by Giraud j 
a manuscript on Palmyra by the architect Soufflot ; and two letters from 
Barthelemy to Mariette. At the end of the Baalbek are fifteen plates after 
drawings by Desrnonceaux ; his Observations on the Antiquities of Baalbek, 
dated 1758; an extract from a letter of Granger to Count Maurepas on 
Baalbek ; the description of the ruins of Baalbek by the consul Poullard ; 
Mariette's copy of a drawing by Giraud of the port of Tripoli in Syria; and 
Barthelemy's article on Wood's Baalbek. The most valuable parts of these 
articles and letters are published by Paul Perdrizet in the Revue des ^Etudes 
Anciennes, III, 1901, pp. 225-264; 3 figs. 

The Image of Jupiter Heliopolitanus. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1901, pp. 
437-482 (3 pis.), Father RONZEVALLE, of Beyrouth, publishes a relief from 
Deir el-Qala'a with the inscription [7](oyi) [P~\(ptimo} M(aximo) H(eliopo- 
lilano), M. Pultius Felicianus, M. Pultius Ti \be~\ rinus, filius. The relief rep- 
resents a beardless person wearing a calathus. In his right hand he bran- 
dishes a whip. An object in his left hand is a pine cone. His body is 
covered with a sort of breastplate divided into zones of squares in which are 
trefoil and quatrefoil flowers. The person has no legs. At each side of him 
is a much mutilated bull. This may not be an accurate representation of 
the idol in the temple of Zeus at Heliopolis, but is certainly derived from it. 
Passages in Macrobius (Saturnalia) and Pseudo-Lucian (De Dea Syria} relat- 
ing to the Apollo and Hadad of Hieropolis and to the Zeus of Heliopolis 
and his origin are discussed. The cult at Heliopolis was probably imported 
from On in Egypt before the time of Alexander. The relief from el-Ferzol, 
representing a mounted figure and a youthful deity (Adonis) is republished. 
Several dedications to the Zeus of Heliopolis are published, and the impor- 



ASIA] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1901 201 

tance of his cult is emphasized. The relations of Heliopolis to Egypt are 
discussed. 

Inscriptions in Palestine. In the Mittheilunyen und Nachrichten d. 
deutschen Palaestina-Vereins, 1900, pp. 17-21, several Palestinian inscriptions 
are discussed by SCHURER. The inscription from the propylaea at Gerasa 
is reprinted with new supplements. It belongs to the year 162 A.D. As 
Attidius Cornelianus is mentioned as governor of Syria, it is clear that 
Gerasa still belonged to that province. It became a part of the province of 
Arabia toward the close of the reign of Antoninus Pius. 

A Stele from Amrith. In C. R. Acad. Inst. 1901, pp. 496-508, de 
Clercq discusses a stele in his possession, said to have been found near Am- 
rith. A person holding a curved staff is walking upon a lion which is walk- 
ing upon the tops of two hills. The person holds a small lion by the paw. 
Above is a disk and crescent, and still higher a winged disk. The style is a 
mixture of Egyptian and Assyrian. According to de Clercq the monument 
is Hittite, of the fourth or fifth century B.C. Ibid. pp. 509-511, Ph. Berger 
discusses the inscription on the stele. He reads two lines " [some one] has 
erected this monument to his Lord [??] because he has heard his voice. 
May he bless him." Ibid. pp. 373-383 (and 511-512) Ch. Clermont-Gan- 
neau finds that the monument is Phoenician, not Hittite. It was published 
(imperfectly in some respects) by him (Mission en Palestine et en Phe'nicie 
entreprise en 1881. Cinquieme rapport, pp. 128-129, No. 199, pi. vi) and by 
Perrot and Chipiez (Hist, de I' Art dans I'Antiquite, III, p. 413). He reads the 
inscription, which he finds consists of three lines : " This is the stele (nesib) 
which . . . baal (?) . . . son of Abdis (?) has dedicated to his Lord Cha- 
drapha (?), for he has heard the voice of his words (?) " The person repre- 
sented is a divine hero or a god, rather than, as de Clercq suggested, a king. 
The crescent holding a disk is probably the " new moon with the old moon 
in her arms." 

Two Days in Phrygia. In the Revue des iZtudes Anciennes, III, 1901, 
pp. 269-279, W. M. RAMSAY gives the results of two days spent in Phrygia. 
He found that Trajanopolis was situated at Tcharik-Keui, and that Kera- 
mon- Agora was probably at Sousouz-Keui. At Erjish he read several 
additional words and letters materially improving the text of the Jewish 
inscription (Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygia, No. 559). At the station of 
Banaz, two hours from Ahat-Keui, he copied a long inscription of Akmonia, 
containing part of the testament of Praxias. In this the testator provides 
that roses be offered at his tomb on the day of Eudaimosyne, in the month 
Panemos. Among deities mentioned is the Ephesian Artemis. The date is 
95 A.D. A second inscription, evidently from the heroum of Praxias, shows 
that he was a Roman citizen. Another inscription is in honor of L. Egna- 
tius Quartus, of the Roman tribe of Tereteina, at Akmonia. Still another 
is in honor of A. Claudius Julianus. An inscription on an altar with a 
relief representing a horseman (also at Banaz) is in honor of a hierophant 
Telesphorus. Two others are simple epitaphs. An inscription from Thya- 
tira, in Latin, states that M. Antonius Galata gave the city by his will, in 
his own name and that of his parents, M. Antonius Galata and Antonia 
Pontice, something connected with the water supply. A Greek inscription 
from Ambar-Arasi states that the senate and people of Sidamaria dedicated 
a bath to the emperor Trajan. All the inscriptions mentioned are published. 



K 



202 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

The Sarcophagus of Ambar-Arasi. In the Revue des fctudes And- 
ennes, 1901, p. 358, W. M. RAMSAY calls attention to the remarkable simi- 
larity between the great sarcophagus from Ambar-Arasi (Sidamaria), which 
he saw at the railway station at Konia (cf. Ibid. p. 278), and the smaller 
sarcophagus from Liberia, now in the Ottoman Museum at Constantinople. 
Both are apparently by the same artist, who may have gone from Tarsus to 
Sidamaria. 

GREECE 

ARCHITECTURE 

The Development of the Greek Temple. In the Gaz. B.-A. 1901, pp. 
55-68 (12 figs.), HENRI LECHAT continues his treatment of the 'Origin and 
Development of the Greek Temple' (see Am. J. Arch. 1901, p. 458). This 
article is devoted to the sculptured and painted adornment of the Doric 
temple, showing how it is dependent upon the architectural forms. The in- 
finite variety of proportions in different Doric temples, in spite of their gen- 
eral similarity, is emphasized. Ibid. pp. 139-153 (13 figs.), the Ionic temple 
is discussed. Its prototype had a sloping wooden roof, not the flat terrace 
of earth which covered the Mycenaean megaron, from which the Doric 
temple was developed. Hence the greater slenderness of the Ionic column, 
which supported merely an architrave, cornice, and roof. The frieze was 
borrowed from the Doric style, but changed to harmonize with the other 
features of the Ionic temple. The Ionic capital is derived from a rectangular 
block inserted between the upright shaft and the architrave. When the 
lower edges of the ends of this block are rounded, the volute becomes the 
most natural kind of ornament, especially in Asia, near the Assyrians and 
other peoples who had long employed various kinds of volutes. When Greek 
civilization spread over Asia after Alexander, it became sufficiently Asiatic 
to prefer the Ionic style to the more strictly Hellenic Doric. There is no 
Corinthian order, for Corinthian temples are merely Ionic temples with a new 
form of capital. The Tonic style made ornament far more important than 
did the Doric. In the Parthenon the Doric is influenced by the Ionic style. 

The Tholos at Epidaurus. At the July meeting of the Berlin. Arch. 
Gesellsch. B. GRAEF discussed Svonoros's article in the Revue Internationale 
d'archcologie numismatique on the tholos at Epidaurus, in which it is inferred 
from comparison with the round shrine of Palaemon with underground 
burial chamber at Corinth (Paus. II, 2. 1 and coins) that the building at 
Epidaurus was also a heroum (Arcli. Am. 1901, p. 149). 

The Greek House. In J.H.S. XXI, 1901, pp. 293-305 (13 figs.), E. A. 
GARDNER shows, partly by plans of houses at Delos, that the typical Greek 
house before the second century B.C. consisted of a single court, often called 
ywaiKwvms, with a living room, Tracrras, and a room for entertaining, dvSpo>i>, 
among the adjacent chambers; that the Mycenaean and Homeric hall with 
vestibule, which became the temple type of historic Greece, was a modifica- 
tion of the TraoTas ; that the two courts in the Palace at Tiryns belong to 
two separate houses ; and that the current notion of a house with two courts 
and complete separation of men and women arose from the Roman use of 
such houses and from misinterpretation of Vitruvius. 

The Date of the Dionysiac Theatre at Athens. In Sitzb. Mun. Akad. 
1901, iii, pp. 411-416, A. FURTWANGLER finds that the new temple of Diony- 



GREEK SCULPTURE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1901 203 

sus was evidently built at the same time as the Dionysiac theatre and its 
annex, the stoa. The date of the temple is fixed about 421-413 B.C. cer- 
tainly not much later by the statement of Pausanias that Alcamenes made 
the statue in it. The temple is, however, not the one dedicated by Nicias, 
which was a much smaller edifice. The date of the temple of Dionysus 
determines the date of the theatre, which therefore belongs to the fifth 
century B.C. It is the first building in which foundations of conglomerate 
blocks, with upper parts of poros and Hymettus marble are employed. The 
alteration attributed by Dorpfeld to Hellenistic times is due rather to 
Lycurgus. 

The Theatre at Syracuse. In A then. Mitth. XXVI, 1901, pp. 9-32 
(1 cut), E. DRERUP gives the results of a study of the Greek theatre in Syra- 
cuse made in 1899, with a plan by Koldewey. The ancient references to the 
theatre lead to the conclusion that the stone theatre was probably built 
before the middle of the fourth century B.C. The remains of the stage 
buildings are scanty. The Greek proscenium may be represented by a foun- 
dation wall, which evidently supported columns, but it has probably disap- 
peared, and this represents the Roman scaenae frons, which would have 
occupied the exact line of the Greek proscenium. About 4 m. in front of 
this is a foundation with holes in which were placed wooden posts for a low 
stage. As this stage was not as wide as the back wall, and projected into 
the orchestra across the parodoi in a way unparalleled in any known Greek 
theatre, it is interpreted to be the low wooden stage for the phlyakes of 
Ehinthon and his successors. It was a temporary structure and could be 
easily removed to leave the orchestra free for the performances of the Greek 
dramas. The further history of the stage in Roman times is also traced. 
Drerup accepts Dorpf eld's views as opposed to Puchstein's. This paper is a 
preliminary study of this important theatre. 

SCULPTURE 

A Stele from Nisyros. In R. Arch. XXXIX, 1901, pp. 158-166 (1 pi.), 
S. REINACH publishes a stele from Nisyros, now in the museum at Constan- 
tinople. The relief represents a standing nude youth. The work belongs 
to about 470 B.C. It is a product of the Ionic or Island school of sculpture. 
Other works of this school and its offshoots are briefly discussed. The pedi- 
ment groups of Olympia belong to the same school. The stele from Nisyros 
is one of the finest of the series of Island stelae. 

The Tyrannicides at Naples. In Rom. Mitth. 1901, pp. 97-108, E. 
PETERSEX discusses certain points from a further study of the statues in 
view of the opinions of SAUER (Rom. Mitth. 1900, pp. 219 ff.). Harmodius 
cannot have held the scabbard in his left hand. The original relative posi- 
tion of the two statues is studied from the drapery over the left arm of 
Aristogeiton in the statue and in the well-known relief. Harmodius was 
the prominent figure in the group, which was so placed that the left side 
was toward the passing throng. But Aristogeiton stood a trifle in advance. 

The Cow of Myron. RICHARD DELBRUCK, in Rom. Mitth. 1901, pp. 
42-46 (pi.), describes the marble cow of the Museo dei Conservatori, and 
argues that the original was the bronze cow of Myron. 

The Lancelotti Discobolus. In Sitzb. Mun. Akad. 1901, v, pp. 705- 
708, A. FURTW ANGLER announces that a cast of the head of the Lancelotti 



204 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

Discobolus is in the collection of casts in the Louvre (No. 1402, " tete de 
Mercure"), and copies of it are obtainable. The hair is carelessly and im- 
perfectly done, and the Berlin replica is the only one which gives a good 
idea of the hair of the original work of Myron. The newly identified cast 
proves, however, that the Lancelotti replica gives the best idea of the face, 
which has much more life than one would imagine, judging from the exist- 
ing photographs. The difference between this and Polyclitan heads, like 
that of the " Idolino," is marked. 

The Discus-thrower of Myron, and Other Figures. H. LUCAS, in 
Rom. Mitth. 1901, pp. 244-257 (fig.), gives a note on the history of the My- 
ronian statue of the discus-thrower, now in the Capitoline Museum at Rome, 
and discusses two other antiques : 1. A female helmeted figure on one of the 
Corinthian capitals in the great hall of the Baths of Caracalla is doubtless 
Roma, as Matz believed. It was probably a reproduction of a well-known 
statue, perhaps a cult-statue, which itself is best represented by a torso in 
the Naples Museum (ARNDT-AMELUNG, Einzelaufnahmen, III, 771). 2. A 
head in the cortile of the Vatican Belvedere is wrongly placed on a draped 
female body of the Hellenistic age (see CLARAC-REINACH, Stat. Gr. I, 278, 
6). It is surely the head of a young man, not, as has been generally sup- 
posed, of a woman, and is a good Roman copy of a work of Peloponnesian 
art of the first half of the fifth century B.C. 

New Light on the Sculptures of the Parthenon. In Harper's Maga- 
zine, December, 1901, pp. 12-18 (7 figs.), CHARLES WALDSTEIN discusses 
three marble statuettes in the Albertinum at Dresden. The three figures 
were " thrown in " with some other sculptures bought in Rome in 1892. One 
is so ill preserved that it is neglected in the discussion. The two others are 
a reclining male figure, 0.35 m. long by 0.20 m. high, and a seated female 
figure 0.31 m. in length and in breadth. Both lack the heads, the male 
figure lacks the lower part of the legs, and the female figure lacks the arms.. 
The male figure is a copy of the " Cephissus " from the western pediment of 
the Parthenon, somewhat modified in the upper part so as to resemble the 
"Theseus" or "Olympus" from the eastern pediment. The skin of an 
animal drops from the knee of the raised right leg to the left leg. Exami- 
nation of the " Cephissus " from the pediment shows that this motive once 
belonged to that figure. The upper part of the female figure is nude, the 
lower part draped. The statuettes evidently belonged to a pediment group 
of small size, as did the statuettes of similar dimensions found some years 
ago at Eleusis, which represent figures from the Parthenon. The two figures 
in Dresden evidently belong together, and the male figure is a copy of a 
figure from the Parthenon. The female figure is, then, a copy of one of the 
lost figures, probably one which was placed a little to the left of the centre of 
the eastern pediment. The name Aphrodite is suggested. The importance 
of the " Cephissus " and the relation of Scopas to the art of the pediments of 
the Parthenon are briefly discussed. 

An Aphrodite of the Fifth Century B.C. On the Doria-Pamphili 
estate at Rome there is a statue of Aphrodite, a standing figure clothed in 
chiton and himaiion. This is described for the first time by W. AMELUNG in 
Rom. Mitth. 1901, pp. 21-32 (2 pis. ; 1 fig.). It is shown to be a copy of an 
original of the second half of the fifth century B.C., and its connection with 
the Parthenon sculptures is apparent. 



GREEK SCULPTURE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1901 205 

A Portrait of Pericles. The sixty-first Winckelmannsprogramm of the 
Berlin Archaeological Society discusses a term of Pentelic marble brought 
from Lesbos, and now in the Berlin Museum. It is evidently a replica of the 
portrait of Pericles, well known from the terms in the Vatican and in the 
British Museum. The Berlin portrait resembles the replica in the Vatican 
more closely than that in London. The likeness of Pericles mentioned by 
Pausanias was a statue, not a term. This result is reached after careful dis- 
cussion of the existing evidence. (JJeber ein Bikinis des Perikles in den 
Kdniglichen Museen. von REINHARD KEKULE VON STRADONITZ. Berlin, 
1901, Reimer. 22 pp. ; 3 pis. ; 9 figs. 4to.) 

The Aphrodite of Melos and the Base with the Inscription of 
Theoridas. In Sitzb. Mun. Akad. 1901, v, pp. 708-714, A. FURTWANGLER 
says that the inscription of Theoridas undoubtedly belongs to the herm of 
the bearded Dionysus in the Louvre (see Am. J. Arch. 1901, pp. 234, 465 f.), 
but Voutier's drawing of the base is incorrect. The inscription belongs to 
the first half of the fourth century B.C. Nothing proves that the inscription 
of ... avSpo? of Antioch belongs to the other herm found with the Aphrodite. 
He still maintains that a column must have stood beside the Aphrodite. The 
statue and the herms were found in a niche, which was probably part of a 
gymnasium dedicated to Hermes. The Poseidon from Melos, now in Athens, 
has no connection with the other inscription of Theoridas found near it at the 
site of the sanctuary of Poseidon. The Aphrodite and the Poseidon are works 
of about the same date, both much later than the inscriptions of Theoridas. 

Votive Relief from Rhodes in the British Museum. In Rom. Mitth. 
1901, pp. 258-263 (fig.)> W. AMELUNG argues, as against Perdrizet (B.C.H. 
1899, pp. 559 ff.; cf. Am. J. Arch. 1901, p. 468), that in the said relief the 
female figure is Isis (as A. S. Murray had interpreted it), and the enthroned 
male figure may also be Sarapis, though that is not certain. A third figure, 
of which only the right arm holding a palm branch is preserved, is certainly 
a divinity, perhaps Nike. Amelung proceeds to point out the importance of 
the relief as an indication of the development of the style of sculpture toward 
that of painting. 

Inscriptions on Professed Portraits of Famous Greeks. CH. HUEL- 
SEN discusses the mediaeval collections of portrait herms and busts, and adds 
a critically edited collection of inscriptions thereupon in Rom. Mitth. 1901, 
pp. 117-208 (2 pis.; 1 fig.). 

The So-called Portrait of Sappho. In R. Arch. XXXIX, 1901, pp. 
301-307 (2 pis.), G. E. RIZZIO publishes a head in the Biscari Museum at 
Catania, which he associates with the herm in the Galleria Geographica of 
the Vatican. This latter is classed by Bernoulli among Portraits of Sappho, 
while Visconti regarded it as an Aphrodite. Rizzio discusses the so-called 
portraits of Sappho, and finds that they are not all the same type. Some of 
them are idealized portraits, while others are heads of a goddess. He sug- 
gests that the original of the Biscari head and the herm in the Galleria 
Geographica may have represented a nymph or a Muse. The head in Naples 
(Mus. Borbon. IV, 38, 1) is published without the restorations. It is a 
portrait, perhaps based upon an Aphrodite of about 420 B.C. No portrait of 
Sappho can as yet be identified. 

The Statue on the " Burnt Column " in Constantinople, In Hermes, 
XXXVI, 1901, pp. 457-469, THEODOR PREGER writes of the statue which 



206 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

once stood on the column in the forum at Constantinople. This statue 
represented Helius, and was set up by Constantine, who identified himself 
with the god. Tzetzes ascribes the statue to Phidias, but his testimony is in 
this case worthless. The statue probably came from Ilium, and is to be 
ascribed to the Hellenistic period. 

The New Bronze Ephebus. The statue of a youth found at Pompeii 
in November, 1900, is published and discussed by A. SOGLIANO in Mon. 
Antichi, X, 1901, pp. 641-654 (11 pis.; 5 cuts). It is a Polyclitan type modi- 
fied by Attic feeling and by the living model, and belongs to the last years of 
the fifth century B.C. The silver coating and the object held in the hand 
were added not long before the destruction of Pompeii, when the statue was 
used as a lamp-holder. 

Scene from the Iliad on Greek Sarcophagi. In Hermes, XXXVI, 
1901, pp. 393-403 (5 figs.), C. ROBERT discusses the representation on a 
sarcophagus found near Sparta between 1820 and 1830 (RAOUL ROCHETTE, 
Mon. Ined. pi. LIX, 2-5), which has since disappeared, and on fragments of 
other sarcophagi copied from the same original. The scene is, he finds, that 
of the conflict at the ships in the fifteenth book of the Iliad. 

VASES AND PAINTING 

Lessons from Greek Pottery. JOHN HOMER HUDDILSTON has pub- 
lished a series of chapters on the lessons to be drawn from Greek pottery by 
teachers and students of the classics who are not archaeologists. A bibliog- 
raphy of Greek ceramics is appended. After the introduction follow dis- 
cussions of the light thrown by vase paintings upon Greek History, Greek 
Religion and Mythology, the Larger Arts, the Vocations and Pastimes of 
Men, the Life of the Women, Greek Dress, Education, War and the Warrior's 
Equipment, Burial Customs, Epic Poetry, Lyric Poetry, and Comedy. The 
inscriptions on vases are treated in a separate chapter. The bibliography is 
arranged by a systematic classification. (Xew York, 1902, The Macmillan 
Company, xiv, 144 pp. ; 17 pis., among them four plates of vase-forms repro- 
duced from Furtwangler's catalogue of the Berlin collection. 12mo. $1.25.) 

A Boeotian Vase at Bonn. In Athen. Mitth. XXVI, 1901, pp. 33-37, 
pl.v; 2 figs.), F. POULSEN publishes a Boeotian vase of the geometric style, 
now in the University Museum at Bonn. It is a drinking-cup without a foot 
and with two high handles. The technique and ornamental filling are 
Boeotian. The vase is somewhat late, as the ornaments are secondary to 
a hunting scene, repeated with some variations on both sides of the vase. It 
represents a huge boar attacked by two hunters armed with double-headed 
axes and lance, dart or sword. The painter has tried to bring more life and 
movement into his work than is usual in the geometric style. 

Scenes from the Iliad in Early Corinthian Vase Painting. In 
Hermes, XXXVI, 1901, pp. 387-393, C. ROBERT shows that two Corinthian 
plaques (pinakes) in the Berlin Museum and a Corinthian vase are decorated 
with representations of scenes from the Iliad. The first (FURTWANGLER, 
Vasensammlung, No. 764 ; Ant. Denk. I, pi. 7, 15) represents a scene from the 
aristeia of Diomedes, Iliad, V, 297-310. Athena is acting as Diomedes's 
charioteer by anticipation of V, 835 if. The second plaque is a mere frag- 
ment, which Robert regards as an illustration to the passage in Iliad, VIII, 
261-334 (the KoAos yw-ax 7 ?)- The vase referred to was formerly in the Van 



GREEK VASES] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1901 207 

Branteghem collection, and is published Jb. Arch. I. VII, 1892, pi. 1. The 
scene is that of Iliad, XIX, 308 ff. The Atridae, Odysseus, Nestor, Idorne- 
neus, and Phoenix try to induce Achilles to break his fast. In the vase 
painting only Odysseus and Phoenix of these six chiefs are represented, but 
Briseis and other female captives are present. In the Iliad, XIX, 340-356, 
Athena gives Achilles nectar and ambrosia. In the painting, Thetis takes 
her place. The variations from the Iliad show not lack of acquaintance, but 
most intimate familiarity with the poem. 

An Amphora of Transitional Style. Two sorts of black-figured Attic 
amphorae have been recognized. In the one, the body of the vase is black, 
and the figures are in black upon a rhomboidal area left red. In the other 
the whole body of the vase is red, and the figures (and other ornamentation) 
are in black, but are not confined to a bounded area. Examples have been 
found of vases of the first sort that by their modified technique show the 
transition from the black to the red-figured style. No such transitional 
example of the second sort appears to have been known till P. HARTWIG 
(Rom. Mitth. 1901, pp. 117-122 ; 1 pi. ; 1 fig.) described one which he bought 
in Rome, and which he attributes to Andocides. The persons represented 
are, on one side, a seated, draped Dionysus, before whom a nude satyr is 
kneeling ; on the other, two maenads. 

Painted Plaques from Eleusis. In 'E<. 'Ap^. 1901, pp. 1-50 (2 pis.; 
3 figs.), A. N. SKI AS publishes two terra-cotta plaques in the form of stelae 
with gables. Both were found at Eleusis, and are adorned with scenes con- 
nected with the Eleusinian cult. Both are broken in pieces, but the first is 
almost entirely preserved. Both are in the red-figured technique, but in the 
first much white is used. The nearly square surface of the first plaque, 
below the pediment, contains nine figures: Demeter and Cora seated, a 
youthful male figure (lacchus) and a female figure (Hecate), each holding 
two torches, Celeus, Demophon and Metaneira, Eumolpus, and his wife, the 
daughter of Celeus. The names, except lacchus and Hecate, are somewhat 
doubtful. In the pediment are the upper parts of five figures, perhaps 
Hippotheon, his two daughters (or two nymphs), and two youths. Nearly 
all the figures have branches in their hands and wreaths of leaves on their 
heads. Three women have covered vessels on their heads. These are ex- 
plained as Kt'pvoi, and the possible interpretations of /c<fpi/os or Kcp^vos are 
discussed. Originally the /cepvo? was a covered mixing-bowl in which the 
Kv/cewv, or mixture, was prepared. Afterward the word Kepvos was applied to 
other vessels used in religious ceremonies. Besides the /cepvoi, branches, and 
wreaths, other Eleusinian symbols in this painting are the omphalos and two 
objects, perhaps bundles of twigs, arranged in the form of the letter X. 
Other representations of Eleusinian deities are discussed, especially in con- 
nection with the figure called lacchus. The relations of lacchus and Eubou- 
leus to each other and to Pluto and Dionysus are explained. This plaque 
has an inscription, Nuvviov TOLV e[ot]v a [ytOrjKtv] . Some other letters 
scratched upon it are unexplained. The second plaque is much less well 
preserved. The pieces do not all join, and some of them may even belong 
to some other plaque. The best -preserved figure is the seated Demeter, 
before whom stands Cora. lacchus and Triptolemus were also represented, 
though but little of either now remains. The Demeter and Cora recall the 
figures of the great Eleusinian relief. In the pediment were a figure in rapid 



208 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

motion and some winged figures. At the left, just below the cornice 
which separates the pediment from the main field of the plaque, is a 
head in relief. A similar head was doubtless once in the corresponding 
place at the right. 

Vases Used in the Eleusinian Cult. Under the title MVO-TIKT; 
Upoa-rpoirrj Ai^w/Tpos KOL IIe/xre<6i/T?s, ST. N. DRAGOUMES publishes in A then. 
Mitth. XXVI, 1901, pp. 38-49, a discussion of the v/xiarTJ/oia, AiKva, and 
Ke'pxvot, with especial reference to the vases of peculiar form first published 
by Philios ('E<. 'Ap X . 1885, pp. 169-174) and the Eleusinian pinax pub- 
lished by von Fritze ('E<. 'Ap^. 1897, pp. 163-174). He first summarizes 
briefly the views of Philios, von Fritze, Kourouniotes, Rubensohn, and Skias, 
and then examines the testimony of the lexicographers, reaching the conclu- 
sion that the three words denote clay vases in common use at sacrifices and 
initiations. The three were used for similar purposes, the OvfjLiarrjpiov or 
etr^apts containing burning incense, the Alkvoi/, grains of wheat and seeds, 
the /cepxvo?, Kepvos, or /ce'pvov, seeds, oil, honey, wine, milk, unwashed wool, 
etc. The pinax represents the true prayer for purification. On the right 
are the immortals Demeter and Cora, with the torch-bearers, Hestia and 
lacchus; to them approach two women, with these vases on their heads, 
apparently advancing in the slow movement of the dance. They are at- 
tended by a youth bearing a torch, a boy with an oenochoe, and two bearded 
men with staves. These, however, are secondary characters; the inscription 
"N(a)vviov roTv Oeow a[yeOr)Ktv'] " shows that the women are the principal 
personages and are engaged in the solemn supplication of the great god- 
desses. The vases found in 1885 at Eleusis are properly called /cepxvot or 
Kepra ; among them are Al/cra and ecrxapi'Ses or 0v/w,iarrjpta ; the latter with 
the lids pierced. 

Throwing the Javelin at a Shield. The thirtieth programme of the 
Museum of the History of Art of the Wiirzburg University is entitled Zu den 
griechischen Agonen. The author, PAUL WOLTERS, publishes a flat-bottomed 
alabastron from Eretria on the front of which two horsemen are represented 
evidently engaged in a contest of javelin throwing at a shield. For the 
form of the vase several vases from Cyprus are compared. The handle has 
the form of cords tied in a knot the so-called Heracles knot, originally a 
simple square knot. The form of the knot is discussed. A vase in the 
Louvre (MiLLiN, Peintures des vases antiques, I, pi. 45) is republished, on 
which a similar contest is depicted. Welcker's opinion that javelin throw- 
ing at a shield was the chief contest at the Argive Heraea is disproved. 
Such a contest existed at various places, among others at Athens. 

Iris or Bendis? In Hermes, XXXVI, 1901, pp. 403-404, C. ROBERT 
calls attention to the headdress of Iris on the vase in St. Petersburg with a 
representation of the Judgment of Paris. This headdress resembles a fish 
fin or a cock's comb. On the ground that such a headdress could be worn 
only by a Thracian, B. Graef, Hermes, XXXVI, pp. 97 ff., called a figure on 
a Melian vase (Monuments Grecs, 1875, pis. i, ii ; Wiener VorlegeU. Ser. VII, 
pi. 7) Bendis ; Robert contends that it is Iris. 

Vases from the Acropolis at Athens; Imitation of Metal. In 
Athen. Mitth. XXVI, 1901, pp. 50-102 (pis. ii-iv; 82 cuts), C. WATZINGER 
describes the small objects, except those of stone, which were found in the 
German excavations on the west slope of the Acropolis. For the most part 



GREEK VASES] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1901 209 

these are fragments of Megarian and other ware of the third century B.C., 
but one Mycenaean dish of a new form, some red-figured fragments, relief 
ware of the fourth century B.C., and a few pieces of Greek terra sigillata are 
first described. The fragments of 'Megarian bowls/ including the few 
fragments from the Acropolis, are briefly described with reference to (a) the 
decoration of the edge, (6) the decoration of the body, including the merely 
ornamental, and that with figures, and (c) the decoration of the foot. The 
greater part of the article is occupied with the discussion of a special group 
of vases, of which thirty-four examples from various museums as well as 
from the excavations are described and illustrated. Three groups are dis- 
tinguished : in one the vases are covered with the fine Attic black metallic 
lustre, in the next this has become much poorer, a sort of grayish -black, 
and finally the glaze paint is gray or red. The development seems to have 
ended in the red-ware glaze. The course of development indicated by the 
color is confirmed by the decoration, which at first is geometric, and later 
shows naturalistic elements, such as cornucopiae, dolphins, bucrania, gar- 
lands, etc., and these again give place to engraved geometric patterns. For 
these ornaments two colors are used : a thick dirty yellow and a thin 
chalky white. In the plder examples the part of the vase not covered by 
the black glaze is colored dark red. These vases succeed the Attic vases 
of the end of the fourth century, where gilded or yellow garlands appear on 
the black ground. The development of the various forms of this class in 
their close dependence upon and imitation of the toreutic forms, and also 
their relations to the " Calener Schalen " and * Megarian ' bowls are discussed 
at length and illustrated by a mass of examples. The metal and clay vases 
are found in Asia Minor, Lower Italy, Boeotia, and Russia, but nowhere any 
metal forms which resemble those of Alexandria, so that it is probable that 
the metal original of this style was developed somewhere on the coast of 
Asia Minor. 

Illustrations to a Greek Novel. In Hermes, XXXVI, 1901, pp. 364- 
368, C. ROBERT discusses the wall paintings from an ancient house near the 
villa Farnesina, which Mau (Rom. Mitth. X, 1895, pp. 231 ff.) explained as 
illustrations of the fabulous judgments of the Egyptian king Bocchoris. 
Robert sees in the paintings illustrations of a Greek novel of travels and 
adventures of two comrades, and finds herein a new proof that the novel 
existed in the Augustan period. 

Niobe in a Pompeian Painting on Marble. In Hermes, XXXVI, 
1901, pp. 368-387, C. ROBERT discusses a Pompeian painting on marble 
(Giornale degli scavi di Pompei, nuova serie, II, tav. 9 ; Engelmann, Bilder- 
atlas zu Ovids MetamorpJiosen, Taf. ix, No. 67; Lex. Myth. Ill, p. 410, fig. 7). 
Niobe is trying to shield one of her daughters, while a nurse supports 
another who is dying. These groups are before a building with columns 
and antae. The scene is clearly derived from the theatre. The Niobe of 
Sophocles is recognized as the play illustrated in this painting. Fragments 
of the Niobe, published by Grenfell and Hunt (Greek Papyri, second series, 
p. 14, No. VI a), make this certain. Dorpf eld's theory of the Greek stage is 
supported by the building represented in the picture, the original of which 
was evidently famous, as it is imitated in sarcophagus reliefs and to some 
extent in the famous Florentine group of statues. The St. Petersburg relief 
(Friederichs-Wolters, No. 1866) is an eclectic work. 



210 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

INSCRIPTIONS 

The E at Delphi. In Hermes, XXXVI, pp. 470-489, W. H. ROSCHER 

maintains his previous position and brings new arguments to prove that the 
E at Delphi was equivalent to e? "go " or "come." He arranges the inscrip- 
tions on the temple in two hexameters : 

E?. 0eo> rjpa. Nd/xois TrecOev. 3>et8cv (TV xpdvoio. 
rVoi$i (Teavrdv. M^Scv ayav. 'Eyyua, Trdpa 8' arrj. 

In a note, p. 490, C. ROBERT expresses the opinion that the E had nothing 
to do with the proverbs. It was no longer understood in the fourth cen- 
tury B.C. 

Asclepius at Athens. In 'E<. 'Apx- 1901, pp. 97-112, S. K DRA- 
GOUMES republishes and discusses the inscription (C.I. A. II, 1649) concern- 
ing the foundation of the cult of Asclepius at Athens. The fragments of 
the inscription had not been properly arranged heretofore. The following 
chronological results are reached : 420-419 B.C., consecration of the sanctu- 
ary (in a general sense) ; 419-418, suit about a part of the land and cessa- 
tion of work in the sanctuary; 418-417, arrangement of the matter; 417- 
416, some work of unknown extent; 416-415, erection of the thrinkos or 
peribolus and preparation of the hedbs or temple ; 415-414, building of some 
wall from the xylopylion ; 414-413, building of the xylopylia, near which 
TO, Aonra TUV te/owv were placed; 413-412, planting and adornment of the 
whole temenos ; 412-411, the bringing of the sacred things (TO, tepa?). 

0eol 'EmKovpioi. In Hermes, XXXVI, 1901, pp. 448-450, ADOLF WIL- 
HELM shows that the letters E in the heading of C.LA. I, 170, do not 
stand for cot 7n/<ov/>ioi, but are the remains of [eoi 'A$]e[vaa ru^e. The 
heading of C.I. A. II, 814, reads E Ov n t E 0, and is to be supplemented to 
read 0]eo[i. 

Notes on the Text of the Parian Marble. In Cl.R. 1901, pp. 355-361, 
J. ARTHUR B. MUNRO continues (see CL R. 1901, pp. 149-154) his discussion 
of the text of the Parian marble, proposing several corrections of Boeckh's 
readings, and attempting to explain the reasons for some apparent mistakes. 

Hermes Kypharissiphas. In Hermes, XXXVI, 1901, pp. 452-456, 
F. HILLER VON GAERTRINGEN corrects the reading of an inscription pub- 
lished by J. Demargne in B.C.H. XXIV, 1900, pp. 241 ff. Instead of Kv<a- 
pia-(TL <J>aKi>A/\avie, he proposes to read Kv<api<rcri<a KvAAane. Not the hero 
Cyparissis or Cyparissus, but Hermes (the Cyllenian), with the epithet 
Kv<ap7(ri</>a9, is addressed. The occasion of the dedication was perhaps 
a successful theft. 

Magnesian Studies. The Festival of Artemis Leukophryene. In 
Hermes, XXXVI, 1901, pp. 491-515, OTTO KERN publishes the first of a pro- 
posed series of articles on Magnesia, the material for which is furnished by 
the Magnesian inscriptions. The festival of Artemis Leukophryene is here 
treated. It was established in accordance with the advice of the Delphic 
oracle, on account of an epiphany of the goddess, in 420-419 B.C. The date is 
given by the Stephanephorus at Magnesia (Zenodotus), the Athenian Archoii 
(Thrasyphon), a Boeotian Citharoedus, who was victorious at the Pythian 
games, and the Messenian Hagesidamus, victor in the pancratium at Olym- 
pia. When the great festival was first celebrated is not certain. It was 



GREEK INSC.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1901 211 

probably in 202 or 203 B.C. The festival was one of the greatest in Asia 
Minor. It consisted of a sacrifice, Ovcrta, and musical, gymnastic, and equestrian 
contests, dyoov <TTe<aviT775 IO-OTTV^IO? /JLOVVLKOS yv/xn/cos ITTTTIKOS. It was cele- 
brated once in four years for half a century, perhaps longer. 

Epigram from Astypalaea. In Hermes, XXXVI, 1901, p. 450, ADOLF 
WILHELM, with the aid of an Epidaurian inscription (Fouilles d'lZpidaure, 
267) reads the inscription /. G. Ins. Ill, 212, as follows : 

IIoAAd/a /cat] Trporepov n^rfcru TratSa <f?epr)ro<s 

KAei;//,/:?po]Tov dvr' dper^? 'AcrrvTrdAata wuTpts* 
OLVTL dya0eo]v 8e cpyoov avris crre^dvaxre SiKattos 
' Tr)]s Trporepas 



The Letter of Antigonus to the Scepsians. One of the inscriptions 
from Kurschunlu, published in J.H.S. XIX, 1899, pp. 350 ff., is a letter from 
Antiochus, of the year 311-310 B.C., announcing the conclusion of peace with 
Cassander, Lysimachus, and Ptolemy. In Hermes, XXXVI, 1901, pp. 450- 
452, W. DITTENBERGER proposes, in lines 21 ff., to read oVrcoi/ 8' [iy]//.iv TWV 
TT/OOS KdoxravSpov /cat Avcrt/xa^ov (7wreTAeo-/x.Va)V, Trpos (a) XIpCTreAaov 
CTre/xi^av auTo/cpdropa, /crA., making Prepelaus the envoy, not the one to 
whom an envoy was sent. 

Aristocreon, the Nephew of Chrysippus. In 'Ec/>. 'Ap^- 1901, pp. 49- 
58, ADOLF WILHELM discusses the inscription (C.I. A. IV, 2, No. 407, 
DITTENBERGER, Sylioge, ed. 2, No. 481), in honor of Aristocreon of Seleucia, 
who has been identified with the nephew of the philosopher Chrysippus. He 
publishes an inscription of twenty-five lines, recently found at Athens, in 
honor of Aristocreon, who had assisted Athenians who came to Antioch, and 
had afterward come himself, CTTI (rxoArjv, i.e. to study philosophy at Athens, 
where he had continued to show good will to the Athenians. The archon 
mentioned in this decree is Charicles ; the clerk is of the deme of Rhamnus, 
therefore of the tribe Aiantis. This fact fixes the date in the year 239-238, 
if De Sanctis (Riv. di Filologia, XXVIII, pp. 6 f.) and Kirchner (Getting . 
Gel Anz. 1900, p. 446) are right. The epigram quoted by Plutarch (De 
Stoic. Repugn, p. 1033 E) should read Tov vivvov Xpvo-nnrov 'Apicrro/cpeW 
dW077/ce, not Toi/Se veoi/ KT\. The word vtvvrj is found in C.LG. 1994 g, and 
an inscription containing the word vtVvov is published in this article. Ac- 
cording to Pollux, vvvos is an uncle on the mother's side. 

Officials and Festivals at Epidaurus. In 'Ec/>. 'Ap X . 1901, pp. 57-82, 
P. CAVVADIAS publishes an inscription found in a house of Roman date at 
Epidaurus. It gives, in abbreviated form, the votes of the /cardAoyoi rr;s 
/8ouAr/s in full meeting, in the month of Apellaios, for seventeen years, record- 
ing the appointment or election of proxenoi and OeapoSoKoi. Some of those 
mentioned are appointed to both offices, some only to that of proxenos. The 
/cardAoyot correspond nearly to the prytanes at Athens. The 0eapoS6/coi were 
appointed to receive messengers from the temple of Asclepius, and to promote 
the worship of the god in other cities. They were probably present in Epi- 
daurus at the time of their appointment ; and since the office entailed some 
expense upon them, they were probably men especially interested in the 
worship of Asclepius. Their presence at Epidaurus at the same time in the 
same month was doubtless due to the celebration of the Asclepiaea, which 
therefore took place in the month of Apellaios, corresponding to the Attic 



212 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

Scirophorion, our June or July. This also fixes the time of the Isthmian 
festival, which is known to have been nine days before the Asclepiaea. The 
four tribes of Epidaurus were the Dymanes, Hylleis, Azaritii, and Hysminaei. 
The names of thirty-two phratriae are given. The senate of the Epidaurians 
did not regularly meet in full session, but was divided probably into four 
tribal divisions for ordinary purposes, meeting in full session, however, at the 
time of the Asclepiaea. The inscription, which is somewhat fragmentary, 
and in many places illegible, is discussed in detail. 

The Inscription B. C. H., 1891, p. 430. In Berl. Phil. W., September 
14, 1901, R. PEPPMULLER discusses the reading and interpretation of the 
inscription from Stratonicea (Eski-Hissar) published by Cousin in B.C.H. 
1891, p. 430. 

An Orphic Formula. In R. Arch. XXXIX, 1901, pp. 202-212, S. 
REINACH discusses a series of gold plates with Orphic inscriptions (see 
DIETERICH, De Hymnis Orphicis ; FOUCART, Recherches sur les Mysteres 
d'lZleusis). The text is doubtful in part. The expression lpi<^os cs yaA.' 
ITTCTOI/ is especially discussed. *Epi<os, kid, is a title of Dionysus. The 
formula is explained : e/jtc/>os (I have become a kid) e? yaA' ITTCTOV (and I 
have found milk). 

Greek Inscriptions from Egypt. Twelve Greek inscriptions from 
Egypt are published and discussed by J. G. MILNE in J.H.S. XXI, 1901, 
pp. 275-292. Among the points noted are the use of an epithet TroAievs for 
Sarapis, the identification of Osiris and Sarapis, a contribution of private 
funds for the erection of a statue of Sarapis, the use of an unhellenized name 
of an Egyptian goddess, of the name Tryphaena for the wife of Ptolemy 
XIII, and of an Egyptian compound deity, Hermes-Heracles, the existence of 
a theatrical gymnastic association in the third century after Christ, the dedi- 
cation of a building to Hera by two Egyptian physicians, a dedication to 
Artemis of Perga, probably by Pamphylians at Naucratis, a dedication to 
Hermes by an association of ephebi, and a curious assemblage of Canopic 
gods (a style hitherto known only for Isis and Osiris) in connection with 
quotations from Homer. 

GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 

Prehistoric Crete. In the CJiron. d. Arts, 1901, Nos. 25-29, July 13 and 
27, August 10 and 24, September 7, S. REINACH continues his account of 
discoveries in Crete. (See Am. J. Arch. 1901, p. 474.) These chapters are 
devoted to recent discoveries, especially Mr. Evans's investigations into the 
Cretan alphabet, and the derivation from it of the Phoenician alphabet, and 
his discovery of the palace at Cnossus. The importance of these discoveries, 
which bring before us a European civilization at a time as early as 2000 B.C., 
is emphasized. 

The Neolithic Settlement at Cnossus. In Man, December, 1901, is 
an illustrated article by A. J. EVANS on The Neolithic Settlement at Knossos 
and its Place in the History of Early Aegean Culture/ The neolithic settle- 
ment has left remains which lie underneath the remains of the Kamares or 
early metal-age period. These are found below the remains of the transitional 
period, between the Kamares and the " Mycenaean " ages, which are below 
the " Mycenaean " remains. The lowest limit of the neolithic settlement was 
probably not later than 3000 B.C. (Biblia, January, 1902, pp. 328-330.) 



GREEK Misc.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1901 213 

The Double Axe and the Labyrinth. In J.H.S. XXI, 1901, pp. 268- 
274, W. H. D. ROUSE points out that Mr. Evans's theories on the sacred 
character of pillars and of the double axe as a symbol of Zeus, on the con- 
nection between labrys and labyrinth, and the identification of the Cnossian 
palace with the labyrinth, rest on very insecure foundation, because they take 
into account only a small part of the evidence. 

Stone Utensils from the Pelponnese. In 'E<. 'Apx- 1901, pp. 85-90 
(pi. v), CHR. TSOUNTAS publishes four stone axe heads found near Anemo- 
douri, at the foot of the hill at the south of the plain of Megalopolis. Relics 
of the stone age are rare in Greece. The circumstances of the discovery 
tend to show that these axes were not in a grave, but were buried with 
some religious intent. A fifth axe, found near the ancient Caryae, in 
Laconia, is also published. It shows signs of much use, which the others 
do not. 

The Marathonian Votive Monuments of the Athenians at Delphi. 
In Sitzb. Mun. Akad. 1901, III, pp. 391-411, A. FURTWANGLER assigns the 
stoa of the Athenians, which was built in front of the polygonal wall, to the 
time immediately after the successes of the Athenians against the Thebans 
and Chalcidians in. 506 B.C. Its columns were of Parian marble, its upper 
parts of wood. The treasury of the Athenians, mentioned by Pausanias, 
stood on a terrace, once larger than it now is, where the sacred way made a 
turn. The original inscription now lost w r as on a curb or step, below 
the treasury, running parallel to the sacred way. The treasury and the 
offerings connected with it were erected soon after the battle of Marathon. 
The large group of Miltiades, Athena, Apollo, and the ten Attic heroes had 
an inscription stating that it was erected from the spoils of Marathon, and 
Pausanias adds that it was a work of Phidias. It was, however, erected 
about 366, and was intended to emphasize the humiliation of Sparta, for the 
Spartan monument of Lysander stood opposite. The monuments erected 
by the Arcadians and the Argives at the same time were intended to form, 
in moral effect at least, a group with the Athenian monument. The compo- 
sition of the Athenian group of statues and the great niche in which it 
stood can belong to no time before the fourth century B.C. The great niche 
to which the Athenian group of statues is here (following Bulle and others) 
assigned, is marked by the foundations of what Homolle now regards as the 
base of the ex-voto of Lysander. 

The Ex-votos of Lysander at Delphi. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1901, pp. 
668-686, TH. HOMOLL.E discusses Lysander 's votive statues at Delphi. He 
publishes with corrections the inscriptions from the great group of Lysander 
and his nauarclwi (B.C.H. 1897, XXI, pp. 285 ff.), and adds new fragments. 
The great group consisted of nine bronze figures in front and twenty-nine 
smaller ones, placed somewhat higher, behind. The total length of the base 
was about 19.60 m. The only remains of a foundation of this size are at 
the right as one ascends the sacred way. The arrangement of the monu- 
ments along the sacred way is then : at the right, the Bull, the Ex-voto 
of Arcadia, the Ex-voto of Lysander, the Hemicycle of the Kings of Argos; 
at the left, the three new Eponymi of Athens, the Ex-voto of Marathon, 
the Trojan horse, the Epigoni, the Seven, Amphiaraus. Near the north- 
east corner of the temenos of Apollo a base was found with the following 
inscription : 



214 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 



eav aviBr)Ke[y CTT' epy]<*>[t r]a>iSe, ore 
Nav(Ti #ocus Trepcrev Ke [K] pOTriSav Swa/xcv 
TxravSpo?, Aa/ce8ai'(ju,o] i/a aTrop^r/rov <rTC^>avo>(ra [9] 
'EAAaSos aKp07ro[A.ii/, K] aXXi^opOfJi TrarpiSa. 



Here c^a/Aov is for e/c 5a/xov. This epigram adds a new poet, Ion of Samos, 
to the Greek Anthology. He may be the author of another epigram in 
honor of Lysander (Pans. VI, 314; Preger, Inscr. Gr. Metricae, No. 146). 
This base is of the same material as the base of the group of bronze statues, 
but cannot have formed a part of it. Probably it is the base of the marble 
statue of Lysander, mentioned by Plutarch, De Pyih. Orac. p. 33, 17 (Cicero, 
De Divinatione, I, 34, 75; II, 32, 68), which probably stood near the great 
altar. 

Eros and Psyche. In Rom. Mitth. 1901, pp. 57-93 (4 figs.), E. PETER- 
SEN has an article on Eros and Psyche in art. He makes three classes. 
First, Psyche alone, an allegory, the young girl representing the soul dis- 
tressed by love. Secondly, Eros and Psyche together. In the earlier repre- 
sentations Eros is not the lover, but the personification of the soul's love, 
and appears as a child, while Psyche is a girl of maturity. In a later type 
Eros is as old as Psyche, and is her lover, but the original of the Psyche in 
these groups is Nike. The early association of Eros and Nike is very clear, 
but this connection was forgotten, and the girl came to be regarded as 
Psyche. The Capitoline group is the best known example of this type. 
The third class contains representations of Eros alone. 

The Sx% a Tpiaivrjs in the Erechtheum. In J.H.S. XXI, 1901, pp. 
325-333 (2 cuts), M. P. NILSSON shows some marks in the form of a trident 
which exist on the rock under the northwest corner of the west cella of the 
Erechtheum, and which correspond better than the three holes under the 
north porch to Pausanias's expression, O^/AO. rpiaiVr/s (1, 26. 6). Disagreeing 
with Dorpfeld and others, he argues that Pausanias entered from the north 
porch, and that the SnrXovv oi/c?y/xa which contained the altars of Poseidon- 
Erechtheus and of Butes was the west cella with the space beneath its floor, 
where were the salt pool and the trident marks. 

Ancient Greek Tachygraphy. In J.H.S. XXI, 1901, pp. 238-267 (pi.; 
bibliography), F. W. G. FOAT briefly reviews the most recent German books 
on ancient Greek shorthand and the present meagre knowledge of the 
subject, calls attention to an unused piece of evidence, a wax -book in the 
British Museum, and suggests the probable relations of the different ancient 
systems. 

Theoxeniae and the Flight of the Dioscuri. In R. Arch. XXXIX, 
1901, pp. 35-50 (1 fig.), S. REIXACH maintains that the rite of theoxenia is 
derived from the primitive conception of the gods as relatives of those who 
entertain them, and was originally intended to ensure the friendship and 
protection of the gods who were entertained at table. The rite was 
frequently associated with the Dioscuri, who are represented as clad in 
white and coming through the air on white, wingless horses. The Dioscuri 
were originally swan-gods, hence the white color, but were contaminated 
with horseman -gods. One of the original deities later united in the person 
of Apollo was also a swan, as was one of those united in the person of 



GREEK Misc.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1901 215 

Aphrodite. The hansas of the Yedas and swan myths of northern peoples 
are cited in comparison. 

Plaques without Background. In R. Arch. XXXIX, 1901, pp. 178- 
182 (1 fig.), A. DE KIDDER discusses the use of plaques without background 
(plaques decoupees) in Greece. A black-figured hydria in the Museo Gre- 
goriano has upon it a picture of a fountain. From column to column extend 
slender bars, apparently to strengthen the structure. Above these are repre- 
sented birds and serpents. In real fountains there must have been some- 
thing to correspond to these, and de Ridder thinks the archaic plaques 
without background found in Greece were used as ornaments for fountains 
and for other structures which offered a similar empty space for decoration. 
So on two vases in Boston a lion and a lioness are represented upon the 
rounds of chairs. 

A Silver Rhyton in Trieste. In R. Arch. XXXIX, 1901, pp. 153-157 
(3 pis.), L. DE LAIGUE publishes a silver vase in the museum at Trieste. It 
was found at Tarentum as early as 1889. It represents the head of a deer 
(cervus dama). The work is realistic and very fine. About the neck is a 
relief representing a half -nude, bearded man, drawing toward him a young 
woman \vho is throwing back her veil. At one side stands Athena, at the 
other a bearded man. Perhaps the scene is the union of Poseidon with 
Saturia, the daughter of Minos, from which Taras, the mythical founder of 
Tarentum, was born. The work appears to date from the fourth century B.C. 

The Thymelici and the Scaenici. In Hermes, XXXVI, 1901, pp. 597- 
0.01, E. BETHE brings forward arguments including the inscriptions 
B.C.H. XXIV, 1900, pp. 93 ff. and p. 287, pi. iii (cf. DITTENBERGER Sylloge^ 
~No. 700) to prove that from the end of the fourth century B.C., the thymelici 
performed their dances, songs, and other acts in the orchestra, the scaenici 
on the stage or Xoyetov. 

Illustrations to Plutarch's Lives. In his. translation of Plutarch's 
Lives of Themistocles and Arislides, with introduction and notes (Scribner's, 
1901), B. PERRIN has inserted excellent publications of the potsherd inscribed 
with a vote for the ostracism of Themistocles, a Magnesian didrachm of the 
coinage of Themistocles, an Athenian didrachm (527-430 B.C.), two 
Athenian bronze coins of Roman date, showing the monument erected after 
the battle of Salamis, and a Magnesian bronze of Antoninus Pius, showing 
the statue of Themistocles. Thece illustrations give the volume an archae- 
ological interest in addition to the literary value of the text. 

Telesphorus. In the R. Et. Gr. 1901, pp. 343-349 (cf. C. R. Acad. Insc. 
1901, p. 569), S. REINACH discusses the little god Telesphorus. He finds that 
his name is not Greek, though it sounds Greek, and that the god was probably 
a Thracian deity, who came to Greece only after the time of the Diadochi. 
His costume a long cloak with a hood belongs to a cold region. 

The Principality of Samos. In the Bulletin of the Royal Belgian 
Geographical Society, 1901, pp. 4-32, 81-124, 177-200, HENRY HAUTECCEUR 
gives a description of the Principality of Samos. The articles contain pas- 
sages of some value to the student of ancient Samian topography and history. 

Athens in the Seventeenth Century. In the R. Et. Gr. XIV, 1901, 
pp. 270-294, II. OMOXT publishes an account by the Capuchin priest Robert 
de Dreux, of a visit to Athens in 1669, and letters of Jacob Spon and Father 
Babin, besides a letter to Spon from a Norman traveller, Louis Touroude. 



216 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

These documents mention several of the monuments at that time existing 
at Athens, but contain little real information. 

The Date of the Destruction of the Propylaea. In Cl. R. 1901, pp. 
430 f., J. R. WHEELER, commenting on the fact that Spon gives a date 
(1656) for the destruction of the Propylaea about ten years later than that 
given by the three other existing authorities, thinks it quite likely that Spon 
made a mistake. 

ITALY 

ARCHITECTURE 

The House of P. Fannius Sinister. The commission appointed to 
investigate the frescoes in the house discovered by De Frisco at Grotta 
Franchini, near Boscoreale (see Am. J. Arch. 1901, p. 102), reports that the 
frescoes should be bought by the state. The report is accompanied by a 
memoir by F. Barnabei. In this the topography of the place, the neigh- 
boring villa della Pisanella (where the silver treasure now in the Louvre 
was found), the general plan of the villa of Fannius, the peristyle, the " hall 
of the musical instruments," the tablinum, the large triclinium, the summer 
triclinium, the ordinary triclinium, and the cubiculum are described and 
discussed in detail. The house is called the villa of Fannius because the 
name of P. Fannius Sinister was found inscribed upon the rim of a large 
broken jar. (La villa Pompeiana di P. Fannio Sinistore scoperta presso Bos- 
coreale. Relazione a S. E. il Ministro dell' Istruzione Pubblica. Con una 
Memoria da FELICE BARNABEI. Rome, 1901, press of the R. Accademia 
dei Lincei. 86 pp. ; 11 pis. ; 19 figs. 4to.) 

A Roman Bath. At Massaciuccoli, near Viareggio, are remains of an 
ancient brick structure, commonly regarded as a temple of Hercules. This 
has been recently studied by G. PELLEGRINI, who shows that it was a Roman 
bathing establishment, and is on the site of the ancient Fossae Papirianae, 
(Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 194-200; 3 figs.) 

SCULPTURE 

Odysseus and Diomedes. In Rom. Mitth. 1901, pp. 33-41 (pi.), E. 
PFUHL describes a marble head in the Museo delle Terme (HELBIG, Fuhrer 
II, 1031). It represents a bearded man, and is an early empire copy of a 
bronze original. The writer compares it especially with the Diomedes, of 
which the best copy is in the Munich Glyptothek, and seeks to prove that 
the original of the head was a statue of Odysseus, forming with the Diomedes 
a group that represented the meeting of the two men after the theft of the 
Palladium. 

The So-called Statue of the Emperor Julian. In R. Arch. XXXIX, 
1901, pp. 259-280, STIENNE MICHON, after calling attention to the fact that 
only one inscription at Acerenza refers to Julian, and that the bust on the 
cathedral (see above, p. 74) has been supposed to represent St. Peter, not 
St. Canio, discusses the statue in the Louvre which had been called Julian. 
He concludes that the statue represents not Julian, but some priestly person- 
age, and cites in comparison the head from Ephesus with a peculiar diadem 
(Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. 1899, pp. 245-249; pi. viii). 

The Trustworthiness of Flaminio Vacca's Memorie. The trust- 
worthiness of Vacca's memoirs is further established by CHR. HUELSEN in 



ITAL. INSC.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1901 217 

Rom. Mitth, 1901, pp. 264-269 (fig.), who points out that there exists to-day 
in the Museo Civico at Modena (No. 391) a fragment of a relief, the dis- 
covery of which is chronicled by Vacca, who said it represented an old man 
in a culla (sella gestatoria), carried by fanciulli (amores), and was inscribed 
below IN SENECTVTE ME BAIVLANT, It had been supposed by 
some that Vacca must have misinterpreted Silenus riding on an ass. 

A Sketch-book of G-iulio Romano. In Rom. Mitth, 1901, pp. 209-243 
(4 pis. ; 1 fig.), C. ROBERT describes minutely, and gives full index of a 
sketch-book of ancient sculpture attributed to Michael Angelo, but really by 
Giulio Romano, now in the collection of engravings of the Schloss Woliegg 
in Wiirttemberg. The sketches were made in Rome between the years 1516 
and 1526, doubtless as inspiration for certain of the artist's paintings, in 
which indeed some of the sketches can be traced. 

VASES AND PAINTING 

Chronology of Vases in Campania. In B. Paletn. It. 1901, 41-56 
(2 pis.), Gr. PATRONI describes vases found at various times in three ceme- 
teries in the valley of the Sarno, at S. Marzano, S. Valentino, and Striano. 
The conclusions are as follows: The manufacture of Campanian bucchero 
began with the Etruscan domination, about 800 B.C., and was fully developed 
when the first proto-Corinthian vases were placed in tombs of the seventh and 
early sixth centuries. Preceding the Etruscan-Campanian period was an 
Umbrian-Campanian period, represented by two vases of Villanova type, 
found at Striano. 

The Amores in the House of the Vettii at Pompeii. AUGUST MAU 
defends (Rom. Mitth. 1901, pp. 109-116; 1 fig.), against Talfourd Ely, Grue- 
ber, Seltmann, and Svonoros, his previous view, that a certain group of the 
amoretti are represented as goldsmiths and not as money-coiners. 

INSCRIPTIONS 

The Reigns of Vespasian and Titus. The Epigraphical Evidence 
for the Reigns of Vespasian and Titus is the title of No. XVI of the Cornell 
'Studies in Classical Philology. The compiler, HOMER CURTIS NEWTON, has 
brought together 366 inscriptions, nearly all Latin, relating to Vespasian and 
Titus. Notes are added when considered necessary. (New York, The Mac- 
millan Company, viii, 140 pp. $0.80.) 

Dates of the Salutations of Nero. In R. Arch. XXXIX, 1901, pp. 
167-177, EDOUARD MAYNIAL arrives at the following dates for the imperial 
salutationes of Nero : I. October 13, 54 A.D. II. End of 55 A.D. (first suc- 
cesses of Corbulo against the Parthians). III. Spring of 57 A.D. (victories 
of Dubius Avitus in Frisia). IV. Spring of 58 A.D. (Parthian war; capture 
of Volandum). V. Date uncertain (victories of Dubius Avitus over the 
Amsibarii). VI. September, 59 A.D. (Parthian war; capture of Tigrano- 
certa). VII. Summer of 60 A.D. (Parthian war; Corbulo establishes Ti- 
granes in Armenia). VIII. Winter, 61 A.D. (victories of Suetonius Paullinus 
over the Britons). IX. Summer, 61 A.D. (Parthian war; Corbulo expels 
Vologesus from Armenia). X. Beginning of 66 A.D. (Parthian war; final 
victory over Tiridates). XI. Middle of 66 A.D (journey of Tiridates to 
Rome). XII. Summer, 67 A.D. (Jewish war; Vespasian's victories). If 
there was a thirteenth salutatio, it was probably toward the end of 67 A.D. 



218 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

Roman Military Diplomas. In Biblia, January, 1902, pp. 315-318, 
JOSEPH OFFOKD calls attention to the importance of Roman "military 
diplomas," and the light they shed upon the history of the Roman Empire. 

Pompeian Graffiti. In Rend. Ace. Lincei, 1901, pp. 256-259, A. SOG- 
LIANO calls attention to three Pompeian graffiti, containing lao\f/r)<j>tai ; that 
is, numbers made by using the numerical value of letters forming a name. 
Other well-known examples of the same device are briefly discussed. 

Inscriptions relating to Roman Antiquity. In R.Arch. XXXIX, 1901, 
pp. 139-152, R. CAGNAT and M. BESNIER publish forty-two inscriptions relat- 
ing to ancient Roman matters. Seven of these are in Greek. References to 
the periodicals and monographs in which the inscriptions first appeared are 
given. A few articles and monographs on Roman epigraphy are mentioned. 
Ibid. pp. 447-481, the publication is continued, and 153 inscriptions which 
had appeared in various periodicals and monographs in 1900 are reprinted 
with occasional brief notes. Indices are added. 

GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 

A Primitive Weapon. In B. Paletn. It. 1901, pp. 69-73 (fig.), G. A. 
COLINI discusses certain stones of the neolithic period, of spherical or oval 
form, each having a hole to receive the end of a stick that served as a handle. 
The use of this primitive weapon was probably diffused from some Oriental 
centre. 

Primitive Settlements in Apulia. In Apulia, near Altamura and 
Gravina, V. Di Cicco has studied many artificial caves and mounds which 
had been used as dwelling-places by a primitive people. There are tombs 
of various periods in the neighborhood. On a hill near Gravina are many 
traces of an old settlement, including fragments of the surrounding wall. 
(Not. Scam, 1901, pp. 210-222 ; 9 figs.) 

The Necropolis of Remedello Sotto and the Eneolithic Period. 
In B. Paletn. It. 1900, pp. 202-267 (10 figs.), G. A. COLINI continues his 
article on the necropolis of Remedello Sotto and the eneolithic period in 
Italy (cf. Am. J. Arch. 1900, p. 369). He discusses utensils of stone, and 
arms and utensils of bone. The latter were used in the neolithic, eneolithic, 
and bronze periods. He treats also utensils of copper and bronze, especially 
flat hatchets of copper that were characteristic of the eneolithic period. The 
use of metals, he concludes, was disseminated from southwestern Asia. Ibid. 
1901, pp. 73-132 (5 pis. ; 21 figs.), Colini discusses particularly knives or dag- 
gers of copper or bronze, describing many examples of various form and size 
found in Italy and Sicily, comparing them with other examples from other 
parts of Europe. The types are derived from the East, but the articles are 
of local manufacture. Some types remained in use in the age of bronze. 
These three facts are deduced : 1. Metal was known to the neolithic peoples 
a long time before the beginning of the bronze age. 2. The first weapons 
and utensils of copper are widely distributed in Europe, especially in the 
eastern part, and it is apparent that the use of metals was diffused from one 
or more centres, situated perhaps in southwestern Asia. 3. There is no gap 
between the neolithic period and the age of metals. 

Este an Early Manufacturing Centre. In B. Paletn. It. 1901, pp. 192- 
214 (2 pis.; 8 figs.), G. GHIRARDIXI describes in detail the contents of a 
tomb excavated at Este in 1897. Most important was a large bronze situla, 



ITAL. Misc.] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1901 219 

decorated with a geometric pattern. This discovery, added to the fact that 
two similar vases have been previously found in the same locality, proves 
that Este was the most important centre for the production of such vases. 
The type of the cover, also of geometric ornamentation, comes from Bologna. 
The tomb is shown by its contents to be of the second half of the sixth cen- 
tury B.C., a time midway between the second and third periods of the 
archaic civilization of Este. 

The Origin of the Mundus and the Templum. In Rend. Ace. Lincei 
1901, 5-6, pp. 127-148 (5 figs.), L. A. MILANI discusses a pre-Hellenic picture 
of the labyrinth of Cnossus, in which appear the mundus represented by 
faces of the dead and an altar, which is the primitive templum. Other 
works of art show the same combination. The conical stone and the in- 
scribed stele under the niger lapis of the Roman Forum are essential parts 
of the templum, and here also was a mundus. The conception was first 
developed in Chaldaea, the origin of the mundus being the burial trench, 
that of the templum the monument erected above. 

A Votive Bronze at Padua. In January, 1899, near the church of 
S. Antonio at Padua, was found a bronze implement shaped like a shovel. 
On one side is the figure of a horse; on the other, an inscription, in two 
lines. The latter is unintelligible, but is evidently of a votive character. 
The implement is not later than the third period of the archaic civilization 
of Este, and is probably of the fourth century B.C. (G. GHIRARDINI, Not. 
Scavi, 1901, pp. 314-321 ; 4 figs.) 

Zoomorphic Ornament in Venetia. In the third of a series of articles 
on the early Italian situla studied especially at Este, G. GHIRARDINI treats 
of the zoomorphic decoration, showing the derivation of all its elements 
from the Graeco-Oriental or Ionic art of the eighth and following centuries 
B.C., its strongly characteristic local development and decay in Venetia, and 
its spread in various directions, especially into Alpine and Central European 
regions. This decorative system seems to have come from the east, not 
by way of Etruria and the Apennines, as did the geometric ornament and 
the form of the vessel itself, but directly through the Adriatic. (Mon. 
Antichi, X, 1901, pp. 5-222 ; 5 pis. ; 64 cuts.) 

Primitive Monuments of Sardinia. Vol. XI, pt. II, of Mon. Antichi, 
pp. 5-280 (19 pis.; 146 cuts), is a study of the prehistoric antiquities of 
Sardinia, by G. PINZA, based on the remains now available, without special 
excavations. The nuraghi and other sepulchral structures and minor objects 
are shown to be local forms of a civilization, of Oriental origin, which spread 
to all the regions of the Mediterranean and the Atlantic coast about the end 
of the stone age, and persisted an unusually long time in Sardinia. 

Primitive Bronzes from Sicily. P. ORSI, in B. Paletn. It. 1900, 
pp. 267-285 (2 figs.), describes four collections of primitive bronzes 
chiefly arms and utensils found buried in various parts of Sicily. One 
collection contained pieces of copper resembling the aes rude or aes signatum 

Sicel Occupation of the Site of Gela. In B. Paletn. It. 1901, pp. 153- 
163 (5 figs.), P. ORSI describes tombs and objects recently found in Sicily, 
at Gela, Montelungo, and Manfria, which prove that, long before the arrival 
of the Greeks, the Sicels held the hill on which Gela was built and the 
surrounding region. 



220 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

Shapes and Stamps of Roman Terra-cotta Lamps. In Sitzb. Miin. 
ATcad. 1901, v, pp. 685-703 (pl.)> J. FINK divides the Roman terra-cotta 
lamps in the Munich collection into four classes, according to the shape of 
the beak. I. The beak, rounded in front, projects strongly. At each side 
of the hole for the wick are snail-like volutes. II. The back broadens and 
ends in an obtuse angle. The snail-like volutes are as in the first class. 
III. Beak as in I and II, but the top of the lamp is surrounded by a raised 
edge, which runs forward and round the hole for the wick. Projections on 
the lower part of the lamp pass through holes in the edge of the top, and are 
then pressed down to hold the top on. IV. The beak is merely a round or 
semicircular projection, in which is the hole for the wick. The reliefs on 
I are more important and more like Greek originals than on the other 
classes. A list of stamps is given. Each name is confined, with few excep- 
tions, to one class. Classes I and II have usually no stamp. Class I seems 
to be the earliest. The reliefs and ornaments are in the taste of Magna 
Graecia. The ornamentation of Class II is more specifically Roman. Classes 
I and II show no Christian emblems ; Class III belongs to the period from 
Augustus to Hadrian ; Class IV is the latest. These results apply also, so 
far as Fink could ascertain, to lamps in other collections. 

The Regulation of Vineyards under the Roman Empire. In R. Arch. 
XXXIX, 1901, pp. 350-374, S. REINACH discusses Domitian's order prohibit- 
ing the planting of new vineyards. This is referred to in Revelation, vi, 6, 
written about 93 A.D. The order was rescinded so far as Asia Minor was 
concerned, but remained in force in Gaul until the time of the Emperor 
Probus. 

The Groma. The Roman instrument for laying out right angles, the 
yroma.) consisting of an upright rod, ferramentum, upon which a horizontal 
four-armed cross, Stella, was fitted, has been known only from a grave relief 
at Ivrea and from ancient directions for its use. An actual specimen has 
now been found in the Limes excavation at Pfiinz in Bavaria. It is evident 
that the umbilicus soli to be placed over the vertex of the angle was not the 
centre of the cross, but the end of one of the arms and the lines connecting 
that with the two adjacent arm-ends made the right angle. (H. SCHONE, 
Jb. Arch. I. XVI, 1901, pp. 127-132; pi. ; 6 cuts.) 

Hamilton's Excavations in the Eighteenth Century. Gavin Hamil- 
ton's letters to Charles Townley, describing his excavations at Hadrian's 
Villa and other places near Rome up to 1792, with a list of the pieces of 
sculpture found and their possessors, are published, from manuscripts in the 
British Museum, in J.H.S. XXI, 1901, pp. 306-321, by A. H. SMITH. They 
supplement or correct, on some points, Dallaway's summary of the letters 
and the Townley inventories. 

Excavations in the Roman Forum in 1788-89. The excavations of 
C. F. v. Fredenheim in the Roman Forum (1788-89) are described by C. v. 
BILDT in Rom. Mitth. 1901, pp. 1-20 (plan ; 4 figs.). They were successful 
in their purpose, the determination of the southern boundary of the Forum. 
Work was begun over the part of the Basilica Julia that is bounded by the 
Vicus Jugarius. Besides the pavement of the basilica and a fragment of its 
stucco ceiling, many things were discovered, especially an inscribed marble 
block from the Schola near the Regia, containing the names of Kalatores 
Pontificum et Flaminum. 



FRANCE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1901 221 



FRANCE 

Vases with Relief Ornament in Gaul. In R. Arch. XXXVIII, 1901, 
pp. 360-394 (37 figs.), J. DECHELETTE describes in detail fragments of 
moulds and vases with reliefs (terra sigillata) found six years ago at Saint- 
Remy (Allier), near Vichy. The earliest of these are of yellowish color, 
and the decoration consists chiefly of systems of arches. Soon the red pot- 
tery appears, and the decoration developes into running vines. The date of 
these moulds is about the middle of the first century after Christ. Toward 
the end of the first century B.C. whitish ware, from a manufactory some- 
where near Lago Maggiore, was imported into Gaul and also into Pannonia. 
This is often signed with the name AGO. At the same time Arretine ware 
was imported into Gaul. The potters at Saint-Remy imitated, at first, the 
whitish ware. The chronological results reached in this article are obtained 
chiefly by comparing the objects of Saint-Remy with those found at Ander- 
nach, at Mont Beuvray, and at Ornavasso. A fragment of a glazed vase, 
with a representation of the combat between Theseus and Hippolyta, is 
published. Hippolyta's girdle is held up in her left hand. Several medal- 
lions and figurines are discussed and published. One medallion represents 
Leda and the swan ; another, Venus between two Cupids. Both are signed 
SMXTVS. Several figurines represent Venus. Medallions and figurines 
are of the same date as the vases. 

La Tene Pottery -with Incised Decoration. Gallic painted pottery 
with geometrical decoration is found in all parts of Gaul (except the prov- 
inces of the southeast and Armorica), on the Rhine, in western Switzerland, 
and at Stradonic. Pottery with incised geometrical decoration has been 
found in Brittany and in England. The specimens found at Glastonbury 
belong to the first century B.C. The original seat of this purely Gallic pot- 
tery was in Gaul, not in England. The painted Gallic pottery of the La 
Tene period is not influenced in style by Hellenic or eastern art, though the 
change from incised to painted decoration may have been caused by the 
importation of Greek ware. In Armorica and Britain the earlier method 
of decoration by incised lines and patterns survived after painted decoration 
was introduced in other parts of Gaul. (JOSEPH DECHELETTE, R. Arch. 
XXXIX, 1901, pp. 51-61 ; 4 figs.) 

Celtic Cuirasses from Filliiiges. In R. Arch. XXXIX, 1901, pp. SOS- 
SIS (7 figs.), Count O. COSTA DE BEAUREGARD describes and discusses 
some bronze cuirasses found in 1900 at Fillinges, Savoy. They are orna- 
mented with rows of repousse disks, alternating with bands of diagonal 
hatchings. On two of the pieces is a sort of spiral, ending in a head like 
that of a bird. Similar work from Grenoble, Gresine, and elsewhere is 
compared. 

Gallo-Roman Towns. In the Revue des Etudes Anciennes, 1901, 
pp. 316-344, CAMILLE JULLIAN discusses the names, relative importance, 
and characteristics of the Gallo-Roman oppida known. Especial impor- 
tance is attached to the study of the names as they appear in the works 
of Latin writers and in mediaeval records. 

The Great Oppidum of the Tolosates. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1901, 
pp. 518-521, LEON JOULIN describes the remains of a large town of the 
second century B.C., near the confluence of the Ariege and the Garonne. 



222 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

The fortifications were extensive ; remains of houses, numerous amphorae, 
and other indications of a large population were found. The present site 
of Toulouse may have been inhabited at the same time. The great oppidum 
was deserted after the Roman conquest. 

The Ramparts of Dax. In the Revue des Etudes Anciennes, III, 1901, 
pp. 211-221 (1 fig.), C. JULLIAN writes of the ramparts of Dax (Latin 
Aquae), near the hot spring of the Nehe, which flows into the Adour. 
The fortifications, built in the fourth century after Christ, form an irregu- 
lar quadrilateral, 445 m. on the east side, 410 m. on the west, 330 m. on the 
north, and 280 m. on the south. There were forty-six towers, and only 
three or four gates. The cathedral and the chateau are probably both of 
Romau origin. There was a bridge, in Roman times, across the Adour. 
The pagan and Christian cemeteries were outside of the walls. 

Inscriptions of the Oise. In R. Arch. XXXIX, 1901, pp. 237-258, 
SEYMOUR DE RICCI continues his publication of Latin inscriptions (see 
R. Arch. XXXV, 1899, pp. 103-125; Am. J. Arch. 1900, p. 371). r After 
a few corrections of his former article, he publishes 143 inscriptions (Nos. 
51-193) from various places in the ager Bellovacorum. Nos. 93-192 are 
stamps on pottery found at Hermes. Ibid. pp. 375-400, De Ricci pub- 
lishes 32 additional inscriptions. Of these, 14 belong to the ager Bello- 
vacorum, 7 to the civitas Silvanectum, 11 to the civitas Suessionum. 

GERMANY 

Early Man in the Neanderthal. G. SCHWALBE (in Jb. V. Alt. Rh. 
106 (1901), pp. 1-72; 1 pi.) has subjected the now famous skull of the 
Neanderthal to a new and thorough study, and concludes, with certain 
others, that the skull belongs to a type that is specifically, and perhaps even 
generically, different from that of recent man. 

Pre-Roman Walls. The investigation of the ancient fortification walls 
on the Rhine near Urmitz was continued in the winter of 1899-1900. The 
discovery of objects of the bronze age indicates that the fortification was 
constructed centuries before the arrival of the Romans. (HANS LEHNER, 
Jb. V. Alt. Rh. 1900, pp. 164-172; plan.) 

Ancient Graves on the Lower Rhine. In the Jb. V. Alt. Rh. 1900, 
pp. 1-49 (6 pis.), C. RADEMACHER gives a very systematic and complete 
account of the ancient graves on the lower Rhine. Beginning with a bibli- 
ography of the subject, which was first investigated by Theodor von Haupt 
in 1820, he goes on to describe the result of his own excavations in many 
places. The bones collected from the funeral fire were placed in an urn, 
which was then filled with sand and covered with a mound of earth. The 
mound sometimes contained other vases placed there as offerings. The 
vases contained nothing belonging to the dead, rarely objects offered by 
relatives and friends. The writer describes in detail the various types of 
tomb, and particularly the decoration of the vases. 

The Cult of the Matronae. A terra-cotta found in Bonn, representing 
three matrons bearing fruit, is described by MAX SIEBOURG in Jb. V. Alt. 
Rh. 1900, pp. 78-102 (pi.). They are probably the matres domesticae, corre- 
sponding to the lares domestici of the Romans. The writer discusses at 
length this cult of the matronae, which in various forms was wide-spread, 
and was common to Celts and Germans. 



MEDIAEVAL ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1901 223 

The Roman Fortress at Andernach. The topography and history of 
the Roman fortress of Antumiacum (Andernach) is described at length by 
HANS LEHNER in the Jb. V. Alt. Rh. 107 (1901), pp. 1-36, with woodcuts 
and 3 pis. 

Burgiiiatium and the Legio I (Germanica). The history of the 
legion and the topography of its station on the lower Rhine are minutely 
discussed by MAX SIEBOURG in Jb. V. Alt. Rh. 107 (1901), pp. 132-202 
(cuts and 1 pi.). 

Jupiter Dolichenus. JOSEPH POPPELREUTER describes a bronze statu- 
ette, now in the Museum Wallraf-Richartz in Cologne, which he identifies 
as a Jupiter Dolichenus; K. ZANGEMEISTER publishes three Dolichenus 
inscriptions on votive plates of silver, now in the British Museum, but said 
to have been found at Heddernheim, and establishes the genuineness of a 
similar inscribed plate now in the Berlin Museum ; and finally G. LOESCHCKE 
begins, but does not finish, some comments on the character of the votive 
offerings made to Dolichenus, in Jb. V. Alt. Rh. 107 (1901), pp. 56-72 
(figs, and 3 pis.). 

Apis-worship on the Danube and the Rhine. A. FURTWANGLER 
comments upon bronze statuettes of a bull with raised fore foot, evidently in 
motion, found in Greece and Italy, but more frequently in the regions of 
the Danube and the Rhine. Some show a crescent moon projecting from 
the head between the horns, and others a hole where such an attribute 
might have been attached. These are one and all figures of Apis, and the 
moon attribute is explicable from the story (Herod., Plut.) of the bull Apis 
as generated by a moonbeam. Other attributes which occasionally occur 
are also explained. (Jb. V. Alt. Rh. 107 (1901), pp. 37-45; figs.; 1 pi.) 

BYZANTINE AND MEDIAEVAL ART 

GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 

The Dignitaries of Antioch. In the R. Or. Lat. VIII (1900-1901), 
pp. 116-157, E. REZ publishes a list of the constables, marshals, seneschals, 
viscounts, chancellors, chamberlains, stewards, dukes, and ecclesiastical patri- 
archs of Antioch from the end of the eleventh to the end of the thirteenth 
century. 

Oriental Pottery with Metallic Lustre. The metallic lustre exhib- 
ited on Moorish and Italian pottery is generally supposed to have originated 
in Persia, whose lustrous pottery is well known. Recent excavations in 
Cairo and in Syria seem to show that metallic lustre was produced in 
Egypt and on the banks of the Euphrates at an earlier date than 
in Persia. Such at least is the conclusion of GASTON MIGEON in an 
article entitled ' Ceramique orientale k reflets metalliques ' in the Gaz. 
B.-A. 1901, pp. 192-208. 

The Building of St. Sophia. In the Byz. Z., 1901, pp. 455-476, TH. 
PREGER contributes an article entitled ' Die Erzahlung vom Bau der Hagia 
Sophia.' Preger here considers the date, sources, and value of the treatise 
TTf.pl rfjs oiKoSo/xr;? TOV vaov rf)<s /neyoArys TOV cov cfCicAiprias rfj<s 



ayias otas. He shows that the contents of this treatise 
are more valuable than has been recognized by Du Cange, Salzenberg, or 
Swainson. 



224 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

Marriage Ceremonial on a Byzantine Miniature. Under the title 
Das Epithalamion des Palaologen Andronikos II ' in the Byz. Z., 1901, pp. 
546-567, J. STRZYGOWSKI discusses the miniatures of a Greek manuscript 
(Vat. No. 1851) of the early fourteenth century in which are depicted the. 
ceremonials of the wedding of Andronicus II in the year 1275. The manu- 
script is to be published and the miniatures reproduced in color under the 
editorship of Padre Ehrle. 

Die Junker von Prag. Such obscurity rests on the significance of the 
"Junker von Prag" as to give them the character of mythical beings. 
Kraus, Gurlitt, Carstanjen, and Neuwirth have attempted to solve the mys- 
tery. In the Rep.f. K. 1901, pp. 115-123, MAX BACH attacks the problem 
and concludes that they were artists in the broad sense, ranking with the 
most distinguished painters, and that they had much to do with the spread 
and development of the Gothic style. 

ITALY 
Ancient Testimony to the Martyrdom of St. Peter in Rome. In 

an ancient Ethiopic apocryphal writing known as the Ascensio Isaiae, dating 
from the first century, in a reference to the persecutions under Nero occur 
the words, translated, " (unus) e duodecim in manum ejus [i.e. Neronis] 
tradetur." The expression was interpreted by Clemen in the ZeitscTir. f. 
Wissensch. Theol. 1896, pp. 488 ff., as referring to the martyrdom of St. 
Peter. The Amherst Papiri, published by Grenfell and Hunt in 1900, give 
the same testimony in the Greek version. Recently the marble pavement 
between the altar and apse of S. Agnese has been removed, and amongst the 
fourth century graves was found a marble slab with a graffito of a bearded 
head under which is inscribed PETRVS- A corresponding head, with the 
inscription PAVLVS? as the other intercessor for the departed one, though 
probable, is now missing. (MARUCCHI in N. Bull. Arch. Crist. 1901, pp. 
221-226.) 

The Chapel called " Domine quo Vadis? " In the N. Bull. Arch. Crist. 
1901, pp. 5-25, G. B. LUGARI discusses the chapel "Domine quo Vadis?" 
He concludes that the chapel erected to commemorate the appearance of 
Christ to St. Peter was not, as is popularly supposed, the church of Sta. 
Maria, on the Via Appia, near the Via Ardeatina, but a circular building 
beyond it, which has now disappeared, although reconstructed in the six- 
teenth century. He suggests that probably from this building the stone 
with the poorly sculptured impress of footmarks was removed to the church 
of S. Sebastiano. 

Stamped Tiles from Sta. Croce in Jerusalemme, Rome. The in- 
scriptions stamped upon the roofing tiles of the church of Sta. Croce in 
Jerusalemme in Rome form an unusually varied and interesting series. 
P. CROSTAROSA begins an inventory of these inscriptions in the N. Bull. 
Arch. Crist. 1901, pp. 119-144. 

The Child Veneriosa as an Orante. In the N. Bull. Arch. Crist. 
1901, pp. 27-34. G. BONAVENIA publishes a marble slab from the cemetery 
of S. Ermete. A child is here represented as an Orante. The inscription 
reads: HIC EST POSITA BCNERIOSA NEOFITA QVE VICXIT 
AN VI DC ' VIII ID ' AVG Besides the crudities of the relief and 
inaccuracies of the inscription, Bonavenia calls attention to the fact that 



MEDIAEVAL ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1901 225 

the figure is not an abstract representation of the soul, but the image of a 
definite individual, the child Veneriosa, six years old. 

The Frescoes of Sta. Maria Antiqua, Rome. In the R. A rt Chret. 
1901, pp. 300-313, 328, GERSPACH gives the arguments for identifying the 
church recently discovered in the Forum as Sta. Maria Antiqua, and de- 
scribes in detail the frescoes with which this church was so elaborately 
decorated. As these frescoes date from the eighth and ninth centuries, 
they form an important link in the history of Italian painting. He* finds 
here tempera painting as well as fresco and color harmonies as pleasing 
as those of the fourteenth century. An experiment, the application of 
formaline, for the preservation of the frescoes has been apparently most 
successful. His fear that it would injure tempera painting is probably 
groundless. Pere Duchesne, head of the French School at Rome, now 
accepts the identification of the church as that of Sta. Maria Antiqua. 
(AT. Bull Arch. Crist. 1901, pp. 39-45.) The church is described by T. M. 
LINDSAY in Biblia, August, 1901, pp. 152-159. 

The Pisan Pulpits at Cagliari. In L' Arte, 1901, pp. 204-207, DIONIGI 
SCANO discusses the two pulpits at Cagliari, and concludes that they ante- 
date the period when Fra Guglielmo cooperated with Nicola Pisano, and 
that consequently they must be assigned to another sculptor. 

A Thirteenth Century Mitre. In L' Arte, 1901, pp. 145-151, CARLO 
CIPOLLA publishes a mitre from the church of San Zeno at Verona. On one 
side is embroidered a figure of Christ and busts of six apostles; on the other 
a figure of the Virgin and busts of the rest of the Apostles. From the 
lettering of the names the mitre may be assigned to the thirteenth century. 
Cipolla suggests that it may have belonged to Cardinal Adelardo dei Cat- 
tanei, who was Bishop of Verona and died in 1225. He was buried in the 
cloister adjoining San Zeno, and his tomb is known to have been opened 
several times. 

Cimabue and Duccio at Sta. Maria Novella. The Ruccellai Ma- 
donna, ascribed by Vasari to Cimabue, is now attributed to Duccio, not only 
on stylistic grounds, but because just such a painting was ordered by the 
rectors of Sta. Maria Novella from Duccio. A second statement by Vasari, 
that Cimabue used to stand all day long watching Greek painters at work in 
a chapel in Sta. Maria Novella, was declared impossible by Milanesi, since 
the church was begun only in 1279. However, it appears from a document 
published by Fineschi, Memorie Istoriche, I, pp. 141-142, that a part of the 
church, including the. chapel of the Gondi, was begun in 1246, and that 
Vasari's story of Cimabue's boyhood may well be true. (J. AVooD BROWN, 
Rep. f. K. 1901, pp. 127-131.) 

PRANCE 

The Cult of the Virgin in the Diocese of Lyons. In the Bull. Hist. 
Dioc. Lyon, 1900, pp. 92-98, 149-153 ; 1901, pp. 210-215, the Abbe J. PRA- 
joux enumerates the churches and altars dedicated to the Virgin Mary 
throughout the diocese of Lyons. 

The Aram in Gothic Flora. ' The Arum in Gothic Flora ' is the title 
of an article by SMILE LAMBIX in R. Art Chret. 1901, pp. 488-497. The 
arum, or calla lily, appears first in the eleventh century in the church at 
Ve'zelay ; apparently disappears from church decoration in the early twelfth 
century, but reappears in naturalistic form in the late twelfth and early 



226 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

thirteenth centuries; aside from its form, the arum was cultivated by Gothic 
sculptors because of its symbolic character as an emblem of the springtime 
and the Resurrection. 

St. Laurent de Langeais (Indre-et-Loire). The church of S. Lau- 
rent de Langeais has recently been studied carefully by OCTAVE BOBEAU, 
who has made excavations in the church. The nave is assigned by Lefevre- 
Pontalis to the beginning and the transept and choir to the end of the 
eleventh century. The excavations showed that the original choir was 
rectangular. They also brought to light fragments of an ancient baptismal 
font, as well as stone sarcophagi of the eleventh century, which contained 
vases of incense buried with the dead. (B. Arch. C. T. 1901, Avril-Mai, 
pp. viii-x.) 

A Sculptured Madonna of the Twelfth Century. At the meeting 
of the Soc. Nat. Ant. Fr., held January 3, 1900, VICOUNT DE ROCHEMOXTEIX 
called the attention of the society to a twelfth century ' Madonna and Child ' 
carved in oak and preserved in the church of Bredon (Cantal). This archaic 
but interesting Madonna is assigned to the School of Auvergne. It is pub- 
lished in the B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1900, pp. 75-77. 

Eucharistic Implements in the Museum at Brive (Correze). A 
propos of a pair of iron pincers made for lifting sacred wafers, and of two 
moulds in which the wafers were marked with sacred emblems, now in the 
museum at Brive, ERNEST RUPIN in R. Art Chre't. 1901, pp. 281-288, gives 
an interesting summary of the emblems and figured representations marked 
on the sacred wafers from the twelfth to the eighteenth century. 

A Missal of the Thirteenth Century. In the collection of Canon 
Ginon at Grenoble is a thirteenth century missal, which contains a number 
of variations from the Roman standard. It is analyzed in detail by Pro- 
fessor PAUL FOURNIER in the Bull. Hist. Dioc. Lyon, 1901, pp. 253-271. He 
concludes that it came from the church of St. Saturnin d'Arnas of the 
diocese of Lyons and that it offers interesting material for the liturgical 
study of this district in the thirteenth century. 

SPAIN 

Notes on Spanish Christian Architecture. A series of articles on 
Spanish churches by the Architect YINCENTE LAMPEREZ Y ROMEA, is pub- 
lished in the Boletin de la Sociedad Espanola de Excursidnes for 1901. On 
pp. 1-5 he treats of San Vicente en Avila ; pp. 31-35 of San Miguel de 
Almazan ; pp. 63-66 of the Cathedral of Grenada; pp. 84-88 of Santo 
Tome de Soria; pp. 103-110 of the monastery of Santa Maria de Huesta; 
pp. 126-129 of the triforium of the Cathedral of Cuenca, and pp. 182-191 of 
the Chapter house of the Cathedral of Plasencia, and of the churches of 
San Juan de las Abadesas and San Nicolas de Gerona. 

Spanish Romanesque Sculpture. In the Boletin de la Sociedad Espa- 
nola de Excursiones, 1901, pp. 13-23, E. S. FATIGATI writes on the ' Roman- 
esque Sculptures of Navarre.' He notes the pre-Romanesque sculptures ab 
San Salvador de Leyre, the archaic Romanesque sculptures of the churches 
at Sangiiesa, Gazolaz, and Hirache, as well as the fine examples of French 
Romanesque work in various Spanish churches of the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries. In the same journal, pp. 35-45, 59-63, he treats of Romanesque 
sculpture in other provinces. 



MEDIAEVAL ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1901 227 

Spanish Gothic Altar-pieces. In the Boletin de la Sociedad Espanola 
de Excursiones 1901, pp. 204-218, E. S. FATIGATI contributes a study of late 
Gothic altar-pieces in churches at Covarrubias, Burgos, Tarragona, and 
Saragossa. 

Cloisters and Choir Stalls of Pamplona. In his monograph, Los 
Claustros de Pamplona, Sillerias de Coro Espanolas (Madrid, 1901), which 
is illustrated with seven excellent phototype plates, ENRIQUE SENANO 
FATIGATI describes the French Gothic cloisters of the Cathedral of Pam- 
plona and the choir stalls of the same cathedral. The cloisters are rich in 
sculptures of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The notice of the 
choir stalls, carved in the sixteenth century by Juan Ancheta, contains a 
catalogue of the most noteworthy Gothic and Renaissance choir stalls in 
Spain. 

Two Visigothic Manuscripts from the Library of Ferdinand I. In 
the Bibl. EC. Charles, 1901, pp. 374-387, MARIUS FKROTIN publishes an ac- 
count of two manuscripts from the library of Ferdinand I. One is a collec- 
tion of psalms and chants copied in 1055, and now preserved at Compostelle ; 
the second dates from 1059, contains chants and litanies, and is now in. the 
private library of the king of Spain. 

GERMANY 

A Relief of St. Peter in the Berlin Museum. In the Berlin Museum 
is a portion of a relief which once represented ' The Punishment of Ananias.' 
Only two figures remain, St. Peter and one of the servants. It came from 
Ajatzam in Asia Minor, and is assigned by G. STRZYGOWSKI, in the Jb. 
Preuss. Kunsts. 1901, pp. 29-34, to the fifth century. From near this 
locality came the fragment of 'Matthew's Gospel,' with important minia- 
tures, lately acquired by the Bibliotheque Nationale. Strzygowski empha- 
sizes the importance of Asia Minor as a field for the study of early Byzantine 
art. 

Abraham and his Companions. A fragment of an early Christian 
bishop's chair in the museum at Trier is discussed by HANS GRAEVEN in 
Jb. V. Alt. Rh. 1900, pp. 147-163 (2 pis.). By comparison with a mosaic 
in Sta. Maria Maggiore, he shows that the fragment an ivory slab with a 
relief represents Abraham and his companions (Gen. xiv). 

Ivory Relief of Thalia in Berlin. HANS GRAEVEN points out that a 
part of a so-called diptych of ivory with a figure of ' Judith,' described by 
Alex. Wiltheim in 1560 as in the convent library of St. Maximin at Trier, 
but later lost from knowledge, is undoubtedly now in the Antiquarium at 
Berlin, and is not a diptych at all, but such a plate as might have been used 
to ornament a book-closet door, and the figure not Judith, but Thalia. (Jb. 
V. Alt. Rh. 107 (1901), pp. 50-55; 1 pi.) 

The Sculptures of the Cathedral at Bamberg. In the Rep. f. K. 
1901, pp. 195-229, 255-289, W. VOGE continues his detailed study of the 
sculptures of the cathedral of Bamberg. He notes many correspondences 
between the sculptures at Bamberg and those of the cathedral at Rheims, 
and at the same time finds a continuity between the older and younger 
school of sculptors at Bamberg. 

The Imperial Graves in the Cathedral at Speyer. In August, 1900, 
the imperial graves in the cathedral at Speyer were opened and examined. 



228 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

The graves are those of Conrad II, his wife Gisela, Henry III, Henry IV, 
his wife Bertha, Henry V, the four kings Philip of Swabia, Rudolf of Haps- 
burg, Albrecht of Austria, and Adolf of Nassau. The arrangement of the 
graves, their contents, and details of the history of the emperors, kings, and 
empresses, and of the cathedral, are discussed by H. GRAUERT, in Sitzb. 
Miin. Akad. 1901, iv, pp. 539-591, with an excursus on the account of the 
Ursperg chronicler and on other records of the imperial graves. 

GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 

The Earliest Ribbed Cross Vaults in England. In the R. Art Chre't. 
1901, pp. 365-393, 463-480, JOHN BILSON, from a study of late Norman and 
transitional churches in England, maintains that Norman architecture, in 
its rapid and splendid development in England, anticipated, not only in 
crypts and side aisles, but also in the high vaults of the nave, the ribbed 
cross vaults, the evolution of which is generally believed to have taken place 
in the Isle de France. An examination by competent authorities of the 
vaults of the nave of Durham Cathedral would doubtless go far in determin- 
ing the part played by England in the early history of Gothic architecture. 

Fonts with Representations of the Seven Sacraments. At the 
meeting of the Archaeological Institute (British), December 4, 1901, A. C. 
FRYER read a paper on carved fonts with representations of the seven sacra- 
ments. Twenty -nine of these are known in England. These were described 
in the paper. The eighth panel represents the last judgment, the baptism 
of Jesus, or (most frequently) the crucifixion. The fonts belong to the 
fifteenth century (Athen. December 21, 1901). 

Six Derbyshire Fonts. In Reliq. VII, 1901, pp. 267-270 (6 figs.), G. 
LE BLANC SMITH publishes and describes a Norman font at Youlgreave, a 
Transitional Norman font at Winster, an Early English font at Ashbourne, 
a font of the Decorated period at Bakewell, a font of the Perpendicular 
period at Tideswell, and a lead font of the Norman period at Ashover. The 
last is adorned with figures of saints standing under arches. The fonts at 
Winster and Bakewell are also adorned with figures. 

Three Kentish Churches. In Reliq. VII, 1901, pp. 243-261 (22 figs.), 
J. RUSSELL LARKBY describes the churches of St. Michael, at Offham, St. 
Mary Magdalen, at Stockbury, and Sts. Peter and Paul, at Trottescliffe. 
St. Michael's was originally a Norman structure, but contains parts dating 
from the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries. Its most interesting 
feature is the east window, with fine decorated tracery. The church at 
Stockbury has an uninteresting exterior, having been much restored, but 
contains within some fine examples of Early English stone carving. Some 
of the capitals are especially interesting. The church at Trottescliffe was 
originally an Early Norman building, but was greatly lengthened in Middle 
Norman times, and has received some modern additions. The earliest 
existing windows in the church are of the Middle Norman period. In one 
window are remains of fine late Perpendicular canopy glass and a fine and 
complete " Trinita." 

Ardfert. In Reliq. VII, 1901, pp. 220-228 (7 figs.), H. ELRINGTON 
describes the buildings at Ardfert, near Tralee, County Kerry, Ireland. The 
Romanesque church, Temple-na-hoe, is ascribed to the twelfth century. 
The cathedral and the Franciscan Abbey belong to the thirteenth century. 



RENAISSANCE ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1901 229 

All these buildings are now roofless. The cathedral is an interesting speci- 
men of early Irish Gothic, and it, as well as the Franciscan abbey, shows 
some slight deviations from the usual Early English style. 

AFRICA 

Byzantine Baptisteries of Tunisia. On September 20, 1901, P. 
GAUCKLER presented to the Academie des Inscriptions plans and photo- 
graphs of various baptisteries recently discovered in Tunisia. These are 
found at Carthage, Ould Ramel, Haniman-Lif, Upenna, Henchir-Hakaima, 
Sfax. In all, eleven Byzantine baptisteries are known in Tunisia. Of 
these only four reproduce the classic Byzantine type. The others show that 
in Africa an effort was made to produce new and original types. (C. R. 
Acad. Insc. 1901, pp. 603 f. ; Chron d. Arts, 1901, pp. 251-252.) 

The Tomb and the Basilicas of St. Cyprian at Carthage. In R. 
Arch. XXXIX, 1901, pp. 183-201, PAUL MONCEAUX discusses the various 
notices of the tomb and the basilicas of St. Cyprian at Carthage, and finds 
that there were at least three sanctuaries dedicated to Cyprian : two basilicas 
outside the wall, built early in the sixth century, and a church within the 
city, near the harbor. This was a modest chapel in the fourth century, but 
a great basilica at the time of the Byzantine conquest. Of the two other 
churches, one was at the place of martyrdom, the Ager Sexti, in the direction 
of the Marsa ; the other, at the Mappalia, over the tomb of the Saint, near 
the great cisterns of the Malga. 



RENAISSANCE ART 

ITALY 

The Castello at Milan. In the Monthly Review, August, 1891, pp. 117- 
136 (5 pis.), JULIA CARTWRIGHT (MRS. ADY) describes the restoration of 
the Castello at Milan, giving a history of the building and a description of 
its different parts, with special attention to the sculptures and paintings. 

Milanese Marbles at Desio. Among the marbles in the garden of the 
Villa Antona-Traversi at Desio are several of Milanese workmanship dis- 
cussed by DIEGO SANT' AMBROGIO in the Arch. Star. Lomb. 1901, pp. 343- 
353. One is a funerary relief, assigned to the early fourteenth century and 
believed to be that of Rebaldo de Aliprandis. Another is a sixteenth century 
chimney piece which once belonged to the Casati family. Finally, there 
are at Desio two Sybils, the Cumaean and the Phrygian, in the style of 
Annibale Fontana. 

Donatello as an Architect and Decorator. It is often assumed that 
Donatello limited his energies to sculptural work, and that his assistants or 
associates especially Michelozzo di Bartolommeo furnished the designs 
for the architectural portions of his monumental works. In some cases this 
seems to have been the case, but that Donatello had creative power in 
architectural design of a kind essentially different from that of Michelozzo 
is brought out by W. BODE in the Jb. Preuss. Kunsts. 1901, pp. 3-28. 

A Madonna Relief in Sta. Maria Mater Domini in Venice. In 1899 
J. Carotti published a pamphlet entitled Una Madonna inedita della Scuola 
di Donatello, in which he ascribed to the school of Donatello a terra-cotta 



230 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, U02 

relief of the Madonna in Sta. Maria Mater Domini in Venice. In the Rep, 
f. K. 1901, pp. 157-159, C. v. F. ascribes it to Giovanni da Pisa. 

Andrea Marches! da Formiggine. The wood carver, Andrea Marches!, 
who made the frame for Raphael's St. Cecilia in Bologna, is the subject of 
an article by UGO BERTI in L' Arte, 1901, pp. 21-28 of the section entitled 
' Arte Decorativa.' Written documents concerning the life and works of 
Andrea and of his followers, called the ' Formiggine,' are few ; but their 
works in stone and wood are numerous and deserve more careful study 
than they have yet received. 

Giacomo Serpotta. InL' Arte, 1901, pp. 77-92, 162-180, ENRICO MAN- 
CERI contributes a fully illustrated and detailed account of the work of 
Giacomo Serpotta, a sculptor and stuccatore of the late eighteenth and early 
nineteenth century, whose elaborate productions enrich many of the churches 
of Palermo and other cities of Sicily. 

A Medallion of Federigo II di Montefeltro. In the Museo Oliveriano 
at Pesaro is a fine medallion of Federigo II, who in 1474 received the Order 
of the Garter from Edward IV. This is published by A. VENTURI in D Arte, 
1901, pp. 202-203, and is considered genuine, whereas the medallion cited by 
Armand, II, p. 36, is thought to be modern. 

Mantegna Studies. In the Jb. Preuss. Kunsts. 1901, pp. 78-87, 154-180, 
RICHARD FOERSTER contributes an article entitled Studien zu Mantegna 
und den Bildern irn Studierzimmer der Isabella Gonzaga.' In the British 
Museum is a drawing by Mantegna, known as Virtus Combusta, the signifi- 
cance of which has not been appreciated. Having completed the composition 
by means of an engraving by Zoan Andrea Vavassore, Foerster interprets it 
by means of passages from Galen and from Mantegna's letters as portraying 
the antithesis of Virtue and Ignorance. In like manner Mantegna's paint- 
ings of the Parnassus and the Expulsion of Evil Passions, made for Isabella 
Gonzaga, have been misunderstood, and are here more carefully interpreted. 

Portrait of Lorenzo di Credi, and Date of his Birth. Among the 
recent acquisitions of the Uffizi is a portrait by Lorenzo di Credi, supposed 
to represent himself. This, however, is disproved by the publication in 
L' Arte, 1901, pp. 135-137, by CHARLES LOESER, of the portrait of Lorenzo 
by himself in the collection of W. Beattie, Glasgow. The painting is signed 
on the back : Lorenzo di Credi Pittore ecc. te 1488, aetatis sue 32, VIII. Va- 
sari declares that Lorenzo died in 1530, aged seventy-eight, which would put 
his birth in the year 1452. But Milanesi found from his archives that he 
died, January 12, 1536, and if seventy-eight years of age, his birth would have 
occurred in 1459. The inscription on this painting, however, shows that he 
was born in the year 1456. When he died in 1536, he must have been eighty 
years of age. 

A Companion of Pesellino. In the Gaz. B.-A . 1901, pp. 18-34, 333-343, 
MARY LOGAN contributes an interesting study entitled ' Compagno di 
Pesellino.' The article centres upon the painting of the Trinity in the 
National Gallery, attributed by Morelli to Pier di Lorenzo. Although Pesel- 
lino was at one time associated with Pier di Lorenzo and Zanobi di Migliore, 
and for another period with Pier di Lorenzo, documentary evidence seems 
to prove that Pier di Lorenzo was not the author of the Trinity of the 
National Gallery. The unknown follower of Pesellino is here designated 
simply as the Compagno di Pesellino. Various other paintings are then 



RENAISSANCE ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1901 231 

ascribed to this painter, amongst which are the History of Aeneas, a Tourney, 
and the Visit of the Queen of Sheba to Solomon, all in the Jarvis collec- 
tion at New Haven. 

The Triumph of Death at the Hospice at Palermo. On the walls of 
the Palazzo Selafani, which was transformed into a hospice, then into bar- 
racks, is a striking fresco representing the Triumph of Death. Long attrib- 
uted to Antonio Crescenzio of Palermo, this fresco has been declared to be 
a Flemish painting by Janitschek, Burckhardt, and Bode. In the Gaz. B.-A. 
1901, pp. 223-228, EUGENE MUNTZ vindicates its Italian character by point- 
ing out its analogies with the works of Pisanello, Piero della Francesca, and 
other Italian painters. He suggests the possibility of its being painted by 
Leonardo da Besozzo, who worked at Naples as late as 1458. 

Botticelli as a Pupil of Fra Filippo Lippi. In R. Arch. XXXIX, 
1901, pp. 12-19 (2 pis.; 1 fig.), HERBERT P. HORNE states on the authority 
of documents that Botticelli was thirteen years old in February, 1457-58, and 
was therefore born three years earlier than is ordinarily stated. He was not 
a pupil of Pesellino, who was dead before Botticelli left school. In 1459 he 
became a pupil of Filippo Lippi. A Virgin and Child at Settignano, in a 
chapel called Oratorio di SS. Maria al Vannella, is a work of Botticelli while 
he was under the influence of Filippo Lippi, and had not yet come under 
that of Antonio Pollaiuoli. The painting is much restored, but its character 
is still evident. The frescoes of the Spedaletto are briefly discussed, and a 
plan of the building is given. 

Bonifazio di Pitati da Verona. The earlier writers knew of only one 
Venetian painter named Bonifazio, some classing him as from Verona, others 
as from Venice. More recent writers, including Morelli, endeavor to distin- 
guish as many as three painters of this name. A thorough study of the 
archives of Verona and of Venice with reference to Bonifazio has been made 
by GUSTAV LUDWIG, and the results are being published in the Jb. Preuss. 
Kunsts. 1901, pp. 61-78, 180-200. He finds records of only two painters of 
this name: (1) Bonifazio di Bartolommeo da Pasinis; born, 1489; married 
Alferana Palermi ; died, April 3, 1540 ; and (2) Bonifazio di Pitati da Verona ; 
born, 1487 ; married Marietta Brunelli ; died, October 19, 1553. Notes from 
the archives are also published concerning the pupils of the second Bonifazio, 
Domenico Biondo, Battista di Bonifazio, Marcantonio di Bonifazio, Antonio 
Palm a, Stefano Cernotto, Vitruvio Buonconsiglio detto Vitrulio, Polidoro da 
Lanzano, and Jacobo detto Pisbolica. 

A Decorated Tray in the Franchetti Collection, Venice. In the 
collection of Baron Giorgio Franchetti, in Venice, is a circular tray on 
which is very charmingly painted the Choice of Hercules. It is pub- 
lished in L' Arte, 1901, p. 133, and ascribed to the school of Liberale of 
Verona. 

Some Early Works of Lorenzo Lotto. In L' Arte, 1901, pp. 152-161, 
G. BISCARO discusses the frescoes adjoining the monument of Agostino 
Origo in the church of San Nicolo at Treviso. These frescoes were assigned 
by Ridolfi to Antonello da Messina ; by Federici, Cavalcaselle, Burckhardt, 
and Bode to Giovanni Bellini ; by Morelli, Frizzoni, Liitzow, and Berenson 
to Jacopo dei Barbari. Biscaro here gives his reasons for assigning them to 
Lorenzo Lotto, to whom he also assigns two portraits, in Naples and Vienna, 
attributed by others to Jacopo dei Barbari. 



232 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

The So-called Portrait of Cardinal Passerini in the National Gal- 
lery at Naples. In tiie National Gallery at Naples is a portrait attributed 
to Raphael and supposed to represent Cardinal Silvio Passerini da Cortoiia. 
A. FJLANGIERI DI CANDIDA has, however, discovered on the back of the 
canvas a cartellino showing that the painting was formerly No. 134 of the 
Farnese Gallery and that the Farnese inventories describe it as a portrait by 
Raphael of Paul III when he was Cardinal Alessandro Farnese. The same 
face appears in the Vatican fresco by Raphael representing the Decretals of 
Gregory IX and was recognized by Vasari as that of Alessandro Farnese. 
Hence Filangieri's contention in L' Arte, 1901, pp. 129-134, that the portrait 
represents Cardinal Alessandro Farnese may be accepted as proved. 

The Master of the Carrand Triptych. In the Jb. Preuss. Kunsts. 
1901, pp. 35-55, W. WEISBACH attempts to identify the "Master of the 
Carrand Triptychon," who is represented by a Triptych from the Car- 
rand Collection, now in the Museo Nazionale, Florence. From various 
considerations, documentary and stylistic, he is led to suppose that this 
master is Giuliano Pesello. Other works by the same master are enumer- 
ated by Weisbach in the Re.p.f. K. 1899, p. 76. 

Riccai do Quartararo. Documents show that a painter Riccardo 
Quartararo had various commissions in Palermo from 1485 to 1501, but thus 
far only a single painting, representing SS. Peter and Paul, has been identi- 
fied as by him. E. MANCERI, in L' Arte, 1901, p. 144, finds three paintings 
in the National Museum at Palermo which he ascribes to this master. 
These paintings are a Coronation of the Virgin, a Santa Rosalia, and an 
Annunciation. 

A Fresco by Ascanio Condivi. At Ripatransone there is in the 
Chiese del Carmine a fresco attributed to Vincenzo Pagani. Recently dis- 
covered documents to be published in the Rassegna bibliogrqfica dell' arte 
italiana show that this fresco, representing the Crucifixion, was executed by 
Ascanio Condivi, the pupil and biographer of Michelangelo. 

Domenico Capriolo. The documentary studies of G. BISCARO, pub- 
lished in the Atti dell' Ateneo di Treviso enable him to assign to Domenico 
Capriolo, pupil of Lotto, the Assumption of the Madonna in the Cathedral 
at Treviso. To the same artist may be assigned a Holy Family in the 
Mantovani Collection at Treviso, a Nativity in the Communal Gallery at 
Treviso, and a Nativity in the Collection of Prince Giovanelli (Rep. f. K. 
1901, pp. 156-157). 

Two Paintings attributed to Paris Bordone. In October, 1900, 
there was held in the Museum at Treviso a special exhibition of the works 
of Paris Bordone, followed by the publication by LUIGI BAILO and GIRO- 
LAMO BISCARO, Delia vita e delle opere di Paris Bordon, Treviso, 1901. One 
of these paintings is a half figure of Christ, from the Rasi Collection at Ra- 
venna, attributed by Cavalcaselle, Frizzoni, Barto, and Biscaro to Paris Bor- 
done. In L' Arte, 1901, pp. 280-288, A. MOSCHETTI gives his reasons for 
assigning this painting to some follower of Paris Bordone. On the other 
hand a somewhat similar Christ, grouped with the Virgin or, -as he sug- 
gests, St. Martha, in the Museo Civico at Padua, appears on his analysis to 
be a genuine Paris Bordone. 



RENAISSANCE ART] AECEAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1901 233 



FRANCE 

The House of Frangois I at Abbeville. At Abbeville there are sev- 
eral houses with wooden fa9ades sculptured in the sixteenth century. One 
with an elaborately carved doorway is known in local handbooks and guides 
as the house of Fraiu^ois I. In R. Art Chre't. 1901, pp. 414-417, ALCIUS 
LEDIEU shows that this house was erected in the time of Louis XII, that 
Fra^ois I resided not here but in the hotel de la Gonthuse when he visited 
Abbeville. Possibly he contributed something for its completion on his first 
visit to Abbeville in 1517. 

French Renaissance Painting. Italian, Flemish, and German paint- 
ings of the Renaissance period are widely known. French paintings of the 
same period are less well known. CAMILLE BENOIT, in the Gaz. B.-A. 1901, 
pp. 89-101, 318-332, 368-380, writes on French painting at the end of the 
fifteenth century. After mentioning various dated paintings at the end of 
the fifteenth century, he discusses in detail the works of the master of the 
portraits of 1488, a strong, realistic portrait painter of Burgundy, and the 
gentler, more religious works of a painter whom he designates as the Master 
of Moulins, or the Master of the Angels. 

Gutenberg and Printing in France in the Fifteenth Century. The 
500th anniversary of the birth of Gutenberg has led to a revival of interest 
in early French printing. The volume of LEOPOLD DE LISLE, A la Me- 
moire de Jean Gutenberg, Paris, 1900, was not only well illustrated with helio- 
gravures, but brought to light rare documents preserved in the Bibliotheque 
Rationale. The volume of ANATOLE FRANCE, Jean Gutenberg, suivi du 
Traite des Phantasmes de Nicole Langelier, Paris, 1900, though containing 
historical information, was chiefly interesting for its typographical illustra- 
tions. More important still is the learned volume of A. CLAUDIN, Histoire 
de rimprimerie en France au XV* et au XVI e siecle. Tome I, Paris, 1900, an 
analysis of which is given by CLEMENT JANIN in Gaz. B.-A. 1901, pp. 
239-250. 

A French Miniature of a Scene in Florida. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 
1901, pp. 8-17, E. T. HAMY writes, ' Sur une miniature de Jacques Le 
Moyne de Morgues, representant une scene du voyage de Laudonniere en 
Floride (1564)." The miniature is on vellum, and belongs now to Mme. 1^ 
Comtesse de Janay, formerly to the collection of her father, M. le Comte de 
Behague. It represents a group of French soldiers, in whose presence stands 
a group of American Indians. Near the Indians is a hexagonal pier marked 
with French devices. The French costumes are those of the time of Charles 
IX. Hence the military expedition must be that of Jean Ribauld or of 
Rene de Laudonniere or of Dominique de Gourgues. The Histoire notable 
de la Floride situe'e es Indes Occidentales, published by Basanier in 1586, 
describes the erection of such a column at the mouth of the May River by 
Laudonniere in 1564, and the Brevis Narratio eorum quae in Florida 
Americae Provincia Gallis acciderunt, published by Theodore de Bry in 1591, 
is illustrated by copper plates taken from sketches made on the spot by 
Jacques Le Moyne de Morgnes. One of these copper plates reproduces 
exactly the scene on the miniature in the possession of Mme. de Janay. 
In the estimation of M. Hamy, this miniature is declared to be " one of 
the most precious records " of the attempted American colonies of France. 



234 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

A Fifteenth Century French Crucifix. In the B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 
1900, pp. 186-189, AD. DE ROCHEMONTEIX publishes a wooden crucifix in 
the church of Montsalvy (Cantal). The Christ is life size, and is clad with 
a loin cloth of Byzantine type. The feet are not crossed and are not sup- 
ported by a foot-rest. In the same district a finer crucifix may be seen in 
the church of St. Flour (Cantal). Both may be referred to the fifteenth 
century. 

Claude Ferrault. In the Gaz. B.-A. 1901, pp. 209-222, 425-440, PAUL 
BONNEFON writes of Claude Perrault as an architect and traveller. The 
articles are concerned chiefly with an account of Perrault's travels from 
1662-1669 in western France. 

The Engraver called Gaspero Reverdino. Bartsch, Passavant, and 
their followers classify as a mediocre Paduan, and give an Italian name to 
the engraver who signed his plates Ge Reverdinus. The critical articles of 
HENRI BOUCHOT, in the Gaz. B.-A. 1901, pp. 102-108, 220-238, prove that 
this engraver was named Georges Reverdy, who flourished at Lyons in 1555, 
and that far from being a mediocre Paduan, he was essentially " f ra^ais 
de France." 

A Factory of Italian Faience at Amboise. In the B. M. Soc. Ant. 
Fr. 1900, pp. 120-125, M. VITRY publishes some fragments of glazed terra- 
cotta pilasters found at Amboise. After establishing the Italian character 
of these fragments, he suggests that they may perhaps be ascribed to Jerome 
Solobrin, a potter at Amboise about 1494 to 1502, who was possibly an 
ancestor of Leocadius Solobrinus da Forli. [We venture to suggest also the 
possibility of their being the workmanship of Girolamo della Robbia, who 
made the architectural terra-cotta for the Chateau de Madrid.] 

NETHERLANDS 
Jan Van Eyck's Portrait of a Burgundian Chamberlain. In the 

Jb. Preuss. Kunsts. 1901, pp. 115-131, W. BODE writes concerning a por- 
trait of a Burgundian chamberlain recently acquired by the Berlin Gallery. 
Although not prepared to recognize, with James Weale, in the painting the 
portrait of Jean de Roubaix et Herzelles, he argues at some length in favor 
of its attribution to Jan Van Eyck. 

Roger van der Wey den. In the history of Flemish art, Tournai was 
as influential in sculpture in the fourteenth century as Bruges was in paint- 
ing in the fifteenth century. From this school emanated Roger van der 
Weyden, who in the archives figures at first as a sculptor. L. MAETERLINCK 
has attempted to establish his position as a sculptor, in a volume entitled 
Roger van der Weyden et les ymaigiers de Tournai (Ghent, 1900). In the 
Gaz. B.-A. 1901, pp. 265-284, 399-411, the same author writes on Roger 
van der Weyden, sculptor, citing a number of monuments which he attrib- 
utes to the master, and others to sculptors under his influence. 

Jacques Daret. In Chron. d. Arts, September 21, 1901, L. MAETER- 
LINCK discusses the identity of the Master of Flemalle with Jacques Daret, 
a fellow pupil of Roger van der Weyden in the studio of Robert Campin. 
He brings forward the evidence concerning the life of Jacques Daret, and 
makes the identity, which was recently asserted by G. Hulin, appear proba- 
ble. Jacques Daret was an artist of some note, who had commissions at 
Bruges, Lille, and Arras, where he lived from 1446 to 1458. 



RENAISSANCE ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS, 1901 235 

A Pupil of the "Master of Fle"malle." In the Berlin Museum is a 
'Crucifixion ' attributed by Passavant and subsequent writers to " Jarenus." 
This is a Westphalian painting, and in many details shows the influence of 
the so-called Master of Flemalle. (F. KOCH, Rep. f. K. 1901, pp. 290-291.) 

Coronation of the Virgin,' by Albert Cornelis. In the R. Art Chre't. 
1901, pp. 361-364, W. H. JAMES WE ALE publishes a unique painting, by 
Albert Cornelis, representing the Coronation of the Virgin in the midst 
of Seraphim, Cherubim, Thrones, Dominations, Virtues, Powers, Principali- 
ties, Angels, and Archangels. The painting dates from 1517-22, and was 
made for the Guild of St. Francis for the Church of St. James at Bruges. 
Various facts in the history of this artist have been recovered, but no other 
of his paintings is known. 

GERMANY 

The Birthplace of Hans Bruggemann. It is generally assumed that 
Hans Briiggeman, the author of the magnificent altar in the cathedral at 
Schleswig, was born in the town Husum, in which he lived for a long time 
and where he died in 1540. In the Rep.f. K. 1901, pp. 124-126, R. DOEBNER 
publishes a document from the official archives in Hanover which shows 
that Bruggemann was born at Walsrode. 

'The Seven Sorrows of Mary,' by Albrecht Diirer. In the Dresden 
Gallery are seven paintings (Nos. 1875-1881), known as the * Seven Sor- 
rows of Mary,' representing the Circumcision, the Flight into Egypt, the 
Youthful Christ teaching in the Temple, the Bearing of the Cross, the 
Crucifixion, Christ on the Cross, and the Deposition. These have been 
recently attributed to Hans chaufflein, by Scheibler, Woermann, and 
Thieme, and to Griinewald, by Rieffel. HENRY THODE, who in his 
Nurnberger Malerschule had ascribed these paintings to a pupil of Diirer's, 
in the Jb. Preuss. Kunsts. 1901, pp. 90-114, attributes them to the master 
himself and assigns them to the year 1498. 

The Earliest Dated Pictures by Hans Holbein. Four paintings in 
the cathedral at Augsburg are generally accepted as the earliest dated pic- 
tures of Hans Holbein the elder. In the Archiv fur Christliche Kunst, 1898, 
pp. 51 ff., MAX BACH argued against this attribution, and ascribed them 
to Bartholomaus Zeitblom. In the Rep. f. K. 1901, pp. 137-144, ALFRED 
SCHRODER sustains the earlier attribution. 

A Portrait by Titian in the Dresden Gallery. In the Dresden Gal- 
lery there is a portrait by Titian (No. 172) long called Pietro Aretino.' 
Since that designation was proved to be false, the portrait has been called 
that of a painter, because of a color box(?) represented on it. In the 
Rep. f. K. 1901, pp. 292-293, K. TSCHENSCHNES affirms that this object is 
no color box, but an apothecary's box, and that the portrait represents a 
physician. He finds that behind the head was once a nimbus, and infers 
that the physician was represented as a saint. 

Tapestries in the Cathedral at Strassburg. In the cathedral at 
Strassburg is a series of tapestries, in fourteen panels, representing the 
Life of the Virgin. An inscription, repeated on each panel, reads: 
SVMPTIBV: REV MI ET ILL MI CAPITVLI ARGENTINENSIS 
PRO VSV CATHEDRALIS ECCLESI/E- ANNO 1739. The tap- 
estries do not appear to be well known, even to the residents of Strassburg. 
Recently they were in need of repair, and application was made to the 



236 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

Gobelin manufactory. Thus two photographs came to the attention of 
M. GUIFFKEY, who recognizes in them tapestries made in Paris, under 
Louis XIII, by Pierre Damour, for Cardinal Richelieu. The designs 
recall the style of Vouet and his school. (Chron. d. Arts, 1901, pp. 242- 
244.) 

The Coat of Arms of the Engraver E. S. Much obscurity envelopes 
the personality of the engraver E S. From a coat of arms which appears 
several times in connection with his signature E or E S, it is inferred by 
MAX GEISBERG in the Jb. Preuss. Kunsts. 1901, pp. 56-60, that he belonged 
to the Ribeisen family, a name which occurs in Strassburg from the thirteenth 
to the end of the sixteenth century. Geisberg suggests that possibly the S 
signified that the engraver came from Strassburg, although living elsewhere. 

A Venetian Blockbook in the Berlin Museum. In the department 
of engravings of the Berlin Museum is a series of eighteen wood engravings 
representing the Passion of Christ. Their Venetian character and impor- 
tance for the history of engraving are brought out by PAUL KRISTELLER in 
the Jb. Preuss. Kunsts. 1901, pp. 132-154. 

SPAIN 

The Illuminators of the Apocalypse in the Escurial. In the Escurial 
near Madrid is a notable folio in manuscript of the Apocalypse, composed 
of forty -nine pages finely illuminated. From documentary and other 
evidence, ALESSANDRO VESME-FRANCESCO CARTA, in L' Arte, 1901, pp. 35- 
42, identifies the painters of .the miniatures as Jean Bapteur of Freiburg, 
Peronete Lamy, and Jean Colombe. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

OF 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL BOOKS 

1901 

HAROLD N. FOWLER, Editor 

*#* Books, pamphlets, and other matter for the Bibliography should be addressed 
to Professor FOWLER, 49, Cornell Street, Cleveland, Ohio. 



GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 



Annuaire des Musses scientifiques et ar- 
che"ologiques des de"parteinents. Paris. 

1900, Leroux. 440pp. 8vo. wi 

Muss-Arnolt, Theological and Se- 
mitic Literature for the Year 1900. 
Chicago, 1901, University of Chicago 
Press. 108 pp. 8vo. $0.50. 
Atlas archSologique de la Tunisie. 
Livr. VII. Paris, 1901, Leroux. 
4 cartes et texte en regard. Folio. 

E. Babelon, Melanges numismatiques. 
3e se"rie. Paris, 1901, Rollin & 

Feuardent. 9 pis. C. Barriere- 

Flavy, Les arts industriels des peu- 
ples barbares de la Gaule du V me 
au VHP" siecle. Tome 1. Etude 
arche'ologique, historique, et g6o- 
graphique. xii, 498 pp. ; 122 figs. 
Tome 2. Repertoire g^n^ral des 
stations barbares de la Gaule. viii, 
321 pp. Album. 19 pp. ; 91 pis. ; 
1 map. Toulouse and Paris, 1901. 

4to. M. Bauer, see Bericht der 

k. k. Central-Commission. J. de 

Beauregard, Parthenon, f Pyramides, 
Saint-Se"pulcre (Grece, Egypte, Pal- 
estine). Lyon, 1901. vii, 337 pp. ; 

117 figs. 8vo. G. Belliicci, Amu- 

leti italiani antichi e contemporanei. 

Perugia, 1900. 8vo. Ph. Berger, 

see Description de 1' Afrique du Nord. 



Bericht der k. k. Central-Com- 
mission fiir Erforschung und Erhal- 
tung der Kunst- und historischen 
Denkmale iiber ihre Thatigkeit i. J. 

1900. Zusarnmengestellt im Auftrage 
des Prasidenten v. TSL. Bauer. Vienna, 

1901, W. Braumiiller. Ivi, 160 pp. 

8vo. M. Besnier, see Description 

de l'A_frique du Nord. A. Blan- 

chet, Etudes de numismatique. Paris, 
1901, E. Leroux. Tome second : 318 

pp. ; 4 pis. 8vo. P. Blanchet, 

see Description de 1' Afrique du Nord. 

Count A. Bobrinskoi, Kurgans 

and Chance Archaeological Discover- 
ies near the Hamlet Ssmela. Vol. 
III. Journals of the Excavations, 
1889-1897, on the Kurgans of the 
Divisions of Svenigorod, Kanev, and 
Romno. St. Petersburg, 1901. xii, 
174 pp. ; 21 pis. ; 2 maps; 78 auto- 
types. [Russian.] E. Bonnell, 

Beitrage zur Altertumskunde Russ- 
lands (von den altesten Zeiten bis urn 
das Jahr 400 n. Chr.), hauptsachlich 
aus den Berichten der griechischen 
und lateinischen Schriftseller. 2. Bd. 
St. Petersburg, 1897. iii, pp. 505- 

1104. 8vo. N. de Boulitchov, 

Fouilles de la Russie centrale. Kour- 
gans et gorodietz. Recherches arche"- 



237 



238 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 



ologiques sur la ligne de partage des 
eaux de la Volga et du Dnie"pre. 
Moscow, 1900. xii, 78 pp. ; 34 pis. ; 
3 maps. Folio. 

P. P. Caproni and brother, Catalogue 
of Casts for Sale. Boston, 1901. 
300 pp. 8vo. [The illustrations 
represent some fifteen thousand casts 

for sale by the firm.] G. Caru- 

selli, Sulle origini dei popoli italici, 
del nome Pelasgi e di una pretesa 
eta della pietra nel mondo khamitico- 
europeo. Palermo, 1901. 32 pp. 

8vo. Catalogue des moulages de 

sculptures appartenant aux divers 
centres et aux diverses e"poques d'art 
exposes dans les galeries du Trocade"ro. 
Paris, 1900, Imprimerie Nationale. 
239 pp. 8vo. Chanenko, Col- 
lection B. Chanenko. Antiques de 
la region du Dnie"pre. Livr. I : Ages 
de la pierre et du bronze. 15 pp.; 
12 pis. II, III : Epoque ante'rieure 
a la grande migration des peuples. 
Partie 1 : 44 pp. ; 37 pis. 2 : 31 pp. ; 
26 pis. Kiew, 1899-1900. Folio. 

[Russian.] C. Chomel, Histoire 

du cheval dans 1'antiquite" et son role 
dans la civilisation. Inde, Perse, 
Chine, Assyrie et Chalde"e, Iude"e, 
Egypte, Grece, Rome. Paris, 1900, 
A. Legoupy. 173 pp.; 1 pi. ; 11 figs. 

W. Christ, Fiihrer durch d. k. 

Antiquarium in Miinchen. Unter 
Mitwirkung v. H. Thiersch, K. Dyroff 
u. L. Curtius. Munich, 1901. 121 

pp. ; 7 pis. 8vo. L. Conforti, 

Das Nationalmuseum in Neapel, ins 
Deutsche iibertragen von P. E. Lorenz. 
Naples, 1901. 50 pp. ; 162 pis. Folio. 

C. Davenport, Cameos. London, 1900, 
Seely & Co. 66 pp.; 28 pis.; 1 fig. 

4to. H. Delbriick, Geschichte der 

Kriegskunsl im Rahmen der politi- 
schen Geschichte. 2. Teil, 1. Halite : 
Romer u. Germanen. Berlin, 1901, 

G. Stilke. 231pp. 8vo. A.Del 

Mar, Ancient Britain in the Light of 
Modern Archaeological Discoveries. 
New York, 1901. 24, 206 pp. 8vo. 

E. Demoulins, Les grandes 

routes des peuples. Essai de ge"ogra- 
phie sociale : Comment la route cre"e 
le type social. Tome l er : Les routes 
de 1'antiquit^. Paris, 1901, Didot. 

8vo. (With maps.) Denkmaler 

der Baukunst. Zusammengestellt, 
gezeichnet und herausgegeben vom 
Zeichen-Ausschuss der Studieren- 
den der Kgl. Technischen Hoch- 
schule zu Berlin. (Abteilung fur 



Architektur.) Liefg. 1. 4. verm, 
u. verb. Aufl. Antike Baukunst. 
Blatt I-XII a. Berlin, 1901, W. 
Ernst und Sohn. Folio. De- 
scription de 1'Afrique du Nord. 
Musses et collections arch^ologiques 
de l'Alge"rie et de la Tunisie. Muse"e 
Lavigerie de Saint-Louis de Car- 
thage. Collection des Peres-Blancs 
form^e par Le R. P. Delattre. 
I Se"rie : Antiquity's puniques par 
Ph. Berger. (Preface de A. He"ron 
de Villefosse.) Paris, 1900, E. Le- 
roux. xiv, 279 pp. ; 36 pis. ; 20 figs. 
Folio. IX : Collection Farges par 
M. Besnier et P. Blanchet. Paris, 

1900, E. Leroux. iv, 90 pp. ; 11 pis. 

4to. M. Desideri, La Macedonia 

dopo la battaglia di Pidna. Rome, 

1901. 92 pp. 8vo. N. Die- 
polder, Der Tempelbau der vorchrist- 
lichen u. christlichen Zeit oder die 
bildendeii Kunste im Dienste der 
Religion bei den Heiden, Juden, 
Mohammedanern u. Christen. Leip- 
zig, 1901, O. Spamer. viii, 296 pp. ; 
1 pi. ; 200 figs. 8vo. 

G. Ebe, Architektonische Raumlehre. 
Entwickelung der Typen des Innen- 
baus. Dresden, 1900, G. Kiihtmann. 
Bd. 1 : Von den altesten Zeiten bis 
zum Abschluss der gothischen Pe- 

riode. 237 pp. ; 134 figs. 4to. 

F. Eusebio, Sul museo civico d' Alba 
e sopra alcune scoperte archeolo- 
giche nel territorio albese. Turin, 
1901. 8vo. 

Carlo Fiorilli, see Ministero della Pub- 
blica Istruzione. G. Floerke, 
Zehn Jahre mit Bocklin. Aufzeich- 
nungen u. Entwiirfe. Munich, 1901, 
F. Bruckmann. 255 pp. ; 14 pis. 
4to. [Partial contents: Farbige 
Skulptur, pp. 129-149; Gedanken 

liber Bildhauerei, pp. 150-158.] 

R. Foerster, Das preussische Konig- 
thum und die klassische Kunst. Rede 
gehalten am 18 Januar. Breslau, 
1901, M. and H. Marcus. 37 pp. 

8vo. G. Forestier, La roue. 

Etude pale"o-technologique. Paris 
et Nancy, 1900, Berger-Levrault et 

Cie. 140 pp.; 161 figs. 8vo. 

E. Frantz, Handbuch der Kunst- 
geschichte. Mit Titelbild u. 393 
Abb. im Text. Freiburg i. Br., 1900, 
Herdersche Verlagshandlung. xii, 

448 pp. ; 394 figs. 8vo. J. G. 

Frazer, The Golden Bough. A 
study in magic and religion. 2d ed. 
3 vols. London, 1900, Macmillan & 



GENERAL] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1901 



239 



Co. xxviii, 467 ; x, 471 ; x, 490 

pp. 8vo. A. Furtwangler, Be- 

schreibung der Glyptothek Konig 
Ludwigs I. zu Mlinchen. Munich, 
1900, A. Buchholz. 384 pp. 8vo. 

Ch. Galbrun, see Trawinski. P. 

Gauckler, Rggence de Tunis. Direc- 
tion des Antiquite"s et des Beaux- 
Arts. Compte rendu de la marche 
du service en 1900. Tunis, 1901. 

19 pp. 8vo. K. Goertz ( 1 1883) , 

Collected works. Parts I-V. St. 
Petersburg, 1900. 8vo. [Russian. 
Contents : Archaeology of Taman ; 
Letters from Italy and Sicily, 1870- 
71 ; Painting in Northern Europe 
from Charlemagne to the Beginning 
of the Romanesque Period ; Popular 
Essays on Oriental, Classical, and 
Early Christian Archaeology.] 
E. Grosse, Kunstwissenschaftliche 
Studien. Tubingen, 1900, J. C. B. 
Mohr. 259 pp. 8vo. 

Histoire de I'Alge'rie par ses monu- 
ments. Ouvrage de luxe. Edite" 
sous les auspices du Gouvernement 
Ge'ne'ral de I'Alge'rie. Paris, 1900, 
L. Baschet. 70 pp. ; 100 figs. 4to. 
M. Hoffmann, August Bockh, 
Lebensbeschreibung und Auswahl 
aus seinem wissenschaftlichen Brief- 
wechsel. Leipzig, 1901, B. G. Teub- 
ner. viii, 483 pp. ; 1 portrait. 8vo. 

F. Hommel, Die Insel der Se- 

ligen in Mythus u. Sage der Vorzeit. 
Vortrag. Munich, 1900, H. Luka- 
schik. 42 pp. ; 3 figs. 8vo. 

L. Koch, Bericht liber die Abhaltung 
des 3 Cyklus von kunstgeschicht- 
lichen Vortragen am Gymnasium zu 
Bremerhaven. Programme, Bremer- 

haven, 1900. pp. 15-21. 4to. 

A. Kuhn, Allgemeine Kunstge- 
schichte. Die Werke der bildenden 
Kiinste vom Standpunkte der Ge- 
schichte, Tecknik u. Aesthetik. 
Einsiedeln, 1900, Benziger. 

K. Lange, Das Wesen der Kunst. 
Grundziige einer realistischen Kunst- 
lehre. 2 vols. Berlin, 1901, G. 
Grote. 

E. Maass, Analecta sacra et profana. 
Marburg, 1901, N. E. Elwert. 16 pp. 

4to. E. Maindron, Marionnettes 

et guignols. Les poupe'es agissantes 
et parlantes a travers les ages ; 
Marionnettes dans Pantiquite", etc. 
Paris, 1901, Floury. 7 colored pis. ; 

148 figs. 4to. L. Mannochi, 

Guida pratica dei monument! e delle 
opere d' arte nella provincia di Ascoli 



Piceno. Grottamare, 1900. li,184pp. 

8vo. V. Masi, Vicende politiche 

dell' Asia dall' Ellesponto all' Indo. 
Vol.11: Dall' anno 67 all' anno 333 
di C. Citta di Castello, 1901. xii, 
520 pp. 8vo. J. H. Massi, De- 
scription abre'ge'e des muse'es [ponti- 
ficaux] de sculpture antique grecque 
et romaine, avec addition des muse'es 
gre"goriens e'trusque et egyptien, des 
salles Borgia, des monuments as- 
sy riens, etc. Rome, 1901. 104 pp. 

8vo. R. Menge, Einfiihrung in 

die antike Kunst. Ein methodischer 
Leitfaden fur hohere Lehranstalten 
und zum Selbstunterricht. 3. Aufl. 
Leipzig, 1901, E. A. Seemann. viii, 

338 pp. 8vo. Ed. Meyer, Ge- 

schichte des Alterthums. 3. Bd. : 
Das Perserreich und die Griechen. 
1. Halfte : Bis zu den Friedens- 
schliissen 448 und 446 v. Chr. Stutt- 
gart, 1901, J. G. Cotta. xiv, 691 pp. ; 

1 map. 8vo. Meyers Reise- 

biicher, Griechenland und Kleinasien. 
5. Aufl. Leipzig and Vienna, 1901, 
Bibliograph. Institut. 338 pp.; 13 

maps ; 25 plans ; 2 figs. 8vo. 

Ad. Michaelis, Strassburger Antiken. 
(Festgabe fur die archaeologische 
Section der XLVI Versammlung 
deutscher Philologen u. Schulmanner 
dargeboten von dem Kunstarchaeolo- 
gischen Institut der Kaiser Wilhelms- 
Universitat Strassburg.) Strassburg, 
1901, K. J. Trubner. 38 pp. ; 45 figs. 

4to. See A. Springer. Mini- 

stero della Pubblica Istruzione 
(Carlo Fiorilli), L' Amministrazione 
delle antichita e belle arte in Italia. 
Gennaio 1900-Giugno 1901. Rome, 
1901. 193pp. 4to. [Reports on monu- 
ments, arranged by regions (pp. 1-97), 
excavations (pp. 98-124), museums 
and galleries (pp. 125-149), objects 
of art (pp. 150-171), fine arts (pp. 
172-179), musical and dramatic art 
(pp. 180-186), various items (pp. 187- 

191).] Monografia della Terra 

di Bari (pubbl. per cura della Depu- 
tazione provinciale). Vol. I. Trani, 
1900. Folio. [Contains, among other 
things : S. Fioresi, Cenni storici della 
prov. di B. Carabellese, Delia storia 
delP arte in Puglia, e piu particolar- 
mente nella Terra di B., sino ai primi 
anni del sec. XIII. Massi, Saggio di 
bibliografia di T. di B.] 
C. Niebuhr, Tell el-Amarna Period. 
Relations of Egypt and Western 
Asia in the Fifteenth Century B.C. 



240 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 



London, 1901, D. Nutt. 64 pp. 8vo. 
Is. 6d. 

G. Perrot, L'histoire de Part dans 
1'enseignement secondaire. (Biblio- 
theque Internationale de 1'enseigne- 
ment supe'rieur.) Paris, 1900, A. 
Chevalier-Marescq & Cie. 158 pp. 

8vo. G. de Petra, Intorno al 

Museo Nazionale di Napoli. Auto- 
difesa. Naples, 1901. 38 pp. 8vo. 

Fr. Pichler, Das Epigraphisch- 
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P. Reynaud, La civilisation pai'enne 
et la fauiille. Paris, 1901, Perrin. 

8vo. G. Riat, Paris. Eine Ge- 

schichte seiner Kunstdenkmaler vom 
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riihmte Kunststatten nr. 6.) Berlin 
and Leipzig, 1900, E. A. Seemann. 

203 pp. ; 177 figs. 8vo. Otto 

Ribbeck, Ein Bild seines Lebens aus 
seinen Briefen, 1848-1898. Mit 2 
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viii, 352 pp. 8vo. S. Ricci, Del 

raetodo sperimentale nelle discipline 

archeologiche. Florence, 1900. H. 

Riggauer, Uber die Entwicklung der 
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Sammlungen im 19. Jahrhundert. 
Address. Munich, 1900. 24 pp. 4to. 

M. Rostovtsew and M. Prou, 
Catalogue des plotnbs de I'antiquite", 
du moyen age et des temps modernes 
conserve's au de"partement des me'- 
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theque Nationale. Pre'ce'de' d'une 
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O. Schrader, Reallexikon der indoger- 
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ziige einer Kultur- und Volkerge- 
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1048. 8vo. H. Schurtz, Urge- 

schichte der Cultur, mit 434 Abb. 
im Text, 8 Taf. in Farbendruck, 15 
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658 pp. 4to. Scriptores originum 

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figs. 8vo. E. Soil, Rome et 

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8vo. A. Springer, Handbuch 

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Testo e commento al disegno di legge 
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F. Trawinski and Ch. Galbrun, 
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8vo. Treasures of Art in Russia. 

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J. Urquehart, Die neueren Entdeck- 
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ORIENTAL] 



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241 



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EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY 



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ORIENTAL ARCHAEOLOGY 



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1897-1898 et 1898-1899 par J. de 
Morgan, G. Je"quier et G. Lampre. 
Paris, 1900, E. Leroux. x, 202 pp. ; 

22 pis. : 425 figs. 4to. F. De- 

litzsch, Babylon. 2. Abdruck verm, 
durch ein Nachwort. Leipzig, 1901, 
J. C. Heinrichs'sche Buchh. 25 pp.; 1 



242 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 



map ; 2 figs. 8vo. Ren6 Dus- 

sand and Frederic Macler, Voyage 
arche"ologique au Safa et dans le 
Djebel Ed-Druz. Paris, 1901, Leroux. 
224 pp. ; map ; 17 pis. ; 12 figs. 8vo. 

Ed. Glaser, Jehowah-Jovis und die 
drei Sohne Noah's. Ein Beitrag zur 
vergleichenden Gotterlehre. Munich, 
1901, G. Frantz. 28 pp. 8vo. 

L. Heuzey, Une villa royale chalde"enne 
vers Pan 4000 avant notre ere d'apres 
les lev^s et les notes de M. de Sarzec. 
Paris, 1900, E. Leroux. vii, 96 pp. ; 
2 pis. ; 59 figs. 4to. 

G. J6quier, see Delegation en Perse. 

E. Kalinka, see Tituli Asiae Minoris. 
G. Lampre, see Delegation en Perse. 

W. v. Landau, Die Phonizier. 

(Orient, Der alte, II Jahrg. 4. Heft.) 
Leipzig, 1901, J. C. Hinrichs Verl. 

32 pp. 8vo. C. F. Lehmann, 

Armenien u. Nordmesopotamien in 
Altertum und Gegenwart. ( Abteilung 
Berlin-Charlottenburg der Deutschen 
Kolonial-Gesellschaft. Verhandlun- 
gen 1900-01, Heft 4.) Berlin, 1900, 
D. Reimer. pp. 83-103. 8vo. 

F. Macler, see Dussand. E. Ma- 

gri, Three Punic Inscriptions redis- 
covered in Malta. Malta, 1901. 32 

pp. ; 1 pi. 8vo. J. de Morgan, 

see Delegation en Perse. 

L. B. Paton, The Early History of 
Syria and Palestine. [Semitic Se- 
ries.] New York, 1901, Charles Scrib- 
ner's Sons. 302 pp. 8vo. $1.25. 

K. Reichel, Die geschichtlichen und 
jetzigen Verkehrswege aus dem Eu- 
phrat-Tigris-Becken nach den an- 



grenzenden Landern. Programm der 
stadtischen hoheren Lehr-Anstalt in 
Charlottenburg 1900. pp. 3-20; 2 

maps. 4to. R. W. Rogers, A 

History of Babylonia and Assyria. 
2 ed. New York, 1901, Eaton & 
Mains. Vol. I : xx, 429 pp. Vol. II : 
xv, 418 pp. $5.00. 

Sculptures, Assyrian. London, 1901, 
H. Kleinmann & Co. No. 1 : 15 
pis. ; 12 pp. text in German, French, 
and English (signed K. v. L.). 4to. 

E. Speck. Handelsgeschichte des 

Altertums. 1 Bd. ; Die orientalischen 
Volker. Leipzig, 1900, Bandstetter. 
viii, 591 pp. 8vo. 

Tituli Asiae Minoris. Conlecti et editi 
auspiciis Caesareae Academiae Lit- 
terarum Vindobonensis. Vol. I. 
Tituli Lyciae, lingua lycia conscripti. 
Enarravit E. Kalinka. Tabulam ad 
Henrici Kiepert exemplum redactam 
adiecit R. Heberdey. (Praefatio : O. 
Benndorf.) Vindobonae, MDCCCCI, 
in aedibus A. Hoelderi. vi, 136 pp. ; 

1 map. E. Trampe, Syrien yor 

dem Eindringen der Israelites 'II. 
Studien zu den Thontafeln von Tell- 
el-Amarna.) Programme. Berlin, 
1901. 29 pp. 4to. 

H. Winckler, Altorientalische For- 
schungen. 2. Reihe. III. Bd. 2. 
Heft, v and pp. 433-579. 3. Reihe. 
I. Bd. 1. Heft. 96 pp. Leipzig, 
1901, E. Pfeiffer. 8vo. 

H. Zimmern, Biblische u. babylonische 
Urgeschichte. (Der alte Orient II, 
3.) Leipzig, 1901, Heinrichs. 40pp. 
8vo. 



CLASSICAL ARCHAEOLOGY 



GREEK AND ROMAN 

(Works treating of the monuments of 
the Greeks and Romans, but not ex- 
clusively of those of either.) 

P. Arndt, see Brunn. 

A. Blanchet, see Congrs international 
de nuinismatique. G. Botti, Cata- 
logue des Monuments exposes au 
Muse"e Gr6co-romain d'Alexandrie 
(Egypte). Alexandria, 1900. 586 

pp. ; 1 plan ; pis. 8vo. F. 

Bruckmann, see Brunn. Brunn- 

Arndt-Bruckmann, Griechische und 
rb'mische Portrats. Liefg. 52. Nr. 
511-512. Unbekannter Romer. A. 
B. Rom, Vatican. 513-514. Un- 
bekannter Romer. A. B. Rom, 
Vatican. 515-616. Unbekannter 



Romer. A. B. Rom, Vatican. 617- 
518. Unbekannter Romer. A. B. 
Kopenhagen, Glyptothek Ny Carls- 
berg. 519-520. Unbekannter Romer. 
A. B. Florenz, Uffizien. Liefg. 53. 
521-522. Caesar (?). A. B. Mtin- 
chen, Residenz. 523-524. Pompei- 
us (?) Kopenhagen, Glyptothek Ny 
Carlsberg. 525. Antinous. Neapel. 
526-527. Kopf der Statue Taf. 525. 
A. u. B. 528. Sog. Antinous. Rom, 
Capitol. 529-530. Kopf. der Statue 
Taf. 528. A. u. B. Liefg. 54. 
No. 531-532. Unbekannte Griechin. 
Miinchen. Sammlung F. A. v. Kaul- 
bach, A. B. 533-534. Unbekannte 
Griechin. Rom, Vatican. A. B. 
535-536. Unbekannte Griechin (?). 
Neapel. A. B. 537-538. Unbe- 



CLASSICAL: GENERAL] BIBLIOGRAPHY, 1901 



243 



kannte Griechin. Neapel. A. B. 
539-540. Unbekannte Griechin. 
Athen. Nationalmuseum. A. B. 
Liefg. 55. No. 541-542. Unbe- 
kannter Grieche, sogen. Phereky- 
des. A. B. Madrid, Prado. 543- 
544. Unbekannter Grieche. Aran- 
juez. A. B. 545-546. Unbekannter 
Grieche. Berlin. A. B. 547-548. 
Unbekannter Grieche. Aranjuez. A. 
B. 549-550. Unbekannter Grieche. 

Aranjuez. A. B. Brunn-Bruck- 

mann-Arndt, Denkmaler griechischer 
und romischer Sculptur. Liefg. CI. 
No. 501. Archaischer Kopf. Kom, 
Vatican. 502. Statuen der Athena. 
Madrid, Prado. Kom, Thermen mu- 
seum. 503. Reliefs vom Westfries 
des Parthenon. 504. Junglingskopf. 
Berlin, Kgl. Museen. 505. Statue 
eines Hermaphroditen. Rom, Ther- 
menmuseum. Liefg. CII. 506. 
Archaischer Junglingskopf. Neapel. 
507. Statue der Hera (?). Wien, 
Kunstakademie. 508. Weiblicher 
Kopf. Schloss Worlitz bei Dessau. 
509. Bartiger Gotterkopf. Mlinchen, 
Sammlung F. A. v. Kaulbach. 510. 
Statue des Endymion. Stockholm. 
Liefg. CIII. 511. Statue der Athena 
Parthenos. Madrid, Prado. 512. 
Statue der Athena Parthenos. Paris. 
513. Attisches Grabrelief. Athen, 
Nationalmuseum. 514. Bronzestatue 
eines Knaben. Madrid. Prado. 515. 
Kopf eines sterbenden Persers. Rom, 
Thermenmuseum. Liefg. CIV. 516. 
Archaisches Relief aus Paros. Leip- 
zig, Sammlung Max Klinger. Archai- 
sches Relief. Rom, Villa Albani. 517. 
Bartiger Kopf. London, British Mu- 
seum. 518. Grabrelief des Proklei- 
des. Athen, Nationalmuseum. 519. 
Junglingsstatue aus Eretria. Athen, 
Nationalmuseum. 520. Sog. Knochel- 
spielerin. Rom, Palazzo Colonna. 
Liefg. CV. 521. Statue einer Wett- 
lauferin. Rom, Vatican. 522. Re- 
liefs am Westfriese des Parthenon. 
523. Statue eines Apoxyomenos. 
Florenz, Uffizien. 524. Kopf der 
Statue Taf. 523. 525. Zwei weibliche 
Kopfe. Athen, Nationalmuseum. 
Le Comte de Castellane, see Congrds 

international de numismatique. 

Collection d'Antiquite"s grecques et 
romaines provenant de Naples. 
Paris, 1901, Macon, Protat freres, 
impr. 415 nos. 87 pp. ; 10 pis. ; 
40 figs. 20 fr. [Auction cata- 
logue. Sale March 18-20, 1901, at 



the H6tel Drouot. ] Collection 

du Comte Franz von Wotoch. Mon- 
naies grecques et romaines. Paris, 
1901. 44 pp. ; 6 pis. ; 10 figs. [Sale 

catalogue of 430 coins.] Congres 

international de numismatique reuni 
a Paris, en 1900. Proces verbaux et 
memoires public's par M. M. le Cointe 
de Castellane et A. Blanchet. Paris, 

1900. 8vo. [Contains: E. Gabrici, 
Le rOle de la numismatique dans la 
movement scientifique contemporain. 
pp. 35-50. F. de Villenoisy, De la 
fabrication des monnaies antiques, 
pp. 51-62 ; pi. i ; 2 figs. I. Leite de 
Vasconcellos, Les monnaies de la 
Lusitanie portugaise. pp. 63-78 ; 22 
figs. C. Casati de Casatis, Numis- 
matique e"trusque. Vues ge'ne'rales. 
pp. 99-103 ; 5 figs. C. Patsch, Con- 
tribution a la numismatique de By His 
et d'Apollonia. pp. 104-114 ; pi. iii ; 
1 map. M. C. Soutzo, Poids et mon- 
naies de Tom is. pp. 115-148 ; pis. 
iv-v ; 10 figs. P. Perdrizet, Tra- 
gilos. pp. 149-154 ; 1 fig. F. 
Gnecchi, I bronzi quadrilateri della 
repubblica e la moneta privata dei 
Romani. pp. 164-169. S. Ricci, 
Intorno all' influenza dei tipi mone- 
tari greci su quelli della repubblica 
Romana. pp. 170-204. R. Mowat, 
La reconstitution de collections de 
coins aux I er et II e siecles. pp. 210- 
226. O. Voetter, Les monnaies de 
Gallien et des membres de sa famille. 
pp. 227-234 ; pi. vi-xxiv. A, L. 
Delattre, Poids antiques de bronze 
trouve"s a Carthage, pp. 235-236.] 

Ch. Daremberg et E. Saglio, Dic- 
tionnaire des antiquite"s grecques et 
romaines. 28 et 29 fasc. Paris, 

1901, Hachette. Tome IV : pp. 881- 
1204 ; 134 figs. 4to. 

A. H6ron de Villefosse and E. Michon, 
Muse"e du Louvre. De"partement des 
Antiquite's grecques et romaines. 
Acquisitions de Panne"e 1900. Paris, 

1901. 21pp. 8vo. E.Herrmann, 

Saulenordnungen der Griechen u. 
Romer. Vorlagen ftir den Unter- 
richt u. zum Selbstunterricht. Dres- 
den, 1901, G. Kuhtmann. 4 pp.; 

18 pis. Folio. A. Holm, Storia 

della Sicilia. Vol. II, 2. Ill, 1. 

Turin, 1901. J. Humbert, My- 

thologie grecque et romaine. Nouvelle 
Edition avec preface par H. The"denat. 
Paris, 1901, Fontemoing. 

Inscriptiones antiquae orae septentrio- 
nalis Ponti Euxini Graecae et Latinae 



244 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 



ed. B. Latyschew. Vol. IV. Petro- 
poli, 1901. 

G. v. Kieseritsky, The Imperial Ermi- 
tage. Museum of Ancient Sculpture. 
Fourth ed. 436, 184 pp. ; 436 (or 462) 
autotypes. St. Petersburg, 1901. 
4to. [Russian.] 

B. Latyschew, see Inscriptiones an- 
tiquae orae septentrionalis Ponti 

Euxini. H. Lehner, Fiihrer durch 

das Provinzial-Museum zu Bonn. 
Bonn, 1901, C. Georgi. 49 pp. ; 1 fig. 

8vo. F. Leo, Die griechisch-ro- 

mische Biographic nach ihrer littera- 
rischen Form. Leipzig, 1901, B. G. 
Teubner. v, 329 pp. 8vo. 

E. Michon, see Heron de Villefosse. 

L. Olivier, see En Sicile. 

G. Patroni and Ch. Rega, Vasi dipinti 
del inuseo Vivenzio, disegnati da Cos- 
tanzo Angelini nel 1798. Fasc. 1. 
Rome-Naples, 1900. 4 pp. ; 5 pis. 

Folio. Paulys Real- Encyclopaedic 

der classischen Altertumswissenchaf t. 
Neue Bearbeitung hrsg. v. G. Wissowa. 
Stuttgart, 1901. J. B. Metzlerscher 
Verlag. 8. Halbbd. : Corniscae-De- 
modoros. Coll. 1633-2870 [contains : 
Constantinopolis (Oberhummer) ; Cy- 
presse (Olck) ; Dacia (Brandis) ; 
Daidalos (C. Robert) ; Danuvius 
(Brandis) ; Dardanos (Thraemer) ; 
Delos (Biirchner and v. Schoeffer) ; 
Delphoi (Philippson, Hiller v. Gartrin- 
gen and Pomtow) ; Derneter (Kern) ; 
Deme trios Poliorketes (Kaerst) ; De- 
metrios von Phaleron (Martini)]. 

Rauschen. Das griechisch-romische 
Schulwesen zur Zeit des ausgehen- 
den antiken Heidentums. Programme, 

Bonn, 1900. 31pp. 4to. Ch. Rega, 

see Patroni. W. H. Roscher, 

Lexikon der griechischen und romi- 
schen Mythologie. 43 Lieferung. 
Leipzig, 1901, B. G. Teubner. 

E. Saglio, see Daremberg. J. 

Schwarez, Die Demokratie. 2 Ausg. 
I : Die Demokratie von Athen. xc, 
749 pp. II : Die romische Massen- 
herrschaft. Ixxxviii, 27, 650 pp. 
Leipzig, 1901, E. Avenarius. 8vo. 
En Sicile, Guide du savant et du 
touriste. Ouvrage public" sous la di- 
rection de L. Olivier, par L. Caberti, 
Ch. Djob, Ch. Diehl, F. Fouque", E. 
Haug, Oct. Join-Lambert, H. Le"o- 
nardon, Vicomte Combes de Lestrade, 
A. Leroy-Beaulieu. Machat, G. Per- 
rot, Vidal de la Blache, G. Yvez. 
Paris, 1901, Flammarion. 128 figs. 
and plans. 8vo. A. H. Smith, A 



Catalogue of Sculpture in the depart- 
ment of Greek and Roman antiqui- 
ties in the British Museum. London, 

1900. Vol. II : ix, 264 pp. ; 27 pis. ; 

11 figs. 8vo. E. Speck, Handels- 

geschichte des Altertums. 2. Bd. : 
Die Griechen. Leipzig, 1901, F. 
Brandstetter. viii, 582 pp. 8vo. 

L. Stieda, Anatomisch-archao- 
logische Studien. I. Uberdie altesten 
bildlichen Darstellungcn der Leber. 
II. Anatoinisches liber alt-italische 
Weihgeschenke (Donaria). (From 
the Anatomische Hefte.) Weisbaden, 

1901. iv, 131 pp. ; 4 pis. 8vo. 
H. ThSdenat, see J. Humbert. 

N. Villani, II piede e lo stadio attraverso 
i secoli e il sisterna antico delle mis- 
ure romane. Lanciano, 1901. 8vo. 

U. v. Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Reden 
u. Vortrage. Berlin, 1901, Weid- 
mann'sche Buchh. vii, 278pp. 8vo. 

GREEK 

(Including also titles of works relating 
to pre-Hellenic inhabitants of Greece 
and to kindred peoples, and to monu- 
ments of Greek art wherever found.) 

I. GENERAL AND MISCELLA- 
NEOUS 

S. Ambrosoli, Atene. Brevi cenni sulla 
citta antica e moderna seguiti da un 
saggio di bibliografia descrittiva e da 
una appendice numismatica. Milano, 
1901, U. Hoepli. Iv, 170 pp. ; 22 pis. ; 

3 plans ; 13 figs. 8vo. O. Apelt, 

Die Ansichten der griechischen Philo- 
sophen liber den Anfang der Kultur. 
Programme, Eisenach, 1901. 28 pp. 
4to. E. Ardaillon and H. Con- 
vert, Carte arche"ologique de Pile de 
Deles lev^e en 1893-94. DessinSe 
par E. Le"tot. EQhelle de 1 : 2000 
(Bibliotheque des Ecoles franc.. d'A- 
thenesetde Rome. Append.). Paris, 
1901, A. Fontemoing. 3 colored 

maps, 70 x 90 cm. Folio. A. 

Avelardi, La piii antica leggenda di 
Elena (note di mitologia e storia an- 
tica). Livorno, 1901. 10 pp. 8vo. 

A. Baratono, Alle fonti dell' arte ; studi 
di psicologia etica su Ornero. Turin, 
1900, Rosenberg & Sellier. 119 pp. 

8vo. Brinckmeier, He in rich 

Schliemann und die Ausgrabungen 
auf Hissarlik; pp. 9-32. Programme, 
Burg, 1901. 4to. 

Le Cinquantenaire, De PEcole fran- 
aise d'Athenes. Supplement au 



GREEK : GENERAL] 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 1901 



245 



Bulletin de Correspondance Helle'- 
nique, 1898. Paris, 1900, Fontemoing. 

cviii pp. 8vo. H. Convert, see 

Ardaillon. St. Cybulski, Das 

Kriegswesen der alten Griechen. 
Erklarender Text zu I u. II der 
Tabulae quibus antiquitates graecae 
et romanae illustrantur. 2. Aufl. 
Leipzig, 1901, K. F. Kohler. 32 pp. ; 
13 tigs. 8vo. 

F. Duemmler, Kleine Schjiften. Leip- 
zig, 1901, 8. Hirzel. 1. Bd. : ZurEin- 
fuhrung (F. Studniczka), xxxiv pp. 
Zur griechischen Philosophic. (Hrsg. 
v. K. Joel. ) vi, 356 pp. ; 1 portrait. 
2. Bd. : Philologische Beitrage. (Hrsg. 
v. 0. Kern.) viii, 550 pp. ; 1 pi. ; 
4 figs. 3. Bd. : Archaologische Auf- 
satze. (Hrsg. v. J. Boehlau.) viii, 
374 pp. ; 12 pis. ; 176 figs. 

Festschrift, S. K. H. dem Prinzregenten 
Luitpold von Bayern zum 80. Ge- 
burtstage dargebracht von der Univer- 
sitat Erlangen. IV, 1. Philosophische 
Fakultat, 1. Section. Erlangen, A. 
Deichert'sche Verlagsbuchh. Nachf., 
1901. 8vo. [Contains : A. Flasch, 
Die sog. Spinnerin, Erzbild in der 
Glyptothek Konig Ludwigs I zu Miin- 
chen. Ein Werk des Praxiteles, pp. 
117-138 ; 2 figs. A. Roemer, Home- 
rische Gestalten und Gestaltungen, 

pp. 163-182.] Festschrift, Strass- 

burger, zur XLVI. Versammlung 
deutscher Philologen und Schulman- 
ner hrsg. v. der Philosophischen 
Fakultat der Kaiser Wilhelms- 
Universitat. Strassburg, 1901, K. J. 
Trtibner. 332 pp. 8vo. [Partial 
contents : A. Michaelis, Georg Zoegas 
Betrachtungen iiber Homer, pp. 1-12 ; 
2 figs. E. Schwartz, Agamemnon 
von Sparta und Orestes von Tegea in 
der Telemachie, pp. 23-28. B. Keil, 
Eine Zahlentafel von der athenischen 
Akropolis, pp. 117-182 ; 1 pi. E. 
Thraemer, Die Form des hesiodischen 

Wagens, pp. 299-308; 4 figs.] 

E. Fischer, Archaologische Erinne- 
rungen an eine Studienreise nach 
Griechenland. Breslau, 1901. 40pp.; 
1 map. 4to. A. Flasch, see Fest- 
schrift S. K. H. dem Prinzregenten, 

Luitpold . . . dargebracht. P. 

Foucart, Les grands my steres d'Eleu- 
sis. Personnel ; Ce"re"monies. Paris, 
1900, Klincksieck 156 pp. 4to. 



H. Francotte, L'industrie dans la 
Grece ancienne. Tom. 2. (Bibiio- 
theque de la Faculte" de philosophic et 
lettres de 1' University de Lie"ge, fasc. 



VIII). Brussels, 1901. vi, 376 pp. 

8vo. J. Frei, De certaminibus 

thymelicis. [Dissertation.] Basel, 

1900. 78 pp. Fund, The Cretan 

Exploration. [Prospectus.] London. 
8 pp. ; 2 figs. 4to. 

G. B. Grundy, The Great Persian War 
and its Preliminaries ; a study of the 
evidence, literary and topographical. 
London, 1901, J. Murray. xiii, 

591 pp. ; 31 pis. 8vo. P. Gui- 

raud, La main-d'ceuvre industrielle 
dans 1'ancienne Grece. (University 
de Paris. Bibliotheque de la Faculte" 
des Lettres, 12.) Paris, 1900, F. Al- 
can. 217 pp. 8vo. 

H. R. Hall, The Oldest Civilization of 
Greece. Studies of the Mycenaean 
age. London, 1901, D. Nutt. xxxiv, 
346 pp. ; 1 pi. ; 75 figs ; 1 table. 8vo. 
Harvard Studies in Classical 
Philology, Vol. XII, 1901. 352 pp. 
8vo. Cambridge, Mass. Published 
by the University. $1.50. [Contains 
among other things : H. N. Fowler, 
the Origin of the Statements contained 
in Plutarch's Life of Pericles, Chap. 
XIII ; pp. 211-220. J. R. Wheeler, 
Notes on the So-called Capuchin Plans 
of Athens ; pp. 221-230 ; 2 pis. W. 
N. Bates, Notes on the Old Temple 
of Athena on the Acropolis ; pp. 319- 
326. J. C. Hoppin, Argos, lo and 
the Prometheus of JEschylus ; pp. 

335-345; pi.] R. Hecht, Zur 

Wahrung des kulturgeschichtlichen 
Kolorits im griechischen Drama. II. 
Sophokles. Programm Tilsit, 1900. 

44 pp. 4to. R. Heberdey, see 

Reichel. F. Frhr. v. Hiller 

von Gaertringen, Ausgrabungen in 
Griechenland. Vortrag gehalten am 
17. Nov. 1900 in der Aula der Univ. 
Rostock zum Besten der Errichtung 
einer Bismarcksaule. Berlin, 1901, 
G. Reimer. 38 pp. ; 1 pi. 8vo. 
W. M. L. Hutchinson, vEacus. A 
Judge of the Underworld. Cambridge, 

1901, Macmillan & Bowes. 48 pp. 
8vo. 

M. Jerace, La ginnastica e 1' arte greca. 
Turin, 1900, Bocca. 8vo. 

II. Ka(3(3aSias. 'IcrropLa TTJS dpxcuoXo- 
yiKijs ^rcupe/as dirb TTJS tv eret 1837 
iSpfoews avTTjs A^XP 1 ToC 190 - Athens, 

1900, Perres. I. Kaerst, Ge- 

schichte deshellenistischen Zeitalters. 
Leipzig, 1901, B. G. Teubner. 1 Bd. : 
Die Grundlagen des Hellenismus. 

x, 433 pp. 8vo. Ed. Kammer, 

Ein Aesthetischer Kommentar zu 



246 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 



Homers Ilias. 2. Aufl. Paderborn, 
. 1901, E. Schoningh. xii, 346 pp. ; 

1 pi. 8vo. A. H. Kan, De Jovis 

Dolicheni cultu. Groningen, 1901, 

Wolters. Br. Keil, Anonymus 

Argentinensis. Fragmente zur Ge- 
schichte des Perikleischen Athen aus 
einem Strassburger Papyrus. Strass- 
burg, 1902, K. J. Triibner. x, 341 

pp. ; 2 pis. 8vo. R. Kekule von 

Stradonitz, Die Vorstellungen von 
griechischer Kunst und ihre Wand- 
lung im neunzehnten Jahrhundert. 
Rede bei Antritt des Rectorats gehal- 
ten . . . am 15 Oct. 1901. Berlin, 

1901. 30pp. 4to. J. Kirchner, 

Prosopographia attica. Vol. prius. 
Berlin, 1901, G. Reimer. viii, 603 
pp. 8vo. 

P. Lacour, Les Amazones : les Ama- 
zonesdans lal^gende etdans 1'histoire. 

Paris, 1901, Perrin. 8vo. B. 

Latyschev, Scythica et Caucasica e 
veteribus scriptoribus graecis et latinis 
collegit et cum versione rossica edidit 
B. L. Vol. I : Scriptores graeci. fasc. 

3 ; pp. 601-946 ; 1 map. E. Loewy, 

Die Naturwiedergabe in der alteren 
griechischen Kunst. Rome, 1900, 
Lbscher & Co. 60 pp. ; 30 figs. 8vo. 

A. Malinin, Zwei Streitfragen der 
Topographic von Athen. Berlin, 

1900, Reimer. 43pp. Maybaum, 

Der Zeuskult in Bootien. Programme, 
Doberan, 1901. 26 pp. 4to. 



A. Milchhoefer, Die Tragodien des 
Aeschylus auf der Biihne. Rede 
zum Winckelmanns-Tage. Kiel, 
1900, Universitats-Buchh. 14 pp. 
8vo. 

B. Niese, Die Welt des Hellenismus. 
Rede, gehalten beim Antritt des Rek- 
torats. (Marburger akademische 
Reden. 1900. Nr. 3.) Marburg, 
1900, N. G. Elwert'sche Verlagsbuch- 

handlung. 24 pp. 8vo. Martin 

P. N. Nilsson, Studia de Dionysiis 
Atticis. Lundae, 1900, H. Moller. 
iv, 165pp. 8vo. [Dissertation.] 
G. Motor, La Femme dans 1'antiquite" 
grecque. Preface de M. Eugene 
Miintz. Paris, 1901, Laurens. iv, 
284 pp. ; 353 figs. 4to. 

A. Odolesco, Le tr6sor de Petrossa. 
Historique ; description. Etude sur 
1'orfevrerie antique. Paris, 1900, 
Rothschild. 695 pp.; 16 pis.; 356 

figs. Folio. A. Olivieri, La scena 

in Eschilo secondo gli studj recenti. 
Catania, 1901. 17 pp. 8vo. 

Pausanias, Arx Athenarum a P. de- 



scripta, in usum scholarum ediderunt 
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E. Saginati, II mito di Herakles in 
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pp. 403-797 ; 48 figs. F. Schatz, 

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Fortsetzung von " Agrarien u. Exku- 
bien," eine zweite Untersuchung iiber 
romisches Heerwesen. Munich, 1901, 
privately printed. 82 pp. ; 1 pi. 8vo. 

G. Showerman, The Great 
Mother of the Gods. Madison, Wis- 
consin, 1901. 333 pp. ; 4 pis. ; 2 figs. 

8vo. A. Sogliano, Studi di topo- 

graphia storica e di storia antica della 
regione sotterrata dal Vesuvio nel 79. 
[From: Rendiconto dell' Accademia 
di Napoli.J Naples, 1901. 45 pp. 
8vo. G. Speranza, Antichita picene. 
Teramo, 1901. 35pp. ; 8vo. [From : 
Kivista Abbruzzese, 1901, fasc. I, III, 

IV, VI.] R. Stegmann, Zur 

Lage des Kastells Aliso. Detmold, 
1901, H. Hinrichs. 15pp. 8vo. 

T. Tibaldi, La regione d' Aosta attra- 
verso i secoli. Parte I (evo antico). 
Turin, 1900. 408 pp. 8vo. 

Ev. Vercelli, Fas, ius e mos negli autori 
rustici latini, deduzioni storiche sulla 
condizione morale e giuridica delle 
persone nei fondi rustici. Turin, 

1901. 88 pp. 8vo. F. Vivanet, 

Sesta settima ed ottava relazione a 
S. E. il Ministro della pubblica istru- 
zione dell' ufficio regionale per la 
conservazione dei monument! della 
Sardegna. Cagliari, 1901. 66 pp. 

8vo. W. Vollbrecht, Das Sakular- 

fest des Augustus. (Gymnasialbi- 
bliothek Heft 33.) Gutersloh, 1901, 
Bertelsmann. 8vo. 

A. Warsberg, Von Palermo zur Scylla 
u. Charybdis. Aus dem Nachlasse. 
Vienna, 1901, Konegen. 124 pp. ; 45 
figs. ; 1 map. 8vo. H. Willers, 



Die romischen Bronzeeimer von Hem- 
moor. Nebst einem Anhange iiber 
die romischen Silberbarren aus Diers- 
torf. Mit 82 Abb. im Text und 
Lichtdrucktafeln. Hanover and 
Leipzig, 1901, Hahnsche Buchhdlg. 

vi, 251 pp. 4to. E. Wuescher- 

Becchi, L' inverno nella Roma im- 
periale. Rome, 1901. 9 pp. 8vo. 
[From : Rivista politica e litteraria. 
Febbr. 1901.] 

II. ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 

F. Barnabei, La Villa Pompeiana di P. 
Fannio Sinistore scoperta presso Bos- 
coreale. Relazione a S. E. il Ministro 
dell' Istruzione Pubblica. Rome, 
1901, tip. della R. Accademia dei 
Lincei. 86 pp. ; 11 pis. ; 19 figs. 
4to. 

R. Cagnat and P. Gauckler, Les monu- 
ments historiques de la Tunisie. I. 
partie : Les monuments antiques (les 
temples pai'ens) . Paris, 1900, Leroux. 
x, 167 pp. ; grav. et pi. 4to. 

E. Ferrero, L'arc d'Auguste a Suse, 
public" sous les auspices de la Socie"t6 
d'arche"ologie et des beaux-arts pour 
la province de Turin, 19 planches 
d'apres les photographies de Secondo 
Pia et 1 7 figures dans le texte. Turin, 
1901, Bocca freres. vi, 39 pp. Folio. 

P. Gauckler, see Cagnat. F. Grossi- 

Gondi, II tempio di Castore e Polluce 
sull' acropoli di Tuscolo. Rome, 1901. 
21 pp. 8vo. Le ville Tuscolane 
nell' epoca classica e dopo il rinasci- 
mento. La villa dei Quintilii e la 
villa di Mondragone. Rome, 1901. 
318 pp. ; 2 pis. 8vo. 

A. Monaci, I Suevi e 1' arco di Vero 
(from : Cosmos Catholicus, anno III, 
n. 4, Rome, febbr. 1901. pp. 103- 

106). V. Mortet, La Mesure des 

colonnes a la fin de 1'epoque romaine, 
d'apres un tres ancien formulaire. 
2e 6d. revue. Paris, 1900, Picard et 
fils. 48 pp. 8vo. 

G. Nispi-Landi, Marco Agrippa e il 
Pantheon. 4 ed. Rome, 1901. 140 
pp. ; 3 pis. 8vo. 

J. Prestel, Des Marcus Vitruvius Pollio 
Basilika zu Fanum Fortunae. (Zur 
Kunstgeschichte des Auslandes. Heft 
IV.) Strassburg, 1901, J. H. E. 
Heitz. 57 pp. ; 7 pis. 4to. 

C. Weichhardt, Le palais de Tibere et 
autres Edifices remains de Capri. 
Traduit par J. A. Simon. Leipzig, 
1901, K. J. Koehler. vi, 123 pp. 
4to. Illustrated. 



252 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 



III. ROMAN SCULPTURE 
P. Bierlkowski, Be simulacris bar- 
bararum gentium apud Romanes. 
Corporis Barbarorum prodromus. 
Adiuvante Academia litterarum Cra- 
coviensi edidit P. B. Cracoviae, apud 
Gebethner & soc., MCM. 99 pp. ; 99 
figs. 4to. 

C. Cichorius, Die Reliefs der Traians- 
saule. 3. Textband : Commentar 
zu den Reliefs des zweiten daki- 
schen Krieges. 409 pp. ; 19 figs. ; 
1 map. 8vo. 2. Tafelband : Die 
Reliefs des zweiten dakischen. Krie- 
ges. Pis. Iviii-cxiii. Berlin, 1900, 
G. Reiiner. Folio. 

IV. ROMAN, ETC., VASES AND 
PAINTING 

E. Bergamini. Note archeologiche. 
(Nuova interpretazione d' una scena 
sepolcrale etrusca ; i canopi chiusini 
sono prodotto etrusco ? ; intorno alle 
tazze fenicie.) Melfi, 1901. 16 pp. 
8vo. 

T. Venturini Papari, La pittura ad 
encausto e 1' arte degli stucchi al 
tempo di Augusto. Rome, 1901. 
45 pp. 8vo. 



V. ROMAN INSCRIPTIONS 

G. Fregni, Delle due iscrizioni poste 
nella fronte del Pantheon a Roma. 
Modena, 1901. 52 pp. 8vo. 

G. Montano, Brevi note su poche 
iscrizioni antiche [in Lavello e suo 
territorio]. Potenza, 1900. 25 pp. 
8vo. 

A. Negrioli, Dei doni militari presso i 
Romani. Ricerche epigrafiche. Bo- 
logna, 1900. 30pp. 8vo. Homer 

Curtis Newton, The Epigraphical 
Evidence for the Reigns of Vespasian 
and Titus. (Cornell Studies in Classi- 
cal Philology, XVI.) Ithaca and New 
York, 1901, The Macmillan Co. viii, 
140 pp. 8vo. $0.80. 

E. Seletti, Marmi scritti del museo 
archeologico di Milano. Milan, 1901. 
348 pp. 4to. 

J. Tanfani, Ricerche Storiche epigra- 
fiche sulla costituzione del Senate 
municipale romano. Taranto, 1900. 
72 pp. 8vo. 

VI. ROMAN COINS 
G. Tropea, Numismatica di Lipara. 
Messina, 1901. 35 pp. ; 4 pis. 
8vo. 



CHRISTIAN ART 



I. GENERAL AND MISCELLA- 
NEOUS 

Bau und Kunstdenkmaler im Re- 
gierungs-Bezirk Cassel. I Band : 
Bickell, KreisGelnhausen. Marburg, 
1901, Elwert. xi, 208 pp. ; 350 pis. 
4to. 

A. de Baudot and A. Perrault-Dabot, 
Archives de la Commission des Monu- 
ments historiques. T. II. Nor- 
mandie, Bretagne, Anjou, Poitou (15 
pp.; 100 pis.). T. III. Champagne, 
Lorraine, Bourgogne, Franche- 
Comte', Nivernais, Orle"anais, et Tou- 
raine. 15 pp. ; 100 pis. Paris, 

Laurens. 4to. : E. Bayard, La 

Caricature et les Caricaturistes. Paris, 

Delagrave. 399 pp. 4to. S. 

Beissel, Bilder aus der Geschichte 
der altchristlichen Kunst und Liturgie 
in Italien. Freiburg in B., Herder. 

xi, 334 pp.; 200 figs. 8vo. La 

Belgique pittoresque et monumen- 
tale. Album photographique de 250 
vues. Brussels, 1900, Rubens. 
L'Art en Belgique, Choix des princi- 
paux monuments de 1' Art en Belgique. 



B. Berenson, The Study and 
Criticism of Italian Art. London, 
1901, Bell & Co. xiv, 152 pp. 8vo. 
$2.65. Berliner Photographi- 
sche Gesellschaft. Die Meisterwerke 
der National Gallery in London. 
100 pis. Folio. K. Berling, Dres- 
den Porcelain and Its History. Lon- 
don, 1901, Sotheran. Folio. 40.00. 

W. de Bock, Materiaux pour 

servir a I'arch6ologie de 1'Egypte 
chrStienne. Ed.posthume. St. Peters- 
burg, 1901. 2 vols. 94 pp. ; 33 pis. ; 
100 figs. 4to. $5.00. [Russian.] 
W. Bode, Die Gemaeldegalerie des 
Herrn Rudolf Kann in Paris. Vi- 
enna, Ges. f. vervielfaelt. Kunst. 
33 pp. 4to. 100 pis. Folio. - 
X. de Bonnault d'Houet, R. de 
Guyencourt and Ch. Duhamel- 
Dece"jean. La Picardie historique 
et monumentale. Arrondissement de 
Montdidier. Paris, Picard. 80 pp. 

illustrated. 4to. L'Abbe" Bouillet, 

L'Art religieuse a 1' exposition retro- 
spective du Petit Palais en 1900. 
Paris, 1901, Picard. Many plates. 
8vo. 4 fr. E. Bruylant, La Bel- 



CHRISTIAN ART] 



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253 



gique illustrge, ses monuments, ses 
paysages et ses ceuvres d'art. Brus- 
sels, 1000. 3 vols. 4to. .$20.00. 

P. Clemen, Die Kunstdenkmaler der 
Rheinprovinz. IV Band, 4 Abth. : 
Die Denkmaler des Kreises Ess- 
kirchen. Diisseldorf, 1901, Schwann. 
vii, 265 pp. ; 14 pi. ; 120 figs. 8vo. 
L. Cloquet, Traite" d' architec- 
ture. Tome V. Esthe"tique, compo- 
sition et decoration. Paris and 
Liege, 1901, Ch. Be"ranger. viii, 618 

pp. ; 880 figs. 8vo. A. Colosanti, 

Le stagioni nell' antichita e nell' arte 
Christiana. Rome, 1901, Soc. ed. 
Dante Alighieri. 23 pp. 4to. 

E. Desormes and A. Basile, Poly- 
le"xique. Dictionnaire des arts 
graphiques. Paris, 77 rue Denfert- 
Rochereau. 2 vols. 415, 383 pp. 

18mo. C. Diehl, En MMiter- 

ranee. Promenades d'liistoire et 
d'art (Spalato et Salone, En Bosnie- 
Herzegovine, Delphes, 1'Athos, Con- 
stantinople, Chypre et Rhodes, 
Jerusalem). Paris, 1901, Colin. 

286 pp. 16mo. F. Digonnet, 

Notice historique sur le muse'e Calvet, 
d' Avignon. Avignon, 1900. 161 pp. 

8vo. E. von Dobschiitz. Chris- 

tusbilder. Untersuchungen zur 
Christlichen Legende, II te Halfte. 
Leipzig, 1900, Hinrichs. xii, 357 pp. 
8vo. 

L. de Farcy, La Broderie du XI Siecle 
jusqu'a nos jours, d'apres des spe'ci- 
mens authentiques et d'anciens in- 
ventaires (Supplement) . Angers, 
Josslin-Belhomme/ pp. 139-148 ; pi. 

94. Folio. R. Forrer, Geschichte 

der europaischen Fliesenkeramik 
vom Mittelalter bis zum Jahre 1900. 

Strassburg, 1901. A. Foucher, 

Etude sur 1'iconographie bouddhique 
dans 1'Inde d'apres des documents 
nouveaux. Paris, Leroux. iii, 272 

pp. ; 10 pis. ; 30 figs. 8vo. T. 

v. Frimmel, Galeriestudien. 1 Bd. 
6 Lfg. Die Galerie in der Akademie 
der bildenden Ktinste zu Wien. 
Berlin, 1901, Meyer, vii, 230 pp. 
8vo. $2.00. 

Girardon, Cours ele'mentaire de^ per- 
spective line'aire & P usage des Ecoles 
des beaux-arts, de dessin, des artistes, 
architectes, etc. Paris, Laurens. 

iii, 128 pp.; 28 pis. 8vo. L. 

Gonse, Les Chefs-d'oeuvre des 
Musees de France : La Peinture. 
Paris, 1900, L. H. May. 30 pis. ; 
270 illustrations in the text. 4to 



,$10.00. G. M. Graziani, L'Arte 

a citta di Castello. Florence, 1901, 
L. S. Olschki. 400 pp. ; 89 pis. ; 
163 figs. Atlas of 63 pis. 4to. 

$100.00. H. Grisar, Geschichte 

Boms u. der Papste im Mittelalter. 
1. Bd. : Rom beim Ausgang der 
antiken Welt. Mit 228 historischen 
Abb. u. Planen, darunter 1 Plan, 
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Hayashi, Histoire de Part du Japon. 

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Hymans, Les Villes d'art celebres. 
Bruges et Ypres. Laurens, with 116 
figs. 4to. 3.50 fr. 

J. P. Kitsch, Die Lehre von der Gemein- 
schaft der Heiligen im christlichen 
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F. X. Kraus, Geschichte der christ- 
lichen Run st. 2. Bd., 2. Abth., 1. 
Halfte. Freiburg i. B. , 1900, Herder. 

282 pp.; 8 pis.; 132 figs. A. 

Kuhn, Allgemeine Kunstgeschichte. 
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S. P. Lambros, Catalogue of the Greek 
Mss. on Mount Athos. Cambridge, 
1900, University Press, x, 597 pp. 

4to. $5.25. G. de Lescluze, 

Les Secrets du coloris re've'les par 
P Etude du Spectre. Roulers, 1900, 

de Meester. 200 pp. 8vo. C. 

A. Levi, Le collezioni veneziane 
d' arte e d' antichita dal secolo XIV ai 
giorni nostri. Venezia, 1900. 2 vols. 

cclxx, 70 and 293 pp. 8vo. W. 

Lowrie, Monuments of the Early 
Church. New York, 1901, The Mac- 
millan Co. xxii, 432 pp. ; 182 figs. 
8vo. $1.25. W. Liidtke, Unter- 
suchungen zu den Miniaturen der 
Wiener Genesis. Dissertation. 

Greifswald, 1897. 52 pp. G. B. 

Lugari, II Gianicolo luogo della croce- 
fissione di S. Pietro. Rome, 1900. 
57 pp. 8vo. 

C. Maes, II primo trofeo della croce 
eretta da Costantino il Grande nel 
Foro Romano, ossia la VI e la VII 
delle colonne onorarie del Foro. 
Rome, 1901. xvi, 64 pp. 8vo. 

G. Menasci, Gli Angeli nell' Arte. 
Florence, 1901, Alinari. 160 pp. ; 
15 pis. ; 80 figs. 8vo. $2.00. 
E. Molinier, Histoire ge"ne"rale des 
Arts applique's a P Industrie du V a 
la fin du XVIIle siecle. T. IV: 
Orfevrerie religieuse et civile. Paris, 
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254 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 



298 pp. ; 21 pis. ; figs. 4to. C. 

Mommert, Golgotha und das hi. 
Grab zu Jerusalem. Leipzig, 1900, 

Haberlandt. iv, 280 pp. 8vo. 

Eugene Muntz, Florence et la Tos- 
cane. Nouvelle Edition, entierement 
refondue. Paris, 1901, Hachette. 
vi, 444 pp. ; 300 figs. 8vo. 

Die National Galerie in London. 
Vlamische, deutsche und hollandische 
Schule. 1-3 Lief. (Each 8 p. and 
8 pis.) Haarlem, Kleinmarm. Folio. 

O. Pelka, Altchristliche Ehedenkmaler. 
(Zur Kunstgeschichte des Auslandes. 
Heft V.) Strassburg, 1901, J. H. E. 

Heitz. x, 166 pp. ; 4 pis. 4to. 

Gestoso y Perez, Essayo de un 
Diccionario de los artifices que flore- 
cieron en Sevilla desde el siglo XIII 
al XVIII inclusive. T. I: A-0. 
Sevilla, Officina de la Andalucia 

Moderna. Ixxx, 412 pp. 8vo. 

G. Pietranellara, Manuale araldico 
per la lettura del blasionario generale 
italiano. Rome, 1901, Modes e 

Mendel. 64 pp. 16mo. N. 

Pokrowski, Outlines of Monuments 
of Christian Iconography and Art, 
2d ed. St. Petersburg, 1900. [Rus- 
sian.] E. J. Pythian, History of 

Art in the British Isles. New York, 
1901, Mansfield & Co. 216 pp. 8vo. 
$1.00. 

P. Renouard, Documents sur les im- 
primeurs, libraires, cartiers, graveurs, 
fondeurs de lettres, relieurs, doreurs 
de livres, faiseurs de fermoirs, enlu- 
mineurs, parcheminiers et papetiers 
ayant exerce" k Paris de 1450 a 1600, 
recueillis aux Archives Nationales et 
au de"partement des manuscrits de la 
Bibliotheque Nationale. Paris, 1901, 

Champion, xi, 368 pp. 8vo. 

C. Ricci, Ravenna. Bergamo, 1901. 

4to. L. Richter, Siena. Leipzig, 

1901, E. A. Seemann. 188 pp. ; 152 
figs. 8vo. 

A. Schmarsow, Beitrage zur Aesthetik 
der bildenden Kunste. III. Plastik, 
Malerei und Reliefkunst in ihrem 
gegenseitigen Verhaltniss. Leipzig, 

Hirzel. vii, 232 pp. 8vo. E. 

Seletti, Marmi scritti del museo 
archeologico di Milano. Milan, 1901, 

Tonfalonieri. 348 pp. 4to. R. 

Sturgis, A Dictionary of Architec- 
ture and Building. Biographical, 
historical, and descriptive. In three 
volumes. Vol. I, A-E. Vol. II, 
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A. Venturi, Storia dell' arte Italiana. 
Vol. I : Dai primordi dell' arte Chris- 
tiana al tempo di Giustiniano. Milan, 
1901, Hoepli. xvi, 558 pp. ; 462 figs. 
8vo. 16 fr. 

A. de Waal, Der Sarkophag des Junius 
Bassus in den Grotten von St. Peter. 
Rome, 1900. 94 pp. ; 13 pis. ; 13 

figs. 4to. J. B. L. Warren, A 

Guide to the Study of Book Plates. 
London, 1901, Simpkin. 236 pp. 
8vo. A. Whitman, The Print- 
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$5.00. F. Wieland, Ein Ausflug 

ins altchristliche Afrika. Stuttgart 

and Vienna, 1900. 195pp. 8vo. 

C. Wolff, Die Kunstdenkmaler der 
Provinz Hannover. II, Regierungs- 
Bezirk Hildesheim. 1-2 Lfg. Stadt 
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pp. ; 16 pis. ; 348 figs. 8vo. $3.00. 

N. Young, The Story of Rome. Illus- 
trated by N. Erichsen. (Mediaeval 
Towns.) London, 1901, J. M. Dent 
& Co. xi, 403 pp. ; 1 pi. ; 47 figs. ; 
4 plans. 8vo. 

II. BYZANTINE AND MEDI- 
AEVAL 

D. Ainalow, The Hellenistic Founda- 
tions of Byzantine Art. Studies in 
Early Byzantine Art. St. Petersburg, 
1901. With 4 pis. and 48 figs. 8vo. 

[Russian.] J. H. Albanes, 

Gallia Christiana Novissima. His- 
toire des archeveche's, e'veche's et 
abbayes de France. Valence, 1900. 
4to. 

N. Barnabei, Documenti inediti sul 
Castello di Montalto. Siena, Nava. 

14 pp. 8vo. L. Beltrami, II 

coronamento nella fronte del duomo 
di Milano in base ad antichi disegni 
in parte inediti. Milan, Allegretti. 

64 pp. ; 3 pis. ; figs. 4to. R. J. 

E. Boggis, History of St. Augustine's 
Monastery, Canterbury. Canterbury, 
1901, Gross & Co. 200 pp. 8vo. 

$0.75. A. Bouillet and L. Ser- 

vieres, Sainte Foy, Vierge et Mar- 
tyre. Rodez, 1900, Carrere. 780 pp. 

4to. $6.00. J. J. Bouresse, 

Abbayes et Monasteres de France. 

Tours, Mame. 204 pp. 4to. 

L'AbbS Brune, Statues de 1'^cole 
Dijonnais dans Pe'glise de Mieges 
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R. Davidsohn, Forschungen zur Ge- 
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Ch. Errard and Al. Gayet, L'art byzan- 
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A. Gayet, Le Costume en Egypte du 
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H. Grisar, Analecta Romana. Dis- 
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H. E. Heppe, Der Dom zu Metz. 



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A. M. Latil, Le Miniature nei rotuli 
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C. Maes, Basilica PP. Julii I iuxta 
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G. Milanesi, Nuovi Documenti per 
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al XV secolo raccolti e annotati da 
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- G. T. Rivoira, Le Brigini della 
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- P. A. Robson, The Cathedral 
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pis. 4to. 

G. Schlumberger, L'Epop6e byzantine 
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pis. 4to. - A. Schulten, Die 
Mosaikkarte von Madaba und ihr 
Verhaltnis zu den altesten Karten 
und Beschreibungen des heiligen 
Landes. Berlin, 1900, Weidmann. 
121 pp. ; 1 pi. ; 3 maps. 4to. - 
R. W. Schultz and S. H. Barnstey, 
The Monastery of Saint Luke of 
Stiris in Phocis, and the Dependent 
Monastery of Saint Nicolas in the 
Fields, in Boeotia. London and 
New York, The Macmillan Co. xii, 
76 pp. ; 61 pis. ; 48 figs. 4to. - - 



256 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 



A. Siffer, Le Muse"e et les ruines de 
1'Abbaye de Saint-Bavon a Gand. 

Ghent, 1900, Siffer. E. F. 

Strange, The Cathedral Church of 
Worcester. (Bell's Cathedral Se- 
ries.) New York, 1901, The Macmil- 
lan Co. 115pp. 12mo. $0.60. 
G. Swarzenski, Die Regensburger 
Buchmalerei des X und XI Jahr- 
hunderts. Leipzig, 1901, K. W. 
Hiersemann. 35 pi. ; 101 figs. 4to. 
16.00. 

III. RENAISSANCE 

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Anderson, The Architecture of the 
Renaissance in Italy. 3d ed. Lon- 
don, 1901, Botsford. 204 pp. ; 64 
pis. ; 98 figs. 8vo. 

L. Beltrami, Le Ca del Duca nel Canal 
Grande ed altre reminiscenze sfor- 
zesche in Venezia. Milan, Alle- 

gretti. 62pp. ;1 pi. 8vo. Storia 

della facciata di S. Maria del Fiore 
in Firenze. Milan, Allegretti. 65 

pp.; 24 figs. 8vo. B. Berenson, 

The Study and Criticism of Italian 
Art. New York, 1901, Macmillan 

Co. 152 pp. 8vo. $3.50. E. 

Berger, Beitrage zur Entwickelungs- 
Geschichte der Maltechnik. IV 
Folge. Quellen der Maltechnik 
wahrend der Renaissance u. der 
Folgezeit in Italien, Spanien, den 
Niederlanden, Deutschland, Frank- 
reich und England. Munich, 1901, 

Callweg. viii, 454 pp. 8vo. 

Blomfield, A Short History of Re- 
naissance Architecture in England, 
1500-1800. New York, 1901, Mac- 
millan Co. xii, 323 pp. 8vo. $3.00. 
Boyer d'Agen, Le Peintre des 
Borgia. Pinturicchio, sa vie, son 
oeuvre, son temps (1450-1513). Paris, 
1901, Ollendorff. With 20 pis. and 

many figs. 4to. 25 fr. L'AbbS 

Broussole, La Jeunesse du Pe"rugin 
et les origines de l'e"cole Ombrienne. 
Paris, 1901, Oudin. viii, 550 pp. ; 
130 figs. 8vo. 

La vita di Benvenuto Cellini, Testo 
critico a cura di Orazio Bacci. Flor- 
ence, 1901, Sansoni. La vita di 

Benvenuto Cellini, I trattati, ecc., 
a cura di A. J. Rusconi e A. Valeri. 

Rome, 1901, Soc. edit. naz. L. 

Cogo, II rilievo architettonico della 



basilica palladiana in Vicenza. Vi- 
cenza, 1901, Fabris. 11 pp. ; 3 pi. 

4to. L. Courajod, Le9ons de 

Louis Courajod, professe"es a 1'Ecole 
du Louvre (1887-1896). Tome II. 
Origines de la Renaissance. Paris, 
1901, Picard. 8vo. 3 vols. for $6.00. 

Old Cottages and Farmhouses 

in Kent and Sussex. London, 1901, 

Botsford. 100 pis. 8vo. M. 

Crutwell, Andrea Mantegna. Lon- 
don, 1901, Bell & Co. 132 pp.; 40 
pis. 8vo. 

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Plon. llpp. 8vo. Lady Dilke, 

French Furniture and Decoration in 
the Eighteenth Century. New York, 
1901, Macmillan Co. xix, 260 pp. ; 16 
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Diirer und Holbein, Gemalde in der 
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Photog. Ges. 11 pis. Folio. $25.00. 

R. Falb, see San Gallo. 

J. Gaedertz, Der Altarschrein v. Hans 
Memling im Dom zu Liibeck. Lii- 
beck, 1901, Wohring. iii, 9 pp. ; 15 

pis. Folio. $6.25. P. Gelis- 

Didot, La Peinture decorative en 
France, du XVIe au XVI He siecle. 
Paris, Ch. Schmid. viii pp. ; 60 

pis. ; 400 figs. Folio. H. von 

Geymiiller, Handbuch der Archi- 
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lung des Baustils. 332 pp. ; 66 figs. 
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P. Heitz und W. L. Schreiber, Pest- 
blatter des XV Jahrhunderts. Strass- 
burg, 1901, J. H. Ed. Heitz. 41 pis. 
Folio. W. Heywood, The " En- 
samples" of Fra Filippo. A Study 
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Johannes Vermeer. 1 Lfg. Haar- 
lem, 1901, Kleinmann & Co. 10 pis. 
Folio. $3.00. 

E. Jaeschke, Die Antike in der bilden- 
den Kunst der Renaissance. I. Die 
Antike in der Florentiner Malerei 
des Quattrocento. Strassburg, Heitz. 
62 pp. 8vo. C. Justi, Michel- 
angelo. Breitage zur Erklarung der 
Werke und des Menschen. Leipzig, 
Breitkopf u. Haertel. viii, 430 pp. ; 
4 figs. 8vo. 

Paul Kristeller, Andrea Mantegna. 



RENAISSANCE] 



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257 



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American Srfjool 
of (tla&stcal Stutites 
in 



STUDIES IN THE LIVES OF ROMAN EMPRESSES 



AFTER the first century of the Roman Empire, two Empresses 
Julia Domna, wife of Septimius Severus and mother of Cara- 
calla, and her niece Julia Mamaea, mother of Alexander Severus 
surpassed all others who bore the name Augusta in the dig- 
nity of their titles, in the public honor they received, and in 
the extent to which they participated in the actual adminis- 
tration of the government. This is made evident by isolated 
statements of contemporary historians 1 and of the biographers 
of the Emperors. 2 It is the purpose of these studies to combine 
the scanty evidence derived from such literary sources with the 
testimony of coins and inscriptions, in order to determine, if 
possible, the relation of these women, in point of influence, to 
their predecessors and to the members of their own families, 
and to define their position in the Empire. 

I. JULIA DOMNA 3 

According to writers of the Historiae Augustae, Marius Maxi- 
mus told the following story : 4 Septimius Severus had lost his 
first wife, Marcia, 5 and was considering his second marriage, 
when he learned that the horoscope of a certain girl in the 
Orient promised that she should be a king's wife ; therefore he 

1 Dion Cassias and Herodian. 2 Spartianus, Lampridius, and others. 

3 Part II, dealing with the position and influence of Julia Mamaea, will be 
published in vol. I of the University of Michigan Studies (New York, The Mac- 
millan Company, 1902). 

4 Lampridius, Alexander Severus. 5, 4 ; Spartianus, Severus, 3, 9. 

5 Her name was Paccia Marciana (C.I.L. VIII, 19494 ; cf. Spart. Sev. 3, 9). 

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 259 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. VI (1902), No. 3. 



260 MARY GILMORE WILLIAMS 

sought her out and married her, with the purpose of fulfilling 
the prophecy. Though the story sounds suspiciously like a 
vaticinatio post eventum, it is interesting as evidence of a belief 
that the influence of this woman, Julia Domna, was essential to 
her husband's success. 

Julia Domna was the daughter of Julius Bassianus, priest of 
the Sun at Emesa, Syria. 1 Dion Cassius states that she was of 
low 2 or plebeian 3 rank, but it is not probable that this statement 
is to be taken literally, 4 for in Asia the priesthood of the Sun 
was intimately connected with royalty, 5 and Julia Domna main-' 
tained her relation to the Sun cult after she became Empress. 6 
She had a sister Julia Maesa, 7 and a kinsman, possibly a brother, 8 
both of whom followed her to Rome. Nothing is known of her 
early life. She became the wife of Septimius Severus in 187, 
when he was legatus pro praetore at Lyons. 9 Her first son, 
Bassianus (Caracalla), was born at Lugudunum within a year 
after her marriage. 10 Her second son, Geta, was born in 189, in 
Rome, during the first consulate of Severus. 11 During some 
time following the consulate, she with her family remained at 

1 Victor, Epitome, 21. 

2 Dion Cassius, Excerpta Vaticana, Mai, 74. 3 Dion Cassius, LXVIII, 24. 
4 Lampridius calls her " nobilem orieritis mulierem" (Alex. 5, 4). 

6 See coins of the Arsacidae ; Eckhel, JDoctrina Numorum Veterum, VI, 
pp. 360 ff. It may not be a mere coincidence that Julia Domna's niece Soae- 
inias bore a name which had belonged to royalty at Emesa: "Soemus, King 
of Emesa" (Josephus, Ant. Jud. XX, 84, etc.). An Arsacid Soaemus is men- 
tioned by Photius (Dramaticon, 94, 241, R.). 

6 Caracalla made Emesa a cplony. See Preller, Rom. Myth. II, p. 400. 

7 Herodian, Historiae, V, 3, 2. 

8 The name Julius Gessius Bassianus occurs in contemporary Arval inscrip- 
tions (C.I.L. VI, 2086). 

9 Spartianus, Sev. 3, 9. Dion Cassius, who represents Julia Domna as bride 
of Severus before the death of Faustina, 175 A.D. (Historiae, LXXIV, 3), seems 
never to have heard of Marciana, to whom Severus was married when he was 
tribunus plebis (Spartianus, Sev. 3, 1-2). Severus did not mention her name in 
his autobiography (i&M.), the source from which Dion probably drew the account 
of the portents accompanying his marriage in 175 and foretelling his imperium. 

10 Spartianus, Sev. 3, 9; 10, 3. He died aged twenty-nine, April 8, 217 A.D. 
(Dion Cassius, LXXVIII, 6). 

11 Victor, Epitome, 21, 1 ; Spartianus, Sev. 4, 2. He died aged twenty-two, 
February, 212 (Dion Cassius, LXXVII, 2). 



EMPRESS JULIA DOMNA 261 

Rome, living very simply at first, and later with somewhat 
more pretension, after their removal to an estate purchased by 
Severus 1 shortly before he became legatus pro praetor >e of Pan- 
nonia, in 191. Their private life was interrupted by the depart- 
ure of Severus for Pannonia, but there is nothing to indicate 
where or how Julia Domna spent the two years following. It 
seems probable that she was absent from the city when her 
husband was proclaimed a public enemy because his army had 
hailed him Emperor, 2 and that she did not return until he 
had completed his victorious march toward Rome. 

No doubt Julia Domna and her sons had some part in the 
conqueror's entrance into the city " the most glorious spec- 
tacle," Dion says, "that I have ever witnessed." 3 In celebra- 
tion of this triumphal entry, coins were struck in honor of the 
conqueror's wife, with the name IVLIA DOMNA and the legends 
BONA SPES and BONI EVENTUS, 4 expressing the promise of the 
Emperor to govern well and to satisfy the expectation of all. 
The imperial name Augusta was given to her during this first 
year, and is found on all of her inscriptions and on all of her 
coins except those just mentioned. 

Very little can be learned of Julia Domna's life during the 
four years which Severus spent in crushing his rivals and in 
establishing himself in the Empire. According to the biogra- 
pher of Albinus she showed herself even more ambitious than 
Severus, for, dissatisfied with the compromise because of which 
Albinus was acknowledged as Caesar, 5 she urged her husband 
to strike for the undisputed possession of the Empire. 6 She 
must have accompanied Severus to Syria on his expedition 
against Niger, as she seems for a time to have had in her 
family the children of the latter. 7 

After the final defeat of Niger, and the victories over the 

1 Spartianus, Sev. 4, 5-6. 

2 Dion Cassius, LXXIII, 16. 3 Ibi ^ LXXIV, 1. 

4 Cohen, Medailles Imperiales, IV, 'Julia Domna,' n. 8-10 ; cf. coins of Seve- 
rus with the same legend, of the date of 193 (ibid. ' Severus,' n. 56, 65-66). 

5 Capitolinus, Albinus, 1, 2. Herodian, II, 15, 3. 

6 Capitolinus, Albinus, 3, 4-5. 7 Spartianus, Sev. 8, 11. 



262 MARY GILMORE WILLIAMS 

Adiabeni and the Arabs, the earliest dated inscription in Julia 
Domna's honor was dedicated in 195 A.D., at Palermo, together 
with inscriptions in honor of Severus and Caracalla. These 
recognize Caracalla as Caesar, and Julia Domna as one of the 
founders of a new dynasty (C.I.L. X, 7272): 

IVLIAE AVG 

IMP CAES L SEPTI 

Ml SEVERI PERTNA 

CIS AVG Pll PARTHI 

Cl ARABIC! ET- PAR 

THICI ADIABENI 

Cl P M TR POT III 

IMP V COS II P P - 

RES PVBL- PANHORMI 

TANORVM 

Within the year following, in recognition of her presence in 
her husband's campaigns, she was given the title Mater Castro- 
rum, which is found first on bases dedicated in 196 at Narbo 
and at Ostia. 1 The inscription from Narbo is as follows ( C.LL. 
XII, 4345): 

IVLIAE DOM 

NAE AVGVSTAE 

IMP - CAES L- SEP 

TIMI SEVERI Pll PER 

TINACIS AVG ARA 

BICI ADIABENICI 

P - P P M TRIB POT INI IMP VIII COS II ET 

M AVRELI ANTONI 

Nl CAES MATRI 

ITEMQVE CASTRORVM 

DECVMAN NARB 

As the title Mater Oastrorum 2 appears for the first time in the 
year 196, it seems probable that Julia Domna received it in honor 

1 C.LL. XIV, 120. 

2 Faustina, the first Empress to be called Mater Castrorum, was given the 
title to correspond with the seventh salutation of Marcus Aurelius as imperator, 



EMPRESS JULIA DONNA 263 

of the victories over the Adiabeni, which were, in 195, the occa- 
sion of the sixth and seventh salutation of Severus as imperator. 1 
On bronze coins that represent the Empress as Mater Castrorum, 
or patron of the array, she is portrayed veiled, sometimes wear- 
ing a diadem, and either sacrificing before an altar, or seated 
holding a phoenix poised on a globe or a sceptre; in both 
designs appear military standards. 2 

There is nothing to indicate where Julia Domna passed the 
time occupied by Severus in the campaign which ended in the 
defeat and death of Albinus in February, 197, at Lugudunum. 3 
Several inscriptions, naming her " Mother of Caesar 4 and of 
the Camp, 5 " show that Severus was accepted as Emperor in 
Africa and in the East, while Gallic inscriptions indicate that 
Albinus had still a following in that part of the Empire. 

The people of Lugudunum were soon reconciled to their new 
master ; for as in 194 a taurobolium had been offered for Seve- 
rus and Albinus Caesar and the " divine house," so three months 
after the victory the same offering was made for Severus and 
his family. 6 The record is as follows (Wilmanns, Exempla, 

122): 

[prosarjVTE- IMP- L- SEPTIMI 

[Severq PI I PERT I MAC IS AVG 
ET- M- AVRELI ANTONINI CAES 

after a victory over the Quadi, and because she accompanied the Emperor on 
military expeditions (Dion Cassius, LXXI, 10. Capitolinus, Marcus, 25, 8 ; 
cf. Mommsen, Staatsrecht, II, 795. Herzog, Gesch. und System, II, p. 799. 
Schiller, Horn. Kais. I, 741). 

1 Wirth, Quaestiones Severianae, p. 25. Dion Cassius, LXXV, 1-4. 

2 Cohen, IV, pp. 115-116. Both designs are found on coins of Faustina the 
younger, the latter, however, only on those struck after her deification. One 
design "ears of wheat" on Julia Domna's coins, with the legend MATER 
CASTRORVM. has no apparent connection with the title. 

3 Spartianus, Sev. 11, 7 ; Capitolinus, Albinus, 9 ; Dion Cassius, LXXV, 6 ff.; 
Herodiari, III, 7. 

4 Severus had named his son Bassianus "Antoninus Caesar" (Spartianus, 
Sev. 10, 3). He is called Antoninus (never Bassianus) on inscriptions from 

195 A.D. 

6 C.I.L. Ill, 154, 304 ; VIII, 9032, 9033, by priests or municipalities.' C.LG. 
Sept. 1845-1846 ; cf. 1844 to Antoninus Caesar. 
6 Boissieu, Inscript. Lyon. p. 29. 



264 MARY GIL MO RE WILLIAMS 

IMP DESTINATI ET 

IVLIAE AVG MATRIS CASTROR 

TOTIVSQVE DOMVS- DIVINAE 

EORVM ET STATV - C C C AVG LVG - 

p]AVROBOLIVM FECERVNT 

SEPTICIA VALERIANA ET OPTATIA- SPORA EX VOTO 

PRAEEVNTE AELIO ANTHO SA 

CERDOTE SACERDOTIA AEMI 

LIA SECVNDILLA TIBICINE FL 

RESTITVTO APPARITORE VIREI 

HERMETIONE 

INCHOATVM EST SACRVM (III 

NONAS MAIAS CONSVMMA 

TVM NONIS EISDEM 

T-SEXTIO LATERANO- L CVSPIO 

RVFINO COS 

LDDD. 

In the year 197, dedications were made to Julia Domna as 
mother of the heir apparent to the Empire (imperator desti- 
natus) and wife of the Emperor, each with a fall enumeration 
of the titles of her husband and son. Two of these were found 
in Numidia ; l one, at Trebula Mutuesca, 2 in Italy. But more 
important than these as an indication of Julia Domna's actual 
rank in the Empire is a milestone from Lagina, in Caria, of the 
year 197, the oldest existing milestone that is inscribed with 
the name of an Emperor's wife. Severus now laid claim to the 
Empire as his personal property, and therefore marked public 
monuments as private possessions, 3 admitting his wife and his 
son also as co-proprietors. The inscription is written in both 
Greek and Latin (C.LL. Ill, 482, 11. 1-6): 

1 C.LL. VIII, 5699, 6702. 

2 Ibid. IX, 4880. 

8 Hirschfeld (Untersuchungen, pp. 173-174, n. 2) quotes Jordan, Forma Urbis, 
"Ita Romam a se multifariam instauratam urbem suam Severus et Antoninus 
vocaverunt, itaque non populi Romani sed domus imperatoris principisque quasi 
praedium habita est." 



EMFBESS JULIA DOMNA 265 

IMP -CAESAR [L] SEPTIMIVS SEVERVS PIVS PER 
TINAX AVG-PONTIFEX MAXIMVS TRIBVNI 
CIAE POTESTATIS \jiiipp] COS II ET IMP-CAES 
M AYR- ANTONINVS PIVS AVG-PONTIFEX 

ET IVL- DOMNA AVG MATER CA[>]TRO 
RVM 

A few months after the battle of Lugudunum, Julia Domna 
was in Asia with Severus, 1 who spent more than a year in set- 
tling affairs on the eastern frontier of the Empire and in 
reducing to obedience all who had not accepted him as 
Emperor ; 2 and after peace was established, it is probable 
that she accompanied him on his visit to Egypt. 

From this year, 197, many inscriptions were made in honor 
of Julia Domna, not only as wife of Severus and Mater Castro- 
rum, but also as mother of an Emperor and of a Caesar ; for 
as a result of the victory of Lugudunum, Caracalla was pro- 
claimed Augustus, and Geta, Caesar. 3 As the Empire was 
now in a state of comparative tranquillity, attention was every- 
where turned to repairing the damage resulting from the civil 
wars. Buildings were erected in all the provinces, and dedi- 
cated to members of the imperial house. Because Severus was 
an African, the African towns and cities were especially active 
in this sort of adulation. The largest number of dedications to 
Julia Domna is found in Numidia, at Lambaesis, the permanent 
camp of the legio III Augusta, to which Severus had given the 
name pia vindex. Here the associations formed by soldiers and 
officers adopted as patrons members of the imperial family, 4 and 
set up their statues in the regular places of meeting, which were 
dedicated " to the prosperity of Severus, Julia, and their sons." 5 

1 Cf. Schiller, Horn. Kais. II, p. 719. 

2 Spartianus, Sev. 12-15 ; Herodian, III, 8-9 ; Dion Cassius, LXXV, 9. 

3 Spartianus, Sev. 16, 2, and Geta, 5, 3. 

4 Waltzung, Etude Historique sur les Corporations Professionelles chez les 
Remains, pp. 219, 227. 

5 C.I.L. VIII, 2550-2553, 2558-2559, 2549, 18702, 18253-18255. 



266 MARY GILMOEE WILLIAMS 

There were dedicated, also, special offerings to the " Genius of 
Lambaesis " and the " Genius of Legio III Augusta Pia Vin- 
dex," for the prosperity of Severus, Julia Domna, and their 
children. A single inscription gives the general form of all 
(O.LL. VIII, 2527): 

GENIO-LEG II! AVG P V 

PRO SALVTE 

IMPP CAES-L SEPTIMI SEVERI Pll PERTINACIS 

AVG- ET- M AVRELI AN 

TONINI AVG- FELICIS 

PAR- BRIT-GER- MAX- AVG 1 

ET IVLIAE AVGVSTAE 

MATRIS AVGVSTI N 

ET CASTROR- DEDICANT 

Q ANICIO FAVSTO LEG 

AVGG-PR PR C-V-COS DES 

T ARRANIVS DATVS 

SIGNIFER- 

EX- I-S III MIL- N DE SVO 

POSVIT 

Inscriptions of 198 A.D., at Tucci, 2 Spain, and Thagaste, 3 
Numidia, are dedications to Julia Domna as wife of the 
"restorer of peace." At about the same time a building 4 
was dedicated at Thamugas to the whole imperial family; 
and a basis, 5 " to Antoninus Augustus, son of Severus Augus- 
tus and of Julia Augusta." More important than these, 
because placed upon a public work erected by a city, is an 
inscription from a bridge over the river Chabina (Bolam Su), 
between Cappadocia and Commagene. This bridge was re- 
built, 200 A.D., by Severus and his sons, and on each of four 
columns, placed at its four corners, the "four cities of Com- 

1 Titles of Caracalla substituted for Geta's name. 

2 C. LL. II, 1668 ; Severus is called Eestitutor pads puUicae in the companion 
inscriptions, C.I.L. II, 1669, 1670, 2124. 

3 C.I.L. VIII, 17214. * Ibid. VIII, 2437-2438. 6 Ibid. VIII, 17871. 



EMPRESS JULIA DOMNA 267 

magene " erected a portrait of a member of the imperial 
family. 1 The inscription to Julia Domna is as follows 
(C.LL. III. 6714): 

IVL- DOMNAM 

AVG- MATREM 

KA[>r]0[>]VM 

QVAT CIVITAT COMMAG 

A Greek inscription, dedicated at Memphis at about the 
same time, has reference to the travels of Severus in Egypt, 2 
while he was engaged in the war in the East. It records the 
laying of a pavement " for the perpetual victory and preserva- 
tion of our lords the Emperors Septimius Severus arid Marcus 
Aurelius Antoninus and of Julia Domna Augusta, Mother of 
the Camp." 3 An allusion to the same journey 4 is found at 
Rome in the inscription of an altar to Liber, dedicated for the 
" prosperity and victories " of the whole imperial family, and 
recording the erection of a shrine of Liber and the dedication 
of a " little garden " to the nymphs in a place " called Memphi." 5 

Further reference to the Oriental wars of Severus is made 
by inscriptions from Ostia and Florence. A statue of Nemesis, 
erected in the temple of Serapis at Ostia by T. Valerius Sere- 
nus, a neocoros of Serapis, who held an office connected with 
the supply of grain, was dedicated, " for the prosperity, return, 
and immortality of our lords, the Emperors, Severus and Anto- 
ninus and of Julia Augusta, and for a fair voyage for the whole 
expedition." 6 The "chief priest of Marcus Aurelius Antoni- 
nus, the new Dionysus," dedicated a tablet at Florence " for the 
prosperity, victory, and immortality of our lords the Emperors 
Lucius Septimius Severus Pertinax Augustus Arabicus Adia- 

1 C.LL. Ill, 6714. The column containing Geta's name has disappeared (Hen- 
zen, Bulletino, 1883, p. 88); an erased inscription on the column bearing Domna's 
name recorded the name of the Emperor who built the bridge (Journal of Hell. 
Stud. XVIII, p. 315). 

2 Spartianus, Sev. 17, 4. 

3 C.LG. 4701, b ; the date assigned in the note is 199 A.D. 
* Marini, Atti Arval, p. 628, cited by Orelli, 2360. 

6 C.I.L. VI, 461. 6 I.G.I.S. 917. 



268 MARY GILMORE WILLIAMS 

benicus Parthicus Maximus and of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus 
Augustus Arabicus Adiabenicus Parthicus Maximus and of 
Lucius Septimius Geta Caesar, and of Julia Augusta, Mother 
of the Camp, and of the Holy Senate." 1 

While, as inscriptions prove, unusual honor was paid to Julia 
Domna in all parts of the Empire, her influence and her very 
life were in danger from an enemy at court. Plautianus, the 
praetorian prefect, a man who had risen to such distinction in 
the Empire that he received honors belonging to members of 
the imperial family, 2 appears to have been jealous of the Em- 
press. He tried in every way to injure her, and at last per- 
suaded Severus to bring her to trial for adultery, 3 a prosecution 
to which Lampridius probably alludes in his statement that the 
Empress was tried for treason, since, in accordance with the 
ruling of the early Empire, adultery in a woman of the imperial 
family was treason. 4 The Empress was acquitted, though the 
prefect had resorted to the extreme expedient of torturing free 
women 5 to secure evidence against her. 

Her acquittal and the fact that she had proved herself able 
to repel a direct attack of her enemy made her even more impa- 
tient of the prefect's influence over the Emperor, which was 
quickly regained, and of the choice, in 203 A.D., of Plautilla, 
daughter of Plautianus, as wife for her son Caracalla. 6 As 
under these circumstances court life was distasteful to her, 
she applied herself to the study of philosophy, 7 and, no doubt, 

1 C.I.G. 6829. This seems to have been dedicated before the year 200, as 
Severus does not have the triumphal title Germanicus which was received in that 
year (Wirth, Quaest. Sev. p. 25). 

2 Dion Cassius, LXXV, 14. Cf. C.LL. VI, 225-226 ; C.I.G. 5973. 
8 Dion Cassius, LXXV, 15. 

4 Tac. Ann. II, 50. Laws relating to adultery and treason became more severe 
under Severus and Antoninus (Digest, XLVIII). Penalties for adultery were 
determined by the rank of the criminal (ibid. XLVIII, 5 ; XXXVIII, 8). Women 
could appear in trial for treason (ibid. XLVIII, 4, 8). 

6 Slaves might be tortured in a trial for treason (Codex Just. IX, 6, Paulus). 

6 Dion Cassius, LXXVI, 1. Plautianus is called necessarius Augg. et comes 
per omnes expeditiones eorum (C.LL. VI, 1074), and necessarius dd. nn. Augg. 
Seven et Antonini (Not. Scav. 1893, p. 135). 

7 -Dion Cassius, LXXV, 15. 



EMPRESS JULIA DOMNA 269 

at the same time made use of every opportunity to increase 
the hatred which Caracalla felt for his wife and her father. 1 

Officially, however, this trouble was ignored, except in that 
the legends of gold and silver coins express more than the con- 
ventional desire for harmony between members of the imperial 
family. Coins struck in 201 and 202 for Caracalla have on their 
reverse portraits of Severus and Julia Domna, with the sym- 
bols of the Sun and Moon, emblems of eternity, and the legend 
CCXNCORDIAE AETERNAE. 2 The same legend, which was new in 
the time of Severus, appears also, with the usual CONCORDIA, 3 
on coins struck for Plautilla at her marriage. 4 Inscriptions 
were dedicated to all members of the "divine house," including 
Plautilla and often Plautianus, or for their " prosperity," or for 
their "return and victory." Such offerings are recorded at Rome 
on an altar consecrated to Fortuna Augg Augustorum duorumf 
on a tablet to luppiter Optimds Maximus Defensor Depulsorf on 
pedestals to Diana 7 and to Isis Reginaf the last named dedicat- 
ing a bath erected by Ceius Privatus, princeps of the Castra 
Perigrinorum, the barracks of a division of the frumentarii. 
The bronze tablet containing the names of soldiers who, after 
three years of service as watchmen, were entitled to the rights 
of citizens, is dedicated directly to Severus, Antoninus, Geta, 
Julia Augusta, and Plautilla Augusta. 9 The top of the tablet 
is adorned with portraits in high relief of Julia Domna, Cara- 
calla, and Geta. 10 These are among the earliest of the dedica- 
tions made by vigiles and frumentarii, the police force, to 

1 Dion Cassias, LXXVI, 3. 2 Cohen, IV, p. 243. 

3 CONCORDIA is the usual legend on coins in honor of an imperial marriage ; 
cf. Preller, Horn. Myth. II, p. 260. 

4 Cohen, IV, p. 47. 6 C.LL. VI, 419. 8 C.LL. VI, 354. 

5 C.LL. VI, 180. 7 Ibid. VI, 120. 

9 Ibid. VI, 220. Cf. Kellerman, Latercula Vigilum, p. 99 ; De Rossi, Annal. 
Inst. Arch. 1858, p. 283. 

10 Bernoulli (Ikonographie, II, 3, p. 28) leaves the identification of these por- 
traits in doubt. Effigies Severi, effigies Getae, effigies Antonini (C.LL. VI, 220, 
notes). The portraits are not accurate likenesses; the features of the child in 
the middle are indistinct, but a slight inspection of the tablet proves that neither 
the woman's head, on the right, nor that of the lad with the wreath, on the left, 
can be " portrait of Severus." 



270 MARY GILMORE WILLIAMS 

members of the imperial family, under whose patronage these 
troops felt themselves to be, after Severus had reorganized 
their service. 1 

Two cippi, dedicated for the whole imperial family to the 
" Unconquered Hercules " and the " Genius " 2 of a division of 
equites singulares, are interesting because they were set up by 
troops directly under the command of Plautianus. One of 
these dedications, dated September 13, 202 A.D., is as fol- 
lows (C.LL. VI, 226): 

HERCVLI- INVICTO-SACR 
GENIO- NVM EQ- SING- 
AVGG- NN PRO SALVTE 
IMPP- CESAR- L- SEPTIMI 
SEVERI ET- M AVRELI AN 
TONINI- ET GETE CESARI 
ET- IVLIAE-AVG MATRI 
CASTROR- ET AVGG 
[e]T Pp]AVTILLE [a]VG Ep] 
C-F[>]LVI [Pfa]V[tfd]NI [j>]R 
PR C V T[o]TIVSQVE DO 
MVS DIVINE- ET-TRIB 
OCCIO VALENTE ET OCTAVIO 
PISONI ET- ^ EXSERC-FL- 
TITIANO ET- AVREL- LVPO 
C- IVLIVS SECVNDVS 
VEXIL- ERE- SVO DEO- DED 
DEDIK 3 - IDB-SEPT 
SEVERO III- ET 
ANTONINO- AV 
GG NN COS 

1 Digest, 1, 12. Cf . fragments of inscriptions dedicated by these troops to the 
family of Severus (C.LL. VI, 1039-1040). 

2 Annali, 1850, p. 85. C.LL. VI, 226, 227. 8 On the left side of the cippus. 



J 



EMPRESS JULIA DONNA 271 

Africa did not fail to honor Plautilla and Plautianus as 
members of the imperial family. An association at Lambaesis 
dedicated the tablet which defined their constitution "for the 
good fortune and preservation of the time of our lords the 
Augusti," Severus and his sons, and of Julia Augusta, " mother 
of the Augusti and of the Camp," and of Plautilla Augusta. 1 
At Thamugas buildings were dedicated in honor of the whole 
house. 2 

Other dedications made during the years 200-204 were occa- 
sioned by the general prosperity of the Empire. The establish- 
ment of the emporium of Pezus in Thrace, in the year 202, is 
recorded in a Greek inscription with a prayer " for the victory 
and immortality of the greatest and most divine Emperors . . . 
Severus and . . . Antoninus the Augusti and of ... Geta 
Caesar and of Julia Domna, Mother of the Camp, and of their 
whole house and of the sacred senate and the people of Rome 
and of the sacred armies." 3 Pedestals were dedicated at Urze- 
lis 4 and Cirta, 5 in Numidia, to Julia Augusta, with all the titles 
of her husband and sons. Several inscriptions were found to 
other members of the imperial family, indicating that they were 
held in special honor in Cirta. 6 An inscription of Syene, Egypt, 
is remarkable because of the form in which it gives the date, for 
Julia Domna is mentioned as if she shared the imperium of her 
husband and sons (C.I.L. Ill, 75): 

I 0- M HAMMONI CHNVBIDI 
IVNONI REGINAE QVOR SVB 
TVTELA NIC MONS EST QVOD 
PRI MITER- SVB IMPERIO- P- R- 
FELICISSIMO SAECVLO D- D- 
NN INVICTOR IMPP- SEVERI ET 
ANTONINI PIISSIMORVM AVGG 
ET G[etae nobili^SSlimi Caes et] 



1 C.LL. VIII, 2557. * C.I.L. VIII, 6340. 

2 Ibid. VIII, 2368, 17872. 5 / ft ^ yill, 6998. 

3 Rev. Arch. XXXV, p. 176. 6 Ibid. VIII, 6994-7001. 



272 MAEY GILMOEE WILLIAMS 

IVLIAE- DOMNAE AVG M - K 

IVXSTA PHILAS NOVAE 

LAPICAEDINAE ADINVEN 

TAE TRACTAEQVE SVNT PARA 

STATICAE ET COLVMNAE 

GRANDES ET MVLTAE SVB 

SVBATIANO AQVIL[o] PR 

AEG CVRAM AGENTE OP DOMENIC 

AVREL HERACLID DEC AL MAVR 

General peace had brought prosperity to the Empire. The 
guilds of money changers and merchants about the Forum 
Boarium showed their gratitude for these conditions by erect- 
ing near their place of business a marble arch adorned with 
portraits in relief of Severus, Julia Domna, and their sons. 
It still stands near the so-called Janus Quadrifrons, and bears 
this inscription (C.I.L. VI, 1035): 

IMP- CAES- L- SEPTIMIO- SEVERO PIO PERTINACI AVG 

ARABIC- ADIABENIC PARTH MAX FORTISSIMO FELI- 

CISSIMO 
PONTIF MAX TRIB POTEST XII IMP XI COS III PATRI - 

PATRIAE ET 
IMP-CAES M-AVRELIO ANTONINO PIO FELICI AVG TRIB 

POTEST VII COS III P-P-PROCOS FORTISSIMOQVE 

PRINCIPI ET 
IVLIAE AVG MATRI AVG N ET CASTRORVM ET SENATVS 

ET PATRIAE ET IMP CAES M AVRELI ANTONINI Pll 

FELICIS AVG 

PARTHICI MAXIMI BRITANNICI MAXIMI 
ARGENTARI ET NEGOTIANTES BOARI HVIVS LOCI QVI 

INVEHENT DEVOTI NVMINI EORVM 

It is evident that lines 3-6 have been altered, and that the 
triumphal title of Caracalla has been substituted for Geta's 
name, while Julia Domna's title is amplified to fill the space 
made by erasing the names and titles of Plautilla. 



EMPRESS JULIA DOMNA 273 

The same year 204 A.D. witnessed the celebration of the Lucli 
Saeculares, which were supposed to have a special influence on 
the prosperity and good fortune of the state. 1 In the celebration 
of these games by earlier Emperors, though the prayer to Juno 
Regina which characterized the ceremonies of- the second day 
was always made by a body of matrons, there is no record that 
a more honorable part had been given to an Empress than to 
any other patrician matron. In fact, the name of no Empress, 
not even of Livia, is preserved in the records of the celebration 
of these games, before the time of Septimius Severus, but the 
fragments of the inscriptions describing the secular games as 
given by this Emperor and his sons indicate that Julia Domna 
had a conspicuous part in the ceremonies of the second day. 
It seems probable, from the position of their names and tho 
fragmentary context, that the Emperor, standing before the 
cella of Juno Regina, solemnly appointed the Empress, called 
lulia Domna, Mater Castrorum, Coniux Augusti, with the Vestal 
Virgins, Numisia Maximilla and Terentia Flavola, and one hun- 
dred and ten matrons, to offer a public prayer to Juno Regina 
for a blessing on the Roman people and to preside over the 
ceremonies which followed the sacrifice to the queen of the 
gods. 2 

These ceremonies appear to have marked both a reconcilia- 
tion between Julia Domna and her husband, and the decline 
of the power of Plautianus. The year 205 witnessed his com- 
plete ruin, and his death at the hands of Caracalla. 3 It is clear 
that the enmity between the Empress and the Emperor's min- 
ister had been no secret ; for an eye-witness of the murder 
rushed into Julia Domna's presence, exclaiming, " Behold your 
Plautianus," and exhibiting hairs plucked from the fallen pre- 
fect's beard. 4 The divorce and banishment of Plautilla fol- 
lowed immediately. Severus spared her life, but she was 

1 Zosimus, II, 6; 9, 7, 1. 

2 Mommsen, Commentarii dei Ludi secolari, Tab. E, fr. VI, 1. 18 ; fr. VII, 
11. 8, 10. Tab. F, 11. 6-10. Cf. Eph. Ep. 1898, p. 284, pt. IV, 11. 8-10. 

8 Dion Cassius, LXXVI, 3 ; Spartianus, Caracalla, 1, 8. 
* Dion Cassius, LXXVI, 4. 



274 MARY GILMORE WILLIAMS 

executed in her place of exile, Lipara, as soon as his death 
freed Caracalla from restraint. 1 

After the death of Plautianus, Julia Domna had no rival 
in influence with Severus. While it mast be admitted that 
from this time the Emperor's policy was harsher and more 
arbitrary than before, this was due rather to a tardy convic- 
tion that he had been deceived by a friend than, as some have 
assumed, to the influence of a vindictive Empress. 2 There 
were many arrests on charge of treason, especially in Asia. 3 
An Ephesian inscription mentions Julia Domna, with the Em- 
peror and her sons, as "baffling the murderous hopes of trai- 
tors" by "forethought," 4 a quality which is ascribed to the 
Augusta by coins. 5 It is probable that African inscriptions to 
different divinities who are styled " preservers " of the imperial 
family 6 reflect the official account of the death of Plautianus 
and subsequent executions. In one case, at least, a " plot " has 
been "detected." 7 

The philosophy in which Julia Domna found solace during 
her persecution proved to have for her more than a passing 
interest, for after her enemy's death she continued to be both a 
student and a patron of learning, and became the centre of 
a little court made up of philosophers and rhetors, 8 of which 
Philostratus, her secretary, 9 has left some slight account. In a 
letter written in defence of rhetors and addressed to Julia 
Augusta, he compliments, in the highest terms, her under- 
standing and learning. 10 It appears that she was interested 
in magic also, for, at her bidding, Philostratus wrote the life 
of Apollonius of Tyana, 11 the Pythagorean philosopher-magician. 
Among these courtiers there could probably have been found 
Dion Cassius, whose account of her is always favorable, and 

1 Dion Cassius, LXXVI, 6. Herodian, III, 13, 3. 

2 Boisseau, Inscript. Lyon. p. 541. 5 Cohen, IV, n. 163. 

3 Dion Cassius, LXXVI, 7. e C.I.L. VIII, 12209, 1628, 14454. 

4 C.I.L. Ill, 427 = C.L G. 2971. "> Ibid. VIII, 1628. 

8 Philostratus, Apol. Tyan. I, 1 ; Philiscus, 2, 30. 

9 Tzetzes, Chil. VI, 1303, quoted by Eckhel, VII, Life of Julia Domna. 
10 Philostratus, 'louX^ 2e/3ao-T?7. n Philostratus, Apol. Tyan. I, 1. 



EMPRESS JULIA DOMNA 275 

Oppian the poet, who had, several years before, dedicated his 
" Cynegetica " to " Antoninus whom the great Domna did bear 
to great Severus." 1 

As peace was long continued, Rome, as well as the provincial 
cities, became every day more magnificent. The Empress and 
the Emperor 2 restored buildings which had fallen into decay, 
or had been destroyed by fire under Commodus. 3 Among the 
latter was the temple of Vesta, rebuilt by Julia Domna herself, 
as we are informed by many coins. 4 One of them, a silver 
medal, bears on its face, with the legend IVLIA AUGUSTA, a 
portrait of the Empress holding a statuette of Coiicordia in one 
hand and a cornucopia in the other ; the reverse presents " six 
Vestals sacrificing before the new temple," with the legend 
VESTA MATER. She also restored a structure in Trajan's 
Forum dedicated originally by Sabina for the use of the 
Matronae, possibly an assembly of matrons corresponding to 
the Senaculum which existed on the Quirinal 5 in the time of 
Elagabalus. 

The inscriptions of buildings erected or restored in several 
African towns before the year 208 6 mention Julia Domna in 
dedications for the prosperity of the imperial house. A temple 
of Silvanus 7 and baths 8 were repaired at Lambaesis, baths 9 and 
a portico 10 at Siala, and a temple n at Bibae in Provincia Pro- 
consularis, and buildings for unknown purposes in towns of 
Byzacium.^ There were other dedications to members of the 

1 Oppian, Cynegetica, I, 3. 

2 Cf. inscriptions of the Pantheon, Portions Octaviae, etc. 

3 Herodian, I, 14. 

4 Not. Scav. 1883, p. 477, Tav. XIX, d ; cf. Cohen, IV, n. 140, 234-244. 

5 C.I.L. VI, 997 (Mommsen) ; cf . Lampridius, Heliogabalus, 4, 3. 

6 These inscriptions contain the names of Severus and Antoninus "August!" 
and of Geta " Caesar." As the names of Plautianus and Plautilla do not appear, 
it is assumed that the dedications were not made between the years 202 and 205, 
in which Plautilla was Augusta ; and, as Geta was not yet Augustus, they were 
not made after 208, in which year he became Augustus. Therefore these struct- 
ures were dedicated 198-202 or 205-207. 

7 C.I.L. VIII, 2671. 10 C.I.L. VIII, 588, 11731. 

8 Ibid. VIII, 2706. 11 Ibid. VIII, 906. 

9 Ibid. VIII, 14457. 12 Ibid. VIII, 12142, 14813. 



276 MARY GILMORE WILLIAMS 

imperial house made during the same period, a statue of 
Mercurius Augustus dedicated with games by a newly ap- 
pointed augur 1 at Thamugas, a tablet dedicated by custodes 
armorum at Lambaesis, 2 an offering to Neptune in Arada, 3 and 
other gifts in the Numidian towns of Gurgus 4 and Varzavi. 5 

In other parts of the Empire, also, dedications were made to 
the Empress herself or " for the prosperity " of all members 
of the imperial family. Julia Domna's name appears on one of 
'three tablets 6 found in the Graean Alps, the companion tablets 
being dedicated to Severus and Antoninus; on a tablet dedi- 
cated by Helvetians ; 7 on a dedication made by Laurentes 
Lavinates 8 at Rome; and on an inscription in the great thea- 
tre of Ephesus. 9 It appears with the names of other members 
of dier family on a tablet referring to mysteries celebrated at 
Puteoli, 10 and on a dedication 11 from Abia in Phrygia. 

Individuals or corporations, at all times, manifested their loy- 
alty to the imperial house by erecting statues of its members, 
as well as by the dedication of buildings or of honorary tablets. 
Statues 12 of Julia Domna were dedicated at Villa Magna, in 
Provincia Proconsularis by Victor and Fortunatus ob honorem 
flamini perpetui; 18 at Biniana, 14 Byzacium, set up by the town 
in company with statues of Liber Pater and of Severus; at 
Phua, 15 Numidia, by the town; at Gaulus, 16 by the town as 
one of a series of portraits of members of imperial families, set up 
during the first four centuries of the Empire ; at Caparra, 17 Spain, 
erected by the town council; at Beneventum, 18 by the town. 
Greek inscriptions indicate that statues of the Empress were 

1 C.IL. VIII, 17837. 3 fi eVt Arch. XXXV, p. 173. 

2 Rev. Arch. XXXVIII, p. 140. * C.I.L. VIII, 15776. 

5 C.I.L. VIII, 17638; cf. also Rev. Arch. XXXVIII, p. 321, n. 2. 

6 Ibid. XII, 5709. 9 C.I.L. Ill, 6701. 

7 Orelli, 361. 10 lUd. X, 1585. 

8 C.I.L. VI, 1047. 11 C.I.G. add. 3857, d. 

12 The statue of the Empress is not preserved in any case cited. The fact of 
its erection is determined by the statement of the inscription or the form or 
surroundings of the monument on which it occurs. 

13 C.I.L. VIII, 885. " Ibid. VIII, 75. 

16 Ibid. VIII, 6306. This is a large marble basis bearing the date 205. 
16 Ibid. X, 7502. 1? Ibid. II, 810. 18 Ibid. IX, 2165. 



EMPRESS JULIA DONNA 277 

dedicated by the town Hermioiie l in Argolis, by the city of 
Samos, 2 and by the city council of Ephesus. 3 

Other inscriptions, which give no clew to the circumstances 
which occasioned their erection, contain simply Julia Domna's 
name and title, sometimes with the name of the dedicator; in 
other cases the inscriptions are mere fragments, barely pre- 
serving the name of the Empress. 4 The following inscription 
from Axiopolis, in Moesia, will serve as an example of inscrip- 
tions found in Dalmatia 5 and Moesia 6 (C.LL. Ill, 7485): 

[J]VLIAE DO 
MNAE AV[0] 
[m]ATRI CA[] < 
p]RORVM 
|>]AVTAE VN[z] 
[we] RSI DAN[w] 
[vi] EX R P [jmo] 
SVB CVRA L l[t/] 
FAVSTINIANI 
LEG AVG "N N 

In several of the inscriptions mentioned above, Julia Domna 
is called " Mother of Augustus " 7 or " Mother of Antoninus 
Augustus and of Geta Caesar," 8 as if her chief claim to honor, 
in addition to the fact that she was wife of the Emperor, was 
that she had borne heirs to the Empire. It appears, also, that 
her sons were described as " sons of Severus and of Julia 
Augusta," 9 a title which is of especial interest in contrast to 
the usage of the early Empire, 10 for no Empress before Julia 
Domna \vas mentioned in dedicatory inscriptions as ancestress 

1 C.I.G. 1216. 

2 C.I.G. S. Ill, 1007. The genuineness of this inscription in doubt. 

3 C.I.G. 2972. 

4 <?./.. VI, 2837; VIII, 1017, 1217, 8477, 12031, 14813. Not. Scav. 1896, 
p. 11. Rev. Arch. XXXII, p. 467, n. 71. 

5 C.I.L. III, 1686, 3119, 4054, 7513. 

6 Ibid. Ill, 7485. 8 Em g m c.I.L. II, 810. 

7 E.g. ibid. IX, 2165. 9 C.I.L. VIII, 9035, 17871. C.I.G. 1075. 
10 Tiberius refused the appellation "luliae films" (Tac. Ann. I, 14). 



278 MARY GILMORE WILLIAMS 

of an Emperor. 1 An inscription from Megara, on a statue of 
Caracalla, is as follows (<?./.#. 1075): 

AvTOKpdropa Kaiaapa M. Avpij\tov ' 
v AvTO/cpdropos Kaiaapo^ A. 

iVe/Sou? Hepriva/cos 2e/3a<7To[i) *A/>a-] 
' ASia/3rjvi/cov HapOncov M.eyio-Tov /cal 'Ioi>[\ta<] 

TJT/OO? "ZrpaTOTreScov vbv 77 7ro'A,[t<?] 
77 Me7a/oe&>z> roz> euepyerrjv. 

On Julia Domna's coins few legends and designs appear as 
new, because, as a rule, in the time of Severus, legends and 
designs were no longer invented ; those used by preceding 
Emperors being adapted to existing circumstances. 2 Several 
legends which had not previously appeared on coins of an 
Empress have reference to the coinage and to imperial lar- 
gesses. Where the face of the coin bears the name and por- 
trait of the Empress, the reverse presents the legend AEQVITAS 
AVG and the design "Aequitas holding a horn of plenty," 3 
AEQVITAS AVGG 4 or AEQVITAS PVBLICA, 5 with the design 
which had been put upon coins of the Emperor from Hadrian's 
time, "Three Monetae standing, each holding a balance and 
a cornucopia; at their feet heaps of metal." 6 More signifi- 
cant than these are coins bearing on the reverse LIBERAL 
AVG, with the design " Liberalitas standing " ; for this legend 
implies that Julia Domna distributed money stamped with 
her own name, as if she had a real share in the sovereignty, 
while before her time such gifts had been confined to Em- 
perors. 6 Julia Domna's coins present, also, the legend FOR- 
TVNAE REDVCT. 7 From the time of Augustus, whenever an 

1 The young sons of Marcus Aurelius were called ' ' sons of Antoninus and of 
Faustina" on sepulchral inscriptions (C.I.L. VI, 944, etc.) from Hadrian's 
mausoleum ; and on the basis of a statue, Annius Verus Caesar (who died in 
170; Momm. Hermes, VIII, 206) is styled "Imp. Caesaris M. Aureli Antonini 
Aug. . . . et Faustinae Aug. filius" (C.LL. VIII, 11323). 

2 Eckhel, Doct. Num. VII, 6166. * Cohen, IV, p. 105, n. 3. 

3 Cohen, IV, p. 105, n. 1-2. 5 Ibid . IV , p. 105, n. 4. 

6 Eckhel, VII, 6167. This design referred to the coinage and to imperial 
gifts (Cohen, IV, n. 103). 

7 Cohen, IV, n. 64-68. This legend is found on a hybrid coin of Lucilla. 



EMPRESS JULIA DOMNA 279 

Emperor returned to Rome, after a victory, an altar was 
erected to Fortuna Redux, the patroness of a prosperous 
journey. 1 Her name is found on coins of Emperors from 
Vespasian's time, but Julia Domna is the first Empress so 
honored. The honor is connected, probably, with the title 
Mater Castrorum, in virtue of which the Empress's sojourn 
in camp during a campaign had an official significance. In 
many inscriptions already cited, prayer is made for the " re- 
turn " and " victory " of Julia Domna, 2 as well as of Severus 
and his sons, the actual commanders of the army. 

Several legends have a distinct reference to the prosperous 
condition of the Empire. SECVRITAS IMPERI 3 is found only 
on the coins of this Empress and of her son, Geta. Again, 
Julia Domna is represented as herself the personification of 
" Fortuna Felix," where " Fortuna, with the features of Julia 
Domna, sits holding a horn of plenty; before her stands an 
infant." 4 The legends SAECVLI FELICITAS and FELICITAS 
PVBLICA 5 have the portrait of Severus on the face of the 
coin, and of Julia Domna and her sons on the reverse. 
HILARITAS 6 and FELICITAS or FELICITAS AVGG 7 have a simi- 
lar reference. The legend AETERNITAS IMPERI, S which 
appears first on coins of Severus and his family, seems to 
refer to the fact that there were two sons to perpetuate the 
imperial line. In the most interesting of these coins the face 
bears the legend IVLIA AVGVSTA, with a portrait of the 
Empress ; and the reverse, AETBRNIT IMPERI, with portraits 
of Caracalla and Geta, both as children. 9 The most sig- 

1 Preller, Horn. Myth. II, pp. 187-188. 

2 "For perpetual victory and immortality" (C.I.G. 3956, b; 4701, b; cf. 
Rev. Arch. XXXV, p. 176), "for prosperity, return, and immortality" (C.I.G. 
5973, also C.I.L. VI, 225, 227, 461, 738, 3786. Dessau, 433. C.I.L. VII, 226 ; 
III, 138, 7836. I.G.S.L 922). 

3 Cohen, IV, n. 181. 

4 Ibid. IV, n. 201. FORTVNAE FELICI, with a different design, is found first on 
coins of Didia Clara (ibid. Ill, p. 403). 

5 Ibid. IV, p. Ill, n. 174-177; p. 100, n. 4, 7. 6 Ibid. IV, n. 71-73. 

7 Ibid. IV, p. 110. HILARITAS and FELICITAS occur on coins of younger 
Faustina (ibid. Ill, 6145). 

8 Ibid. VIII, pp. 361-362, list of these coins. 9 Ibid. IV, p. 100. 



280 MARY GILMORE WILLIAMS 

niiicant design introduced on Roman coins in honor of an 
Empress is found on the coins already alluded to in connec- 
tion with the marriage of Caracalla. The legend is CONCOR- 
DIA AETERNAE, with busts of Severus and of Julia Domna; 
the former wearing the spiked crown, the latter resting upon 
a crescent moon. 1 According to Eckhel these ornaments 
either identify the Emperor and Empress with the sun and 
moon, or express the wish that they, like the sun and moon, 
may be eternal. 2 The Roman Emperor had been represented 
with the spiked crown from the time of Nero, but the cres- 
cent had not been attributed to an Empress on coins struck 
in Rome before Julia Domna's time. The design is borrowed 
from coins of the Arsacidae, who called themselves brothers 
of the sun and moon. 3 In these the sun and moon are both 
placed in connection with the king's portrait, but on Roman 
coins these honors are divided between Severus and Julia 
Domna. 

Of portraits of Julia Domna, together with other members 
of the imperial family, which were made during the reign of 
Severus, only three can be identified with reasonable certainty. 
These are the mutilated reliefs of the arch of the Forum Boa- 
rium, the little heads on a tablet dedicated by the Watch, 
now in the Palazzo dei Conservator! at Rome, and a sardonyx 
cameo in the Cabinet des Medailles 4 in Paris. In the first, Seve- 
rus and Julia Domna stand before an altar, at which the Empe- 
ror is making an offering; both have their heads covered by 
drapery. Julia Domna appears as a woman of much dignity, 
somewhat taller than her husband, who stands a little in advance 
of her, at her right. It is difficult to see any trace of beauty in 
her round face, of a Semitic type, even after making due allow- 
ance for all mutilation. On the opposite side of the arch were 
portraits of Caracalla and Geta, but the latter has been effaced. 
On the cameo, Julia Domna and Severus, in profile, face their 

1 Cohen, IV, p. 243 ; cf. Eckhel, VII, pp. 181, 423. 

2 Eckhel, III, pp. 362, 545. Ibid. VI, pp. 362, 545. 
4 Bernoulli, Edm. Ikon. II, 3, pp. 28 ff. 



EMPRESS JULIA DOMNA 281 

sons, also presented in profile. All of these portraits were made 
soon after the beginning of the third century; they represent 
Caracalla and Geta as young boys. There are many portraits 
of the Empress, the most notable being the colossal bust of the 
Rotunda of the Vatican, " the largest extant female portrait of 
the Graeco-Roman period." 1 This bust, which represents the 
idealized Empress 2 as possessed of great charm, corresponds with 
the portraits on her earlier coins. 

In the year 208 Julia Domna accompanied her husband and 
sons on an expedition against the Britons, a war which Severus, 
though in feeble health, conducted in person, in the hope of 
bringing about a reconciliation between his sons, whose open 
hatred of one another was a constant source of anxiety. 3 It is 
probable that the Empress remained in York during the war, 
and occupied her leisure by studying the new races brought to 
her notice, as Dion Cassius mentions an interview with a cap- 
tive Caledonian woman who answered the Empress's criticism 
of British civilization by a scathing comment on the state of 
morals in Rome. 4 She attempted to make peace in her own 
family by obtaining for her younger son honor equal to his 
brother's ; according to common report her son Geta, who was 
made Augustus in the year 209, obtained his rank at his mother's 
intercession. 5 Coins struck in honor of Geta's imperium have, 
on the face, the name and portrait of the Empress ; on the 
reverse, MATER AVGG, with a design representing Julia Domna 
as Cybele drawn by four lions. 6 General interest in the welfare 
of the imperial family was made manifest by many inscriptions 
which record prayers for their prosperity, return, and victory. 

In 207 at Casa in Numidia, troops detailed for special duty 
erected altars to Juppiter Optimus Maximus and the Nymphs 
" for the prosperity " of Severus, Julia Domna, and their sons. 7 

1 Helbig, Antiquities, I, p. 220. 

2 Bernoulli, Rom. Ikon. II, 3, pp. 40-42. 

3 Herodian, III, 14 ; Dion Cassius, LXXVI, 11 ; Spartianus, S&o. 18. 

4 Dion Cassius, LXXVI, 16. 5 Spartianus, Geta, 5. 
e Cohen, IV, n. 116-119; cf. Eckhel, VII, p. 196. 
7 a/..VIII, 4322-4323. 



282 MARY GILMORE WILLIAMS 

A triumphal arch was erected at Vaga, in Byzacium, and 
dedicated to the numen augustum of the whole imperial family 
by citizens who acknowledged with gratitude the imperial favor 
shown in establishing the Colonia Septimia Vaga. 1 In the years 
208 and 209 other offerings were made, as follows : tablets at 
Runiero, 2 in Moesia, and Narona, 3 Dalmatia, to Juppiter Opti- 
mus Maximus " for the prosperity " of Severus, his sons, and of 
Julia Augusta; a tablet at Grosskrotzenburg, dedicated "for 
the prosperity, victory, and return of the three emperors " and 
of " Julia Domna Augusta, Mother of the Augusti and of the 
Camp " ; 4 at Rome a tablet, by calatores, to Julia Augusta, 
Mother of the Augusti and the Camp, 5 and a " shrine with a 
god," dedicated by praetorians to Severus "for the prosperity 
and return " of Severus, Antoninus, Julia Domna, and the 
" divine house and also of the praetorian cohorts and for their 
victories " ; 6 and a tablet dedicated for the same purpose by 
the equites singular 'esS 

At Colossae, in Phrygia, baths were dedicated " for the pros- 
perity and victory and immortality of our lords and uncon- 
quered Emperors," Severus, Antoninus, and Geta, and " of the 

] new Roman Hera and the whole divine house of the Augusti 
and the holy senate and the people of Rome." 8 Certain magis- 
trates of Sitifis, in Mauretania, erected ob honorem aedilitatis 
a basis "to the Victory of the three unconquered Augusti and 
of Julia Augusta, Mother of Caesar and of the Camp, and of 

J their whole divine house." 9 A hint that the trouble between 
the brothers was well known in the provinces is to be found 
in the inscriptions of statues dedicated at Thamugas, the one 
" to Mars Augustus, preserver of our three lords the Emperors 
. . . and of Julia Domna," 10 the other "to the Concord of the 
three Augusti . . . and of Julia Augusta." 11 An offering was 

1 C.LL. VIII, 14395. ? c.I.L. VI, 3768. 

2 Ibid. Ill, 8185. s c.I.G. 3956. 

8 Ibid. Ill, 1780. C.LL. VIII, 8455. 

* Dessau, 433. *> Ibid. VIII, 17835. 

5 Rev. Arch. XXXVII, p. 362. u Ibid. VIII, 17829. 

6 C.LL. VI, 738. 



EMPEESS JULIA DOMNA 283 

made at the temple of Aesculapius, in Lambaesis, in honor of 
the three Augusti and of Julia Domna. 1 

Severus died in York in 211, leaving the Empire to both sons, 
in spite of his knowledge that all efforts had failed to reconcile 
them to each other. 2 The princes made a hasty settlement of 
affairs in Britain, and with their mother carried the Emperor's 
ashes to Rome. 3 As the temper of the new Emperors caused a 
general expectation of trouble, sacrifices were offered to all the 
gods, but especially to Concordia. 4 The brothers made some 
pretence of agreement, for a gold coin was struck with the 
legend CONCORDIA FELIX and a design representing Caracalla 
and Geta clasping hands in the presence of Julia Domna. 5 

The Empress made every effort to fulfil the office of peace- 
maker suggested by the coins. Failing in this, she tried to 
protect Geta from his brother ; for it soon became evident that 
Caracalla, who had assumed the supremacy, purposed to destroy 
all who opposed him. The protests of their councillors and of 
the soldiers were either disregarded or punished. 6 Herodian 
states that the council formulated a plan for the division of the 
Empire between the brothers, as the only tolerable solution of 
the problem, but that the plan failed because of the opposition 
of Julia Domna. 7 As the proposition is mentioned by no other 
authority, it is generally believed that the scheme, as the rhetor- 
historian elaborates it, is a creation of his own, 8 but there is no 
reason to doubt that plans for securing the peace of the Empire 
were discussed by the Emperor's councillors and that no scheme 
of the kind could succeed without the indorsement of the power- 
ful Julia Domna. 

1 C. I. L. VIII, 2585. 

2 Dion Cassius, LXXVI, 15 ; Herodian, III, 15, 3 ; Spartianus, Sev. 19, 1. 

3 Herodian, IV, 1. 

4 Dion Cassius, LXXVII, 1 ; cf. Cohen, IV, p. 115, n. 21-22. 

8 Cohen, IV, n. 24. Other coins represent the brothers each crowned by a 
Victory, and clasping hands. 

6 Dion Cassius, LXXVII, 2. Herodian, IV, 3-4. Spartianus, Carac. 2, 4 ; 
Geta, 6, 4. 

7 Herodian, IV, 3-4. 

8 Cf. Herzog, Gesch. und System, II, p. 473, etc.; Duruy, Hist. Bom. VI, p. 240. 



284 MARY GILMOBE WILLIAMS 

With reference to her office as mediator between her sons, 
coins of gold and silver bore a new amplification of her title. 
The face bears the legend IVLIA PIA FELIX AVG ; the reverse, 
the legend MATER AVGG, MATER SEN M PATR {Mater Augusto- 
rum Duorum Mater Senatus Mater Patriae) and the design, Julia 
Domna seated or standing with a branch of olive and a sceptre 
in her hands. 1 

A few inscriptions mention the young Emperors with their 
mother : an altar from Abusina, in Raetia, dedicated to " our 
lords the Emperors, . . . Julia Augusta, . . . Juppiter Optimus 
Maximus, Juno Regina, and the Genius of Coh. Ill Brit."; 2 
an altar found near Salisbury, England, containing a dedication 
" for the prosperity and victory " of the Emperors and their 
mother ; 3 and a tablet from Volusinii, bearing the names of 
Julia Augusta and Caracalla, 4 probably dedicated with a similar 
tablet to Geta. 

In the following year, Julia Domna was forced to witness the 
murder of her second son. Caracalla, pretending to be ready 
for a reconciliation, persuaded his mother to invite him, with 
Geta, to an interview in her apartments. No sooner had Geta 
entered the room than centurions, concealed previously, rushed 
out to attack him. He threw himself on his mother for pro- 
tection, crying, " Mother, mother, help, I am stabbed ! " Her 
own exertion on his behalf was of no avail, for the centurion 
wounded the hand with which she tried to protect her son. 
Geta was killed in her arms. 5 The murder was followed by 
execration of the memory of the dead prince ; his name was 
erased from all inscriptions, 6 his coins, so far as possible, were 
melted, his portraits were mutilated, and all mention of his 
name was construed as treason. 7 The names of Plautianus and 

1 Cohen, IV, n. 110, 115. There is no record that this title was conferred by 
Senate or Army. 

2 C.I.L. Ill, 5935. 3 Ibid. VII, 226. 4 Ibid. XI, 269$, dated 211 A.D. 

5 Dion Cassias, LXXVII, 2 ; Herodian, IV, 5 ; Spartianus, Carac. 2-4 ; Zosi- 
mus, I, 9, 4. 

6 Geta's name has been wholly or partially erased from all inscriptions that 
are cited as referring to him, except C.I.G. 3956, b. 

7 Dion Cassius, LXXVII, 12. 



EMPRESS JULIA DOMNA 285 

Plautilla were apparently erased at the same time. Inscrip- 
tions were restored, to suit the circumstances, by the substi- 
tution of Caracalla's triumphal titles for his brother's name, 
and the new amplification of Julia Domna's title for Plautilla's 
name. 1 

At this time, Julia Domna's title received its final form. 
During the earlier part of her husband's reign she had been 
officially styled on inscriptions, lulia Domna Augusta, Mater 
Augusti et Oastrorum. In the inscription describing the secular 
games she was styled lulia Augusta, Mater Oastrorum Coniux 
Augusti? and lulia Augusta, Mater Oastrorum Reique Publicae. 3 
On coins she had very early been named lulia Augusta and 
Julia Pia Felix Augusta. After Geta had been promoted to 
the imperium she was styled on coins, lulia Pia 4 Felix Augusta, 
Mater Augustorum duorum, Mater Senatus, 5 Mater Patriae. 6 
After the death of Geta her official title, used by the Arval 
Brotherhood, and by imperial order to fill the space caused by 
erasing Plautilla's name, was lulia Pia Felix Augusta, Mater 
Augusti et Oastrorum et Senatus et Patriae. She was addressed 

1 There is one apparent exception to this statement (C.I.L. VI, 3401), where 
Julia Domna has all her titles on an inscription erected before Geta's death. 
The inscription, however, is preserved only in a copy (I.e. notes), and merely 
fails to indicate that the title is written in an erasure of Plautilla's name. 

2 Eph. Ep. 1898, p. 284, pt. IV, 1. 9. 3 Ibid. pt. Ill, 11. 9-10. 

4 Pia first occurs on an imperial inscription as an epithet of Julia Titi f. 
(C.I.L. IX, 1153), " Divae luliae Piae." The term is used in this case, as often 
in the case of private individuals, to show that she had " scrupulously and 
promptly performed all duties to the gods, her relatives, and friends" (Eckhel, 
VIII, p. 453, 'Pius'). Faustina Junior, after death, was called Diva Faustina 
Pia (Cohen, III, p. 141. C.I.L. VI, 1019, 1540, etc.). The Pia is apparently 
derived from her father's name, Pius. Commodus styled himself Pius Felix 
(Commodus, VIII, 1, 2). Severus borrowed both epithets for his son when 
he proclaimed himself son of Marcus Aurelius, and from Caracalla they were 
transferred to Julia Domna. 

5 The title Pater Senatus, refused by Claudius (Tac. Ann. XI, 25), was 
assumed by Commodus (Cohen, III, p. 280, n. 396 ff.). Neither Severus nor 
his sons adopted it, but Mater Senatus seems to have been formed on the 
analogy of Commodus's title. 

6 Mater Patriae, refused for Livia by Tiberius (Tac. Ann. I, 14); it was used, 
however, on African coins (Dion Cassius, VI, 47. Cohen, I, p. 165, n. 807; 
p. 207, n. 203). No other Empress, before Julia Domna, assumed the title. 



286 MARY GILMOEE WILLIAMS 

also as domino,,* as the Emperor was dominus. Though the 
Empress was not permitted to make any sign of mourning for 
her son, 2 she did not succeed in concealing her sorrow, for 
Cornificia, daughter of Marcus Aurelius and therefore adopted 
sister of Severus, dared to express sympathy for her bereave- 
ment. This implied criticism of Caracalla and furnished him 
with a convenient pretext for destroying a possible claimant to 
the Empire. 3 Cornificia was condemned to death as a traitor 
and died with a dignity becoming the daughter of a philoso- 
pher. 4 

Inscriptions of 212 A.D. found in Verecunda, in Numidia, 
give expression to the official view of the situation, that Cara- 
calla and his mother had been preserved from great danger and 
might now live in peace and prosperity. Their purport is as 
follows : 

" To Juppiter Optimus Maximus the Preserver of the Empe- 
ror . . . Antoninus, . . . and of Julia Augusta, Mother of 
Augustus and of the Camp and of the Senate and of her 
Country," 5 and to Juno Concordia Augusta, for the prosperity 
of Caracalla and Julia Domna. 6 This altar and pedestal were 
dedicated by members of the Propertius family because of the 
priesthood to which one of them had been appointed. A tablet 
dedicated on the birthday 7 of Severus by members of the 
Watch, "for the prosperity and preservation from harm" 8 of 
Caracalla and of Julia Augusta, proves that the soldiers were 
not slow to accept the situation. There is nothing to indicate 
the date of the following inscriptions, but as they refer to an 
escape from danger it seems probable that they were erected 
after Geta's death. The first, a dedication to Juppiter Opti- 
mus Maximus, the " Preserver of Antoninus . . . arid of Julia 

1 Wilinanns, Exempla, 1737 ; C.I.L. VI, 1070, 2149. A woman who did not 
have the title Augusta might be styled domina : e.g. Fronto calls the mother of 
Marcus Aurelius domina (Fronto, Ad Marc. Caes. II, 21, 24, etc.). 

2 Dion Cassius, LXXVII, 2. 

3 Herodian, IV, 6. Spartianus, Carac. 3, 8, 8, 4, 8 ; Geta, 6, 6. 

4 Dion Cassius, Excerpta Vat. Mai, n. 114. 5 C.I.L. VIII, 4196. 
6 C.I.L. VIII, 4197. 7 m Id> Apr . g c.I.L. VI, 1063. 



EMPRESS JULIA DOMNA 287 

Augusta," was found at Lambaesis. 1 The second, on a drum- 
shaped marble found at Rome, is as follows {C.I.L. VI, 1070): 

SAL- VIS- 
DOM- NIS- 
NN ANTO 

Ml- NO- AVG- ET- IV- LI A- 
PIA FE LIX RV Fl NVS ET LVPERCILLA 2 

Inscriptions indicate that in the year 212, after Geta's death, 
a priest of Mercury at Sarra, in Byzacium, dedicated a temple 
to Mercurius Sobrius " for the prosperity of Antoninus," and of 
" Julia Augusta, Pia Felix, Mother of Augustus and of the 
Camp, and of the Senate, and of the whole divine house," \/ 
and that a feast and games were given at the time of its 
completion, while a second priest dedicated in the same way 
the arch giving entrance to the precinct of the temple and 
statues of Mercury and of Sever us. 3 The epithets pia felix 
occur here for the first time in dated inscriptions, though they 
had been in use upon coins for several years. 

In the year 213, inscriptions made use of this amplified title 
at a castellum of the Provincia Proconsularis, opposite the 
modern town of Nibber, 4 and at Ferentinum. 5 

The " divine house " now included only the Emperor and ^ 
Julia Domna, who was associated with him in honors to an 
extent which has no parallel. A remarkable indication of 
this fact is found in an Arval inscription, which contains the 
record of the sacred rites of the Dea Dia, as celebrated by 
that brotherhood on the 20th of May, 213. After the feasts, 
which were a necessary part of their ceremonials, it was cus- 
tomarv to make acclamationes in honor of the Emperor. 6 
Though the names of women of imperial families, from Livia 
to Tranquillina, are included in Arval records, no other 

1 C.I.L. VIII, 2619. 2 The lettering and punctuation are unusual. 

3 C.I.L. VIII, 12006-12007 ; cf. Bev. Arch. XXXV, p. 487. 

4 Ibid. VIII, 15722. Date given by accompanying inscription to Caracalla. 

5 Ibid. X, 5826. Date given by accompanying inscription to Caracalla. 

6 Henzen, Acta Fratrum Arvalittm, p. 45. 



288 MARY GILMOEE WILLIAMS 

Augusta is mentioned as honored with an acclamatio. It 
was offered after the banquet, in the following form ((7.7.X. 
VI, 2086,1. 16) :' 

FEpi]CISSIME FELICISSIME TE SALVO ET VICTORE FELI- 
CISSIME NOS FELICES QVI TE IMP(eratorem) VIDEMVS 
DE NOSTRIS AN NO's) AVG(eaQ T(ibi) \(uppiter) A(nno) 
GERMANIC E MAX(ime) D(/) T(e) S(ervent) BR\J(annice) 

MAX(ime) D(0 T(e) S(ervent) TE SALVO SALVI ET SECVRI 
SVMVS TE IMP(eratore) FELIX SENATVS AVGtete) D(i) 
T(e) S(ervent) IVVENIS TRIVMPHIS SEN EX IMP(erator) 2 
MAIOR AVG(wsfo) D() T(e) S(ervent) WG(uste) AVG(w^a) 
IVLIAE AVG(wtoe) MATRI WG(usti) FELICITER EX TE 
AVG(^sto) AVG(wMm) VIDEMVS D(/) T(e) S(crvc0 IN 
PERPETVO AVG(w^a) AVG(ws/e) 

The sacrifice of October 6, of the same year, was made 
because Julia Domna, as well as Antoninus, had been victo- 
rious in Germany. The account is as follows {C.I.L. VI, 
2086,1. 23): 

ISDEM COS 

PR NON OCT IN CAPITOLIO ANTE CELLAM IVNONIS 

REG(moe) OB 
SALVTE(m) VlCTORIAMQVE GERMANICAM \MP(eratoris) 

CAES(am) 

M(ara) AVRELLI ANTO 
NINI PI I FELIC(is) AVG(^i) PAR(^zcO MAX(imi) BRIT(anwfcf) 

MAX(mi) 
GERMANICI MAX(tmO PONT((/fcw) MAXOmf) TRIB(wnicide) 

POTE 



ST(afts) XVI IMP III COS MM PROCOS ET IVLIAE WG(u8tae) 

1 Henzen, Acta Fratritm Arvalium, p. 196. 

2 Caracalla had been Augustus since 198 A.D. (Wirth, Quaest. Sev. p. 31. 
Mommsen, Staatsrecht*, II, 799). He had held tribunicia polestas from Decem- 
ber 10, 197. The triumphal titles which he had borne previous to 207 A.D. had 
been borrowed from Severus. His actual military experience began with the war 
in Britain (Wirth, Quaest. Sev. p. 26). 



EMPRESS JULIA DOMNA 289 

PIAE FEL(im) M(atris)' IMP(eratom) ANTONINI WG(usti) 

M(atris) SE 
NATVS CASTRORVM ET PATRIAE FRATRES ARVALES 

CO[n]VENERVNT ET 
IMMOLAVERVNT PER L ARMENIVM PERIGRINVM PRO 

MAG(taro) VICE FLAVI ALPINI MAG(i*n) COLLEGI 

FRATRVM ARVALIVM \(ovi) O(ptimo) M(cm'rao) B(ovem) 

M(arem) k(uratum) IVNONI REG(iwae) BOV(em) F(cmiwam) 

k(uratam) MINERVAE B(ovem) F(emmam) 
k(uratam) SALVTI PVB(fa'cae) B(ovem) F(emiwam) A(wratam) 

MARTI 
VLTORI TAVRVM k(uratum) IOVI VICTOR! B(ovem) M(arem) 

k(uratum) 
ET VICTORIAE B(owem) F(emmam) k(uratam) LARIBVS 

MILITARIBVS TAVRVM ALBVM FORTVNAE REDVCI 

B(ouem) F(eminam) k(uratam) 
GENIO IMP(eratons) ANTONINI WG(usti) N(ostri) TAVRVM 

ALBVM 
IVNONI 1 IVLIAE PIAE MATRIS ANTONINI AVG(ws^) N(o^ri) 

SENATVS CASTR(orwm) ET PA 
TR(iae) B(ovem) F(emmam) k(uratam) ADFVERVNT CN 

CATILIVS SEVERVS T STATILIVS SILANVS 

It is worthy of note in this matter that the Juno guardian 
divinity of the Empress, as well as the Genius of the Emperor 
is reckoned among the deities who have brought glory and suc- 
cess to the Roman people. In other records of meetings of this 
fraternity during the reign of Caracalla, there is always mention 
of Julia Domna, with all her titles. 2 It is, perhaps, significant 
that the presiding officer of the brotherhood on these occasions 
is M. Julius Gessius Bassianus, probably a kinsman of the Em- 
press. 3 There is a record also, in Germany, on a tablet at 

1 The first offering of Arval Brotherhood to the "Juno" of an Empress, was 
made to the Juno of Poppaea, 63 A. D. (Henzen, Acta Fr. Arv. p. 79). 

2 C.LL. VI, 2103, A, 1. 9 ; B, 11. 10 and 11. 214 A.D. 

3 Her father was Julius Bassianus of Emesa (see above, p. 260). 



290 MARY GILMORE WILLIAMS 

Meimsheim, that Julia Domna accompanied her son on the 
expedition against Raetia 1 (Henzen, 5507): 

IMP CAES M A[ter Anton'] 

PIO PEL [augusto] 

GERM PON MAXIM 

ET IVLIAE AVG MATRI 

CASTRORVM 

OB VICTORIAM 

GERMANICAM 

During the remaining years of Julia Domna' s life she spent 
little time in Rome. After the expedition to Raetia, 2 the Empe- 
ror travelled through Thrace 3 and crossed to Asia. After a 
perilous journey 4 in which Caracalla, and probably Julia, had 
a narrow escape from shipwreck -- mother and son came to 
Nicomedia. 5 This city proved a congenial place of residence, 
for it was devoted to the worship of Severus and his house, and 
had already, in 208, erected statues to Julia Domna and Cara- 
calla. 6 

In Asia, Julia Augusta began to act as her son's chief min- 
ister, both at Nicomedia and after they had removed their court 
to Antioch. All documents and letters, except those of the 
highest importance, were presented to her instead of to the 
Emperor. 7 When he was absent in the field, all matters passed 
through her hands, and nothing which she could settle was 
referred to the Emperor. She had, too, a praetorian guard 
and a retinue worthy of an Empress. 8 In fact, the relations 
between mother and son were so confidential that, in parts of 
the Empire, the charges made by Plautianus against Julia 

1 Bulletino, 1838, p. 164 (Borghesi). 

2 Dion Cassius, LXXVII, 14. C.I.L. VI, 2086, 2103. 

8 Spartianus, Carac. 5, 8. * Dion Cassius, LXXVII, 16. 

6 C.I.L. VI, 2103, 1. 9. Henzen, Acta Fr. Arv. p. 86. Though Caracalla 
alone is said to "have been saved from danger," sacrifice is offered also to 
lunoni luliae Augustae. 

6 C.I.G. 3771. Preller, Rom. Myth. II, p. 452. 

7 Dion Cassius, LXXVII, 18-20. 8 75^. LXXVIII, 4, 23. 



EMPRESS JULIA DOMNA 291 

Domna were revived ; and in the scurrilous abuse of the Alex- 
andrians she was " locasta," and Caracalla "Oedipus," a jest 
for which they paid a dreadful penalty, if we may trust Hero- 
dian. 1 This charge was preserved by their contemporaries and 
was handed down by tradition, and so amplified and distorted 
that the biographer of Caracalla, a century later, represents the 
elderly Empress as a beautiful young stepmother who became 
mistress, if not wife, of her imperial stepson. 2 

On the other side, Dion Cassius, her contemporary, who was 
by no means an admirer of Caracalla, does not hint at such a 
charge, though he believes that the Emperor owed his worst 
characteristics cunning and malice to his Syrian inheri- 
tance. 3 As Caracalla left the irksome details of administration 
to his mother, 4 it was natural that the more conservative ele- 
ment in the Empire should have had hope of reaching the 
Emperor through her. It is possible that she may have been 
regarded as a leader of the conservative party in the Empire. 
She remained, still, a patron of learning ; for Philostratus says 
that she prevailed upon Caracalla to grant a professorship in 
Athens to the needy Thessalian philosopher, Philiscus, who had 
found in her circle of literary men a refuge from persecution in 
Macedonia. 5 

Julia Domna's influence had little effect on Caracalla's general 
policy ; for when she remonstrated with him for his extravagant 
gifts to the soldiers, with the words, " Every means of raising a 
revenue, just and unjust, has been exhausted," he answered, 
touching his sword ; " Courage, mother. While we have this, 
money cannot fail." 6 

During these years of residence in Asia, Julia Domna's name 
was placed upon a large number of inscriptions, many of them 

1 Herodian, IV, 9. 

2 Spartianus, Carac. 10. Victor, Caesar, XXI ; Epitome, XXIV. Eutropius, 
Bremarium Hist. Rom. VIII, 20. Orosius, Hist. Rom. VII, 18. Hieronymus, 
Chronicon Olymp. p. 248, etc. 

3 Dion Cassius, LXXVII, 6. * Cf. Herzog, Gesch. und System, II, p. 475. 

5 Philostratus, Vitae Sophist. (Philiscus}, II, 30. 

6 Dion Cassius, LXXVII, 10. 



292 MARY GILMORE WILLIAMS 

dedications of public monuments. In the year 214, at Thamu- 
gas, a lavacrum or ambulacrum was erected by the town ; and 
the date is given by the names of Caracalla and Julia in the 
ablative case, 1 as if she were her son's consort in power. At 
Theveste, in Numidia, her name is found over the northwest 
opening of a four-front arch ; over the southeast opening is an 
inscription to the deified Severus, and over the southwest to 
Caracalla. From the inscription within, it is known that 
C. Cornelius Egrilinus left money to build this arch, with 
statues, and to establish gymnasia. 2 Her name occurs, also, 
on triumphal arches built at Zarna 3 and Cuicul, 4 in 215 or 
216. On the former the usual order of names is observed, 
first the name of the deified Severus, second of Caracalla, 
and third of Julia Domna ; on the latter there is a singular 
change, for the name of Severus comes last. The dedication 
is as follows (C.LL. VIII, 8321): 

IMP CA[>] M AVRELIO SEVERO ANTONINO PIO FELICI AVG 
PARTH|>]0 MAXIMO- BRITANNICO MAX GERMANICO MAX 
PONT [wa]X-TRIB-POT-XVIIII 5 -COS-IHHMP-lll-P P-PROCOS 
ET IVLI[ae] [d]OMNAE PIAE FELICI AVG MATRI EIVS ET 

SENATVS ET PA 
TRIAE ET [cajrf]RORVM ET DIVO SEVERO AVG- PIO PATRI 

IMP-CAES- M- AVRELI SE 
VERI ANT[<wi?ii] Pll [/eftc]IS AVG ARCVM TRIVMPHALEM 

A SOLO- D-D- RES- P- FECIT 

There were dedications, also, at Lambaesis, 6 and at Subzuar, 7 
in Numidia, upon buildings which have not been identified. 
Milestones show that several roads in Numidia and Mauretania, 8 
and the aqueduct which supplied Theveste with water, 9 were 
built under the patronage of Caracalla and Julia. At Vere- 

1 C.I.L. VIII, 2369-2371. 4 C.LL. VIII, 8321. 

2 Ibid. VIII, 1856; cf. 1855-1857. 5 216 A.D. 

3 Ibid. VIII, 1798. C.LL. VIII, 2708, 2707, 2704, 2712. 

7 Ibid. VIII, 6002 ; cf. dedication at Furni (Rev. Arch. XXXIII, p. 438). 

8 Ibid. VIII, 10231, 10197-10198, 10202, 10379, 10340. 

9 Ibid. VIII, 10683. 



EMPRESS JULIA DOMNA 293 

cunda, Numidia, a temple was dedicated to Saturn and Ops ; 1 
and at Thubba, in the Provincia Proconsularis, a temple to 
Mercurius Sobrius, the Genius of Sesase, and Pantheus Augus- 
tus, 2 both inscribed, " For the prosperity " of the Emperor and 
Empress. At Apulum, Dacia, a temple with horologiae was 
dedicated, for the same purpose, to Juppiter Optimus Maximus 
and Juno Regina. 3 The inscriptions on two columns of the 
great temple at Baalbec have a more distinct reference to the 
unsettled condition of the Empire ; for they indicate that these 
columns, with their gilt-bronze capitals, were dedicated to the 
Great Gods of Heliopolis, " for the prosperity and victories " of 
Caracalla and Julia Domna. 4 A pedestal from Aspra Spitra, 
in Phocis, was dedicated by the city of Anticyra in honor of 
"Julia Domna, Mother of M. Aurelius Antoninus . . . Mother 
of the Camp." 5 

Many other inscriptions have reference to the frequent dan- 
gers to which the imperial family were exposed in the East. 
" For the prosperity " of the Emperor and Empress, there were 
dedications to different divinities in Moesia, an altar at Scupi, 6 
a tablet erected by priests near Noviodunum, 7 and tablets by 
servants of the Emperor in Dacia 8 and Pannonia. 9 A slight 
variation from the usual formula is presented by a votive tablet 
of Luna, on which prayer is made " for the prosperity " of Cara- 
calla and Julia Domna " and the well being " of the city Luna 
by "priests of the altars of Liber Pater." 10 In Spain a legatus 
Augusti of the Legio VII Gemina prays "for the prosperity 
and perpetuity of the Empire," of Caracalla and Julia Domna. 11 
At Ampelum, in Dacia, a procurator prays " for their prosperity, 
victory, and preservation." 12 At Portus Traiani several inscrip- 
tions with the names of Caracalla and Julia indicate that they 
were honored by statues and votive offerings. 13 At Ostia, Feli- 
cissimus paid a vow by dedicating a tablet for the " health and 

1 C.I. L. VIII, 2670. s LGmS> m , 7. M C.I.L. XI, 1335. 

2 Ibid. VIII, 14690. C.I.L. Ill, 1697. u Ibid. II, 2661. 

3 Ibid. Ill, 1070. i Ibid. Ill, 7520. 12 Ibid. Ill, 7836. 

4 Ibid. Ill, 138. s Ibi( i m , 1565> 13 xbid. XIV, 122-124. 

9 Ibid. Ill, 3269. 



294 MARY GILMOEE WILLIAMS 

victory of the Emperor Caesar M. Aurelius Antoninus and of 
Julia Augusta, Mother of Augustus and of the Camp." 1 

Other dedications in many parts of the Empire were made 
to Julia Domna, without reference to the circumstances of the 
time. 2 In most of them there is little deviation from the ordi- 
nary formula of dedication, and no indication of the donor. As 
might be expected, a majority of these inscriptions come from 
Africa, though others were found in Italy and Britain. 

A few inscriptions, which belong to the period when Julia's 
political power was greatest, merit special attention. The first, 
found near Aquae Originae, in Tarraconensis, is a prayer for 
the Empress alone (O.I.L. II, 2529): 

PRO-SALVTE 
IVLIAE- AVG 
MATRI 
CASTROR 
ET- AVG -CLAV 
DIVS- MA 
RINVS 

The others were found in Rome. The first is a marble block, 
which probably served as a base of a statue ; with the exception 
of the Spanish inscription just quoted, it is the only extant dedica- 
tion for the prosperity of Julia Domna alone 3 (C.LL. VI, 786): 

VESTAE DONVM-PRO SALVTE 
IVLIAE- AVG MATRIS 

i/. ./. 922, 

2(7./.. VI, 1048; VII, 7, 1002, 1047; VIII, 2371, 4285, 8320, 9993, 12031, 
10610 ; X, 3830 ; XI, 1427. Orelli, 231. 

8 In the recent excavations of the Basilica Aemilia a similar inscription for 
Caracalla has been discovered (Rev. Arch. XXXVI, p. 304): 

VESTAE DONVM PR[o salute] 

IMP- M ANTONINI Pll M[g port max] 

TRIB- POTEST- XVI COS III! \_p p] 

EVTYCHES-LIB-FICTOR-CVM FILI[w] 

VOTO-SVSCEPTO 



EMPRESS JULIA DOMNA 295 

M ANTONINI AVG N -P- M 
EVTYCHVS FICTOR CVM FILIS 
VOTO SVSCEPTO 

This stone, found in the Forum Romanum, was probably 
dedicated in the temple of Vesta; for an offering is made 
on Julia Domna's behalf because she is mother of the Ponti- 
fex Maximus, 1 and therefore stands in close relation to the 
Vestals. 

A bronze tablet made to cover an aperture has some refer- 
ence to the Empress's private property. 2 A tablet erected by 
the guild of watermen indicates that a member of that body 
erected statues of " Antoninus Augustus our lord " and of 
"Julia Augusta our lady." 3 

Although inscriptions do not indicate any change in the sen- 
timents of soldiers and citizens toward the Emperor and his 
mother, the event proved that Caracalla had forfeited the sup- 
port of the army, 4 on which his Empire depended. He was 
murdered at Carrhae on April 8, v207 A.D., 5 by conspirators Z/7 
and the praetorian prefect Macriiius, who was immediately 
chosen as his successor. Delay in the delivery of official mes- 
sages was the immediate cause of Caracalla's ruin; for docu- 
ments sent from Rome with full information concerning the 
plot were carried first to Julia Domna at Antioch, and were, in 
consequence, too late to warn the Emperor of his danger. 6 

When the news that Caracalla had been killed and that 
Macrinus had been proclaimed Emperor reached Julia Domna 
at Antioch, she seemed at first to be stunned by the magni- 
tude of her misfortune; not that she mourned overmuch for 
the son who had murdered his brother in her arms, but because 

1 C.LL. VI, 786, notes. 

2 Ibid. VI, 2149. Similar tablets (ibid. VI, 2146-2148) refer, evidently, to the 
property of Vestal Virgins. 

3 Orelli, 4115. 

4 Spartianus, Carac. 4-6. Herodian, IV, 9-12. Zosimus, I, 10, 1. 

5 Dion Cassias, LXXVIII, 6. Herodian, IV, 13. Spartianus, Carac. 6-7. 
Zosimus, I, 10, 1. Orosius, p. 506 (A.V.C. 969), etc. 

e Dion Cassius, LXXVIII, 4. 



296 MARY GILMOEE WILLIAMS 

she must leave the imperial state which she had enjoyed for 
twenty-four years, and must return to private life. 1 

To her surprise, the new Emperor seemed to be in no haste 
to deprive her of her rank. He not only sent messages of 
condolence to her, but he gave the honors of a royal funeral 
to her son. She was quick to discern the weakness which 
prompted Macrinus to this policy, and turned from her mourn- 
ing to plot against him. 

It was believed by some of her contemporaries that though 
she suffered from an incurable disease, she was ambitious to 
become a "new Semiramis" and to rule, in name at least, 
the Empire of which she had been the administrative head. 
She seems to have expected that the senate and those of the 
soldiers who were devoted to her house and the " Mother of 
the Camp " would support her. While she was engaged in 
these schemes, Caracalla's ashes, which had been sent to Rome 
for burial, reached their destination. He was deified at the 
bidding of Macrinus, by a subservient senate, who neverthe- 
less made no attempt to conceal their real hatred of his mem- 
ory. Their conduct convinced Julia Domna that she could 
hope for no assistance from them, and when Macrinus, in- 
formed of her movements, ordered her to leave Antioch, she 
gave up all effort to maintain herself and committed suicide in 
May or June, 217 A.D. 2 

Her ashes were carried to Rome and deposited with those of 
Geta in the "monument of Gaius and Lucius"; 3 afterwards, 
her sister Maesa, having carried to a successful issue the plans 
of which she had only dreamed, had the urn removed to the 
"shrine of Antoninus." 3 She was deified several years later, 

1 Dion Cassius, LXXVIII, 23. 

2 Ibid. LXXVIII, 9, 12, 23. Herodian, IV, 13. 

8 Dion Cassius, LXXVIII. Reimer (note on Dion LXXVI, 15) identifies the 
"shrine of Antoninus 1 ' with the Mausoleum of Hadrian. The last inscription 
(in date) containing Julia Domna's name is the dedication of a s.tatue erected at 
Sebaste, in Phrygia, by Teneius Sacerdos, proconsul (C.LG-. 3882, g). As Sacer- 
dos was consul in 219 the dedication must be dated 220 or after. It is either a 
unique example of a posthumous dedication to an undeified empress, or, as I 
suspect, there has been some mistake in transcribing the inscription. 



EMPRESS JULIA DOMNA 297 

probably at the same time with Maesa by the latter's grand- 
son, Severus Alexander. 1 Her statue was erected together 
with that of the deified Severus in Africa in the year 229, as 
the following inscriptions prove : 

DIVAE IVLIAE 

DOMNAE 

DEC GILLITANI 

S P F 2 -. DIVO SEVERO AVO 

IMP-CAES- M AVRELI SE 

VERI ALEXANDRI Pll 

FELICIS AVG PONT- MAX 

TRIB- POT-VIM COS III 

PP 

DECVR GILLITANI S P F 3 

The coins struck in honor of her deification have the legend 
DIVA IVLIA AVGVSTA, with the portrait of the Empress veiled ; 
on the reverse CONSECRATIO S. c., with different designs, "a 
peacock " and " Julia Domna veiled holding a spear in her 
hand ; she is carried upward by a peacock." 4 The latter design 
shows her apotheosis as Mater Oastrorum. The peacock, em- 
blem of Juno, is represented on consecration coins of both 
Faustinas. 5 

No enumeration of the inscriptions in honor of Julia Domna 
would be complete without an account of the various divinities 
to whom prayer was made on her behalf, and without some 
attempt to discover from these records her relation to the wor- 
ship of the Emperor and the national religion. 

The name of no other Empress appears so frequently in 
prayers or dedications made for the Emperor or his heirs. 

1 Not under Elagabalus, because the number of Dim to whom the Arval 
Brethren made offerings did not change from 218-224 A.D. ; Mommsen, Staats- 
recht, II, 833, n. 3. Cf. C.LL. VI, 2104, 5, and 2107, 14. 

2 Eev. Arch. XXXV, p. 178, n. 56. 3 Ibid. XXXV, p. 178, n. 57. 
* Cohen, IV, p. 108, n. 24, 25. Eckhel, VII, p. 197. 

5 Cohen, II, p. 426 ; III, p. 141. 



298 MART GILMORE WILLIAMS 

The inscriptions are most frequently dedications to Jupiter 
under his various aspects : to Juppiter Optimus Maximus, at 
Luna, 1 Viddi 2 and Runjero, 3 all prayers for the whole family ; 
to Juppiter Optimus Maximus Conservator, 4 four dedications 
on various occasions; to Juppiter Optimus Maximus Doli- 
chenus, 5 a Syrian god, whose worship, introduced in the time 
of Commodus, became very popular under Severus; 6 to Jup- 
piter Depulsor ; 7 and to Juppiter Optimus Maximus Doliche- 
nus Depulsor. 8 

It was entirely natural to offer supplication to the king of 
gods for the safety of the greatest of men ; for the same reason 
prayer was offered to this deity and his consort Juno, for the 
prosperity of their earthly representatives, the Emperor and 
his wife, or later, the Emperor and his powerful mother. 9 So 
we have prayers or dedications to Juppiter Optimus Maximus 
and Juno Regina "for the preservation and long continuance 
of the Empire " of Caracalla and Julia Domna. 10 Other female 
divinities also are connected with Jupiter, Juno Dea Regina 
and Minerva, 11 and the Nymphs. 12 The secular games also were 
celebrated with especial honor to Juppiter Optimus Maximus 
and to Juno Regina, and in the ceremonies relating to the god- 
dess Julia Domna played a conspicuous part. 13 

Mars, as well as Jupiter, was invoked as " preserver " of the 
imperial family, and dedications were made to him in Africa, 14 
where interest in their welfare was most sincere. In the 
Provincia Proconsulates temples were dedicated to Mercurius 
Sobrius and to Aesculapius, with the conventional inscription 
" for the prosperity of the imperial family," 15 and an arch and 

1 C.I.L. XI, 1322. 5 C.I.L. VI, 410 ; III, 7520. 

2 Ibid. Ill, 1780. e Preller, Rom. Mitth. II, 406. 

3 Ibid. Ill, 8185. ? c.I.L. Ill, 3269. 

4 Ibid. VIII, 1628, 2619, 4196, 12209. 8 Ibid. VI, 419. 

9 As under Aurelian the Emperor was identified with the sun, because 
the sun is the highest divine power in nature. Preller, Rom. Mitth. II, 
p. 408. 

10 C.I.L. II, 2661 ; III, 1070. " Cf. p. 273, note 2. 

11 Ibid. VIII, 906. i* C.I.L. VIII, 14454, 17835. 

12 Ibid. VIII, 4322. Ibid. VIII, 12006-12007, at Sarra. 



EMPRESS JULIA DOMNA 299 

statues of Mercury ; 1 a temple, for the same purpose, to Mer- 
curius Sobrius, the Genius of Sesase and Pantheus Augustus ; 2 
in Thamugas, a statue to Mecurius Augustus ; 3 at Bon- 
arda, a dedication to Neptunus Augustus. 4 An offering in 
Dacia, to Hercules, for Caracalla and his mother, 5 was dedicated 
probably because the Emperor had shown himself an admirer 
of that hero. At Rome the equites singulares made their offer- 
ing for the imperial family to the Unconquered Hercules, and 
the Genius of their troop. 6 In Africa, at Lambaesis, temples 
were built to Silvanus 7 and to Aesculapius, Salus, Juppiter 
Valens, and Silvanus. 8 Italian dedications to Liber Pater 9 
contain the names of the imperial family with a prayer in one 
case "for their prosperity and victory." Male and female dei- 
ties are united in dedications for the whole imperial household 
to the Immortal Gods and Goddesses, 10 to Lord Saturn and 
Queen Ops, 11 near Lambaesis, and to the Sun and Moon 12 
at Lisbon. 

The last-mentioned dedication contains a slight variation 
from the usual formula, and deserves attention because it is a 
prayer to divinities whose attributes Severus and Julia Domna 
had assumed on coins, with a legend referring to perpetual 
peace (O.I.L. II, 259. 10): 

SOLI AETERNO 
LVNAE 

PRO- AETERNITATE- IM 
PERI ET SALVTE IMP Ckes - \_L ] 
SEPTIMI-SEVERI- AVG Pll ET 
[imp] CAES-M- AVRELI- ANTONINI 

1 Rev. Arch. XXXV, p. 487. 

2 C.I.L. VIII, 14690 ; Sesase is the name of a town. 

3 Ibid. VIII, 17837. ^ c.I.L. VIII, 2671. 

4 Rev. Arch. XXXV, 173. 8 Ibid. VIII, 2585 ; cf. 2579. 

5 C.I.L. Ill, 1565. 9 Ibid. VI, 461 ; XI, 1335. 

6 Ibid. VI, 226-227 ; cf. 224. 10 Ibid. XII, 2491. 

11 Ibid. VIII, 2670. 

12 Ibid. II, 259 ; cf. Eckhel, VII, p. 181 ; Cohen, IV, p. 243, n. 1-5. 



300 MARY GILMORE WILLIAMS 

AVG PI I [et P Septimi - Getae - nob) 

CAES ET [J M ]LIAE AVG MATRIS C[a]S|>] 

DRVSVS VALER COELIANVS 

V [c] [legates ' AVGVSTORVM 

CV[mm ag] VALE[r]IO [qu]k[drato] 

Q IVLIVS SATVR[mwtw et] 

Q MkL[erius] ANTONI[anws] 

With the last mentioned may be classified the dedication of 
a portico to the Great Gods of Heliopolis, 1 an altar to Sol 
Mithras Deus, 2 and to Deus Invictus Sol, 3 erected because of 
the "victories of our Augusti," for the four inscriptions refer to 
the worship of the Sun, a cult which we have reason to believe 
was especially affected by the imperial family, because of Julia 
Domna's Syrian origin, and the fact that her father was priest 
of the Sun at Emesa. We know that the cult was established 
in the imperial household because there exists an inscription of 
" a freedman of the three Augusti " who styled himself Sacer- 
dos invicti MitJirae domus Augustanae.^ 

Prayers for the whole imperial house are addressed to female 
divinities as follows : on altars to Cybele, Mater Deorumf at 
Mascula, in Numidia ; to Juno Regina and Minerva, 6 at Ampe- 
lum, Dacia, and Juno, Concordia Augusta, 7 at Verecunda ; 
on pedestals to Diana, 8 Isis Regina, 9 and Vesta, 10 at Rome ; 
to Nemesis, 11 at Ostia. 

There were dedications, too, to deified personifications of 
abstract ideas, to the Victory of the three unconquered Augusti 
and of Julia Augusta 12 ; to the Concord of our lords the Em- 
perors, L. Septimius Severus, and M. Aurelius Antoninus, and 
P. Septimius Geta, the three Augusti, and of Julia Augusta ; 13 

1 C.I.L. III, 138. 

2 Ibid. Ill, 1697. Interpretation of the initials S.M.D. as given in note of 
ibid. I.e. a ibid. VI, 738. 

4 Ibid. VI, 2271 ; cf. Cumont, Textes et Monuments relatifs aux Mysteres de 
Mithras, II, p. 100. 

5 C.I.L. VIII, 2230. 8 c.I.L. VI, 120. " I.G.I. S. 917. 

6 Ibid. Ill, 7836. Ibid. VI, 354. 12 C.I.L. VIII, 8455. 

7 Ibid. VIII, 4197. 1 Ibid. VI, 786. M Ibid. VIII, 17829. 



EMPRESS JULIA DOMNA 301 

to the Fortune of the three August!, " for the prosperity and 
return" of the whole imperial family. 1 

To the same class belong several dedications to the Genius 2 
or Tyche, 3 of a town or troop or an individual. Besides those 
Genii already named in connection with some other divinity, 
pedestals were dedicated to the Genius of Legio III, Augusta 
Pia Vindex 4 and the Genius of Lambaesis, 4 the Genius of a 
centurion 5 and of a cohort, 6 and to the Genius of the Emperor 
and the Juno of the Empress in Arval inscriptions. 7 

Deity is ascribed to Julia Domna on comparatively few coins 
and inscriptions, and only in the most general terms. The 
conventional phrases numini maiestatique devotus and numini 
devotus 8 occur on inscriptions referring to the whole family, 
numini eius devotus, 9 rarely. The Colonia Septimia Vaga 
described itself as nomini et auspiciis divinis eorum inlustrata 
and dedicated an arch, numini Augusto eorum. 10 The Colonia 
Julia Concordia Felix at Beneventum in erecting a statue to 
the Empress described itself as devota maiestati Augg. 11 The 
domus divina 12 mentioned on many inscriptions included the 
Emperor, the Empress, their sons, Plautilla, and at times 
Plautianus. 

Of divine attributes both Providentia and Aeternitas are 
assigned to Julia, the former on coins 13 and on a single inscrip- 
tion 14 from Ephesus, the latter in the phrases AETERNITAS AVGG 
and AETERNITAS IMPERI on coins 15 with her name and portrait. 
The term Aeternitas is not always used consistently, for at one 
time the Emperor and Empress are identified with the sun and 

1 C.I.L. VI, 180. 

2 Ibid. Ill, 5935 ; VI, 220, 224-227 ; VIII, 2527-2528, 14690. 

8 C.LG. 3771, 3956. Rev. Arch. XXXV, p. 176. 

4 C.LL. VIII, 2527-2528. 6 c.I.L. Ill, 5935. 

6 Ibid. VI, 220. 7 Ibidt vi, 2086. 

8 Ibid. VI, 226, 1035 ; VIII, 1798, 2368, 2371, 4395, etc. 

9 Ibid. II, 810, 7485 ; VII, 963. 

10 Ibid. VIII, 1215, 1, 5. u Ibid. IX, 2165, 1, 11. 

12 Ibid. VI, 226, 461, 3768 ; VIII, 2671, 2230, 4322-4323, 8455, 12006-12007, 
14690, etc. 13 Cohen, IV, n. 163. 

14 C.LL. Ill, 427. is Cohen, IV, n. 137-139, etc. 



302 MARY GILMOEE WILLIAMS 

moon as emblems of eternity, 1 and at another prayer is made 
not only for the eternity of the Empire, but also for the eter- 
nity of the imperial family. 2 

There are attributed to her also certain personal qualities or 
virtues, the names of which appear on many coins struck in the 
earlier Empire, such as Pietas? Pudicitia^ and Fecunditas? 
while Concordia Aeterna 6 was represented first on coins of 
Julia Domna's family. The Empress seems to be considered 
the personification of each of these attributes, and in this as 
divine. 

On Julia Domna's coins, in a few cases, she was identified 
with some divinity. She is Forturia, with the legend FOR- 
TVNAE FELici. 7 On the coins which give her the title 
MATER AUGG, MATER SEN, M. PATR, she is, perhaps, Con- 
cordia personified, for she is represented as holding an olive 
branch and a sceptre. 8 With the legend PVDICITIA she is 
represented as Chastity "standing veiled or seated holding a 
patera." 9 With the legend MAT. AVGG., Julia Domna is rep- 
resented as Cybele drawn by four lions. 10 In the design of each 
of these coins the divinity has the features of Julia Domna. 

Coins referring to the Neocorate of Sardis and Tarsus show 
evidence that the Empress was worshipped in these cities by 
games of several kinds. In the " Chrysanthina " of Sardis she 
seems to have been honored as Ceres, in the " Choraia " of 
Tarsus, as Proserpina. In Tarsus, also, games called " Theoga- 
mia " were celebrated in honor of the marriage of Severus and 
Julia Domna. 11 

There are found on Julia Domna's coins the names and 
images of many goddesses, Ceres, 12 Cybele, 13 Diana Lucifera, 14 

1 Cohen, IV, n. 137-139, etc. 

2 C.I.a. 3956, b, 4701, b, 5973. C.I.L. II, 259. fiev. Arch. XXXV, p. 176. 

3 Cohen, IV, n. 147 f. 9 Cohen, IV. n. 164. 

* Ibid. IV, n. 164 f. 10 Ibidt iv, n . 116 ; cf. Eckhel, VII, p. 196. 

6 Ibid. IV, n. 34 f. n Krause, Neocoros, p. 79 f. 

6 Ibid. IV, p. 243. * 2 Cohen, IV. n. 11-20. 

7 Ibid. IV, n. 56. Ibid. IV, n. 33. 

8 Ibid. IV, n. 110. " Ibid. IV, n. 22, 140. 



EMPRESS JULIA DOMNA 303 

Vesta, 1 Juno under various aspects, Juno Conservatrix, Juno 
Lucina, Juno Regina, 2 Venus under different aspects, Venus 
Genetrix, Venus Felix, Venus Victrix. 3 These goddesses had 
been represented before the time of Julia Domna on coins of 
several Empresses ; most of them, however, appeared for the 
first time on coins of the Faustinas. The legends IVNO CONSER- 
VATRIX 4 and LVNA LVCIFERA, 5 with their designs, appear for 
the first on Julia Domna's coins. 

Inscriptions confirm the testimony of coins, that this Empress 
was occasionally identified with some divinity. The town coun- 
cil of Lampsacus erected a statue of her as "Julia Augusta, 
Hestia, the new Demeter," 6 the expense being met by Diony- 
sius, "priest of the Augusti and flamen of their whole house." 
At Colossae, in Phrygia, in a dedication for the " prosperity 
and victory and immortality " of Sever us and his sons she is 
named the "New Roman Hera." 7 At Aphrodisias, in Caria, 
one Ammia is called priestess of the " Goddess Julia, the new 
Demeter." 8 In three inscriptions she received divine honors 
in her own person ; on an altar dedicated to her in Arthuret, 
Britain, pro devotione numinis eius? and on a tablet dedicated 
at Vallis Veliiii, " to Julia Domna Augusta Pia Felix, Mother 
of the Emperor Antoninus Pius Felix Augustus and of the 
Camp and of the Senate and of her Country, most holy, and 
... to Victory," 10 and on an altar dedicated to Juppiter, Juno, 
Minerva, the Genius of a legion, and to Julia. 11 

From coins and inscriptions, therefore, we infer that Julia 
Domna received no unusual divine honor. All that was given 
her had been offered in larger measures to her predecessors. 
Even on coins, excepting those which deify her, the only new 
types and legends relating to worship are Juno Conservatrix 
and Luna Lucifera, and the bust of the Empress resting on the 
crescent. A slightly larger number of coins and dedications in 

1 Gohen, IV, n. 220-232. 5 Cohen, IV, n. 107. 9 C.LL. VII, 963. 

2 Ibid. IV, n. 93-99. C.I.G. 3642. w Ibid. IX, 4637. 
8 Ibid. IV, n. 184 ff. 1 Ibid. 3956, b. n Ibid. Ill, 5935. 
4 Ibid. IV, n. 92. Ibid. 2815. 



304 MARY GILMORE WILLIAMS 

honor of Juno l may indicate that the " New Roman Hera " was 
a rival to that divinity, and it is not without significance that 
the deified Julia Domna is carried on high by Juno's bird, the 
peacock. 

Coins struck in Julia Domna's honor exceed in number and 
variety those bearing the name of any other Empress. Cohen 
enumerates over three hundred and fifty varieties of them ; 
many of which no mention has been made in these studies 
were struck in different colonies of the Empire and afford 
reliable evidence that Julia's honors were confined to no one 
locality. 

Inscriptions, too, confirm the testimony of Dion Cassius 2 
that this Empress surpassed all of her predecessors in the 
amount of public honor she received. The majority of the 
more than one hundred and eighty inscriptions mentioned 
have some public significance. As each one has been cited in 
connection with the circumstance in the Empress's life which 
occasioned the dedication, it remains only to note the person 
by whom the dedications were made and their reason for mak- 
ing these offerings. Thirty-one were dedicated by civil magis- 
trates, legati, procurators, and the councillors of provincial 
towns; a few by minor officials on the occasion of their 
entrance to some magistracy which necessitated a donation to 
the state. Thirty-four were by army officers or soldiers of 
legions in different parts of the Empire, or by a legion as a 
whole, or by one of its divisions. Most of these were made by 
soldiers in some way connected with the imperial family, as the 
legion at Lambaesis, the police troops of Rome and Ostia, and 
the praetorians and equites singulares, members of the imperial 

1 Cohen, IV, pp. 107 ff. C.I.L. II, 2661 ; VIII, 906 ; III, 1070 ; C.I.G. 3956, b. 

2 The fact that the Dion Cassius lived under the powerful empresses Julia 
Domna and Julia Mamaea seems to have influenced him to record facts relating 
to the power and rank of earlier empresses, which other historians disregard ; 
e.g. The tribunician privileges of Livia and Octavia (Dion Cassius, XLIX, 38) ; 
Livia's ' Suasoria on Clemency ' (ibid. LV. 13) ; Livia at the funerals of Drusus 
and Augustus (ibid. LV, 2, 8 ; XLIX, 15 ; LVI, 47) ; Insult to Livia a violation 
of maiestas (ibid. LVII, 19, etc.) ; Livia did not enter the ' Camp,' or the sen- 
ate house, etc. (ibid. 12, 3). 



EMPRESS JULIA DOMNA 305 

guard. Thirty inscriptions are on public works or statues 
erected by towns, fifteen of them in the African provinces. 
Twenty-one inscriptions are dedications by priests, ten being 
erected on entrance to a priesthood to which it is possible the 
dedicator was nominated through the favor of the Empress or 
the imperial family ; two of this class were dedicated by the 
priestess of a colony. Seven dedications were made by private 
citizens, four by servants of the imperial family or of Plau- 
tianus, and two by corporations, not already mentioned, the 
" Sailors of the Danube," and the " Merchants and Money 
Changers of the Forum Boarum." 

Dedications by towns and by the army were more often 
made directly to the members of the imperial family, while 
other dedications were made to some divinity on their behalf. 

MARY GILMORE WILLIAMS. 

MT. HOLYOKE COLLEGE. 



American School 
of Classical Studies 
at 



AN ANCIENT FOUNTAIN IN THE AGORA AT 

CORINTH 



[PLATES VII-X] 

THE ancient fountain discovered in the excavations of 1900 
inside the Agora of Corinth, about twenty-five metres west of 
the west end of the Propylaea, and briefly noticed in the Direc- 
tor's Report of that year (Am. J. Arch. 1900, Suppl. p. 24), 
could not at that time be adequately described, inasmuch as a 
portion of it still remained unexcavated. Now that the excava- 
tion of it is completed, it deserves a full description. Not only 
on account of its peculiar structure, but also on account of its 
good preservation, it takes its place alongside of the fountain 
Pirene and the temple of Apollo as one of the most interesting 
monuments of the old city. 

It consists of two parts, the fountain proper, and a Doric 
frieze of metopes and triglyphs enclosing it ; the latter, being 
the part that first meets the eye, may properly stand first in the 
order of presentation. Its ground plan is shown in Fig. I. 1 

PLATE VII gives a view of the east side, PLATE VIII a view 
from a point above it from the south. Figure 2, drawn by Alex- 
ander Lykakes, architect of the Greek Archaeological Society, 
gives the elevation and profile of the triglyphon. The system 
consists of a long east front and a shorter south front. The 
former does not run exactly north and south, but from east of 
north to west of south, and joins the south side at an obtuse 
angle. Its line is broken, the middle portion being projected 

1 All the drawings of the fountain, unless it is otherwise stated, were made by 
Mr. Benjamin Powell, Fellow of the American School at Athens. 

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 306 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. VI (1902), No. 3. 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES VOL. VI (1902) PLATE VII 




AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES VOL. VI (1902) PLATE VIII 




AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES VOL. VI (1902) PLATE IX 




AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES VOL. VI (1902) PLATE X 




FOUNTAIN IN AGORA AT COEINTH 



307 




308 EUFUS B. RICHARDSON 

somewhat to the front. Of the northern part a good deal is 
lacking. The last block to the north has smaller dimensions 
than the rest of the system ; and being separated from the rest 
by quite an interval, leaves an opportunity for conjecture about 
the destruction and restoration of this part; 1 and where the 
system at the north end of this block takes a turn in a more 
easterly direction it consists of a plain block set on edge. 
With these exceptions the system is in an admirable state of 
preservation, even to the stucco and the paint upon it. On the 
south side, which must have been first covered up by the earth, 
the preservation of the paint is most perfect. 

Behind the triglyphon a platform was constructed on a level 
with the top of it, with an extension to the rear which made it 
reach to the soft rock, which here rises to the surface, as its 
support. On this platform now stand two bases, one round 
and the other triangular with truncated angles, extending for- 
ward over the top of the triglyphon itself nearly to its front 
edge, and apparently forming a part of the system to which the 
triglyphon formed an ornamental front. Farther south is a 
quadrangular base in alignment with the east front, but of 
course out of line with the south front which it approaches. 
Toward the north end the platform is broken away along with 
the triglyphon. North of the door to be described later the 
only part of it that remains is what was apparently held in 
position by the round base ; but it can hardly be doubtful that 
it was once continuous up to the north end. 2 

The material of the triglyphon, like that of the platform and 
the bases, is a very soft, friable, poros stone, like that which con- 
stitutes the mass of the Isthmus of Corinth. From the nature 
of the material the coping, which projected 0.09 m. to the front 

1 It is worth noting that the triglyphs of this last block have just the distances 
which fit the intercolumniation between two Doric columns that were found in 
the very last days of the work on a slender stylobate, apparently of a porch, 
about ten metres to the west, up against the temple hill. 

2 It is not unlikely that disturbances in this quarter were caused by the laying 
of the rubble foundations of a porch which extended westward from the Propy- 
laea across the fountain and somewhat farther to the west. 



310 RUFUS B. RICHARDSON 

of the band over the metopes and triglyphs, has been much 
broken away, some of it during the excavations, in spite of our 
efforts to preserve it. North of the door for a distance of about 
1.50 m. the surface of the triglyphon has been worn away to a 
depth of half a foot or so, probably by people passing over it 
when it was partially exposed. 

On its south face the triglyphon ends at a distance of 4.78 m. 
from the southeast corner, and is succeeded by one block which 
continues the upper part of the unpainted moulding of the block 
above the metopes and triglyphs, while these are lacking. Then 
succeeds a course of plain stone, in the top of which another 
course now partially lacking was bedded. In this upper course, 
so far as it is preserved, is a continuous bedding for something 
else, presumably a statue base or bases. Next follows a square 
base, then a plain unfluted column, its lower part consisting of 
a round base without moulding. These are all of the same 
material as the bases along the east front. With the column 
the system comes to an end ; but the line is taken up and con- 
tinued much farther to the west by a series of quadrangular 
bases of evidently later date, and in no organic connection with 
the fountain fagade. 

In the triglyphon (see PLATE IX, from a reproduction by 
A. Lykakes) the colors are distributed according to the usual 
laws of ornamentation of Doric temples. These colors are 
red, blue, and yellow. The triglyphs are blue, and the metopes 
red; the low band at the top of each of the metopes is blue, 
to separate the red field of the metopes from the continuous 
red band above. On these parts the color is practically oblit- 
erated; but that of the moulded band at the top, being longer 
protected from the influence of the weather by the coping, 
was at the time of the uncovering distinct in every detail. 
On the two narrow mouldings below, the arrangement of the 
red and the blue godroons is exactly that which appears in 
Fenger, Dorische Polychromie, Tafel 7, which includes the 
Parthenon, the Theseum, and the Propylaea of Athens, the two 
temples at Rhamnus, the temple of Sunium, and the Hera 



FOUNTAIN IN AGORA AT CORINTH 311 

temple at Selinus. On the lower of these two mouldings, 
which is concave, the blue godroons are under red ones in 
the upper band, which is plain but projects forward at the 
bottom. On the broader top moulding the double maeander 
of yellow deploys itself in a blue field around red squares 
with smaller squares of blue and yellow included in them. 
Little squares of red are inserted at the crossings of the lines 
of the two maeanders. 

When this system was intact, colored with exquisite taste, 
and appropriate to a series of statues, it must have been 
very beautiful. But after all it was but a frame for some- 
thing else. 

Through a break in the eastern fagade of the triglyphon there 
is an approach by a flight of seven steps to a room trapezoidal 
in shape, the floor of which is about 2 m. below the top step. 
(See Fig. 3, for the ground plan, and PLATE X, for the elevation 
and perspective.) The steps descend along the north wall of 
the room. The west wall of the room serves as a support for the 
edge of a stratum of conglomerate rock similar to that which 
appears in Pirene * supported by cross walls. But it also serves 
as a fountain fagade. Two lions' heads of bronze are affixed to 
it, through which water once flowed. Along this fagade and 
the sides adjacent to it is a raised band about 0.15 m. higher 
than the rest of the stone floor of the room. In this is cut a 
groove for carrying off the water, at an interval of 0.31 m. from 
the wall. Along the fagade it is only 0.12 m. broad, but along 
the adjacent sides of the room it has a breadth of 0.30 m. 
Where the groove passes under the lions' heads, semicircular 
cuttings are made at the sides of the groove to complete a cir- 
cular hollow for holding the pitchers while they were filling. 
The gutters along the side walls pass to the front underneath 
the wall which closes the room to the front. The space back 
of the fagade wall is approachable through two openings. 
Here one can trace back under the conglomerate stratum for 
nearly thirty feet the semicylindrical open grooves lined with 
1 Am. J. Arch. IV (1900), p. 208. 



312 EUFUS B. R1CHAEDSON 

bronze, through which the water was conducted to the lions' 
heads. Figure 3 will make clear this arrangement. 1 

It is obvious that there must have been a time when the foun- 
tain was once open to approach at this lower level, and that the 
surplus water flowed off on the surface. The massive irregu- 
larly built wall, which runs obliquely across the once square 
floor, was clearly built at some later time as a support for the 
triglyphon, which here had to cross a void, while north of the 
door it rested on beaten earth and the ledge. Excavation in 
front of the wall revealed the floor continuing forward a little 
way, but being then irregularly broken at the front edge. 
There can be no doubt that it once continued about a metre and 
a half farther, to the edge of the reservoir (see Plan, Fig. 1), 
which itself probably had a discharge pipe by means of which 
the water could be used farther down, or simply conducted off. 
The reservoir is 1.00 m. deep and 1.00 m. broad. Its length it 
is impossible to determine, as at a distance of about 2.50 m. from 
its north end it runs under a line of bases which we did not 
wish to disturb. Its walls are composed of single blocks of 
poros placed on their edges (orthostatae) and lined with fine 
stucco. The blocks of the west wall are lacking, but the cut- 
ting for them plainly appears in the hard white clay which we 
reached at a depth of 10 m. below the surface of to-day, and 
which we hailed with delight as virgin soil. 2 

All the space excavated in front of the front wall of the room 
had been filled in with hard earth which contained very few 
fragments of ancient objects of any kind. What became of the 
fountain when this filling was done, it is difficult to see. We 

1 Between the two lions' heads now preserved, but considerably nearer to the 
southern one, there was doubtless once another, to which a southern branch of 
the northern channel is seen to have led. The facade shows a piece of stone 
inserted here to fill the orifice once filled by the lion's head. 

2 The tall column of earth left standing near at hand, and called in modern 
Greek ndprvpa, is an eloquent " witness " to the labor which it has required to 
get down to this ancient level. The heights are as follows : from the surface 
down the top of the triglyphon, 5.50 m. ; from the top of the triglyphon down to 
the floor of the room, 3.50 m. ; from this floor down to the bottom of the reser- 
voir, 1.00 m. 



FOUNTAIN IN AGOEA AT CORINTH 



318 




FIGURE 3. ANCIENT FOUNTAIN: GROUND PLAN OF EARLIER PORTION. 



314 EUFUS B. RICHARDSON 

have discovered no provision for conducting off the water under 
this eight feet of earth ; and yet the flight of steps shows that 
pains were taken to make the fountain still accessible after the 
level was raised. Any occasion for discarding or changing the 
fountain can be discovered only approximately. On the floor, 
besides the five irregularly placed supports for the top, there 
are traces of beddings for two other supports in a line parallel 
to the fagade with the lions' heads. A third, if it existed, would 
now be covered by the oblique wall ; but it is almost demanded, 
to make a symmetrical arrangement. It is not improbable that 
the conglomerate stratum here once extended farther to the 
front, as it does a little farther to the north ; and that the 
side walls with these three pillars formed a facade not unlike 
that of Glauce, l only with smaller proportions. The projecting 
stratum may have fallen in by its own weight assisted by an 
earthquake. In fact the very jagged edge of the part now 
remaining lends some color to this hypothesis. 2 The remodel- 
ling thus demanded brought with it perhaps not merely the 
providing a new covering, but the irregularly placed pillars and 
the front wall to support it. So much being done, an approach 
to the fountain would have to be made over the wall ; and to 
save the labor of mounting, one may have conceived the idea 
of filling up in front, a procedure all the more rational if, as one 
may suppose, a good deal of earth had already begun to accu- 
mulate around the front of the fountain from the higher slopes 
back of it. And then came the triglyphon to keep the whole 
system from being hidden in the earth, and to hide the shape- 
less ledge by its extensions to the north and to the west. 

We may now discuss the date of the two adjustments ; 
and here lies one chief interest of the fountain. In the brief 
report, already alluded to, I spoke of the triglyphon as having 
been put together, at the time of the Roman rebuilding of Cor- 

l Am. Jour. Arch. IV (1900), p. 463. 

2 The ledge made a very low ceiling for the room, 1.45 m. above the floor. 
The women must have been obliged to bend over a good deal in filling their 
pitchers. Visitors who now stoop down to inspect the lions' heads are apt on 
rising to hit their heads against the ledge. 



FOUNTAIN IN AGORA AT CORINTH 315 

inth, from ancient Greek buildings then lying in ruins. I am 
now convinced that it is much older, and that the blocks of 
which it is composed were made for this very use and none 
other. My former assumption that the Doric triglyphon was 
used only in the entablature of buildings must give way before 
certain considerations, even if they lead us to a unicum in 
architecture. 

The general impression produced on one at first glance, that 
he stands before a Greek structure, needs some tangible evidence 
before it can become hardened into a conviction. My convic- 
tion rests upon the following pieces of evidence : 

(1) Although the metopes and triglyphs and the first con- 
tinuous band above them look as if they might well have come 
from some temple, yet since the latter is simply the lowest 
moulding on a block that contains not only the broad moulding 
with the maeander pattern but also the coping, this whole top 
part could not by any possibility have come from a temple or 
any similar building. 

(2) The maeander runs consecutively across the joints, 
which are carefully made, and so must have been painted on 
the blocks when they were in their present position. It is in the 
highest degree improbable that this example of the best archi- 
tectural polychromy should have been painted in the Roman 
city where, as far as we can now discover, the fine old traditions 
of Doric polychromy were discarded. It points rather, as is 
shown by the examples cited on p. 310, to the fifth century B.C. 

(3) The structure of the southeast corner alone excludes the 
idea of borrowing from other buildings. Here in spite of the 
base of later times which has been set into the system, enough 
of the corner is still seen to show that it is made of a single 
block with two contiguous triglyphs, one on each face. And 
this block was cut to fit the obtuse angle. One can hardly sup- 
pose that any other building existed in this neighborhood, with 
an obtuse angle at one of its corners ! 

(4) At one part of the east front, where the top block has 
been broken away, two of the triglyph blocks are seen to be 



316 BUFUS B. RICHARDSON 

held together by a clamp of the form H, a form which is rarely 
used in Greece after the Persian War, and never after the fifth 
century B.C. 1 

(5) On the top of the triglyphon along the south front, as 
was said before, there is a continuous cutting for bedding 
another course, and in this course, where it is preserved, is 
another cutting apparently for bedding statue-bases. In the 
latter was found a base of black marble bearing the inscription 
AYSIPPOS EP.2 

If any inference at all can be drawn from this base, it makes 
the triglyphon at least as old as the fourth century B.C. 

(6) The difference between the connected system of bases 
marked on the plan as Greek, all made of soft poros stone, and 
all adjusted to the lines of the triglyphon, and the other bases 
to the east and west of the system, is so striking that one would 
have to use violence to bring them all into the same epoch. 
The obvious conclusion is that the system is Greek and that 
the adjacent bases are Roman. 

(7) The massive base roughly let into the southeast corner 
of the triglyphon, destroying a part of it and hiding a much 
larger part, is simply the most westerly of a series of four bases 
rising to the same level. This complete disregard, almost con- 
tempt, of the triglyphon could not have been exhibited by the 
new settlers if they had already taken the pains to put it to- 
gether. The inference is that the Romans placed the base, but 
found the triglyphon already existing and probably pretty well 
covered with earth. 

1 It is true that the clamp is made of lead only, without iron, which might 
suggest that we have here a trace of refitting, in which an old dowel hole was 
filled by simply pouring lead into it as a makeshift. But lead was perfectly 
adequate to meet any strain that might come upon this joint. 

2 It is true that the base was found lying bottom side upward in the cutting, 
and does not fill the whole cutting, but leaves a gap of 0.03 m. on each side ; but 
as a thick layer of lead was found covering the bottom of the cutting, it seems 
likely that the base was really bedded there. Another poros base was found 
about 8 m. farther west at a much higher level, built into a wall, bearing the 
inscription AY^IPPO^ EPOH^E. It seems clear from this that the great 
artist of the neighboring city found occupation here. 



FOUNTAIN IN AGOEA AT CORINTH 



317 



We have in a measure arrived at clearness in regard to three 
different levels in this quarter : a Byzantine level marked by a 
pavement of rather poor white marble, with some plaques 
which appear to be limestone, passing about a metre over the 
top of the triglyphon ; a Roman level flush with the top of it ; 
and a Greek level even with the bottom of it. This last rises 
in the rear of the fountain so rapidly that it there coincides 
with the Roman level a few paces to the west ; 1 and all three 




FIGURE 4. LIMESTONE PLAQUE IN FRONT OF SOUTH FACE OF TRIGLYPHON. 

levels coincide at the end of the excavation area of 1901, which 
is bounded by a line passing along the east end of the church 
of St. John Theologos and cutting the temple of Apollo a little 

1 Fig. 4 shows a large limestone plaque ascending along the south face of 
the triglyphon. Another similar plaque which was joined to it to the east was 
removed before we saw the significance of it. The two plaques formed part of 
a pavement, probably a street, the ascending line of which is marked by the 
working of the bases along the line. Under the plaque that was removed we 
found a silver Corinthian didrachma, apparently of the fifth century B.C., a cor- 
roboration, if one were needed, that the pavement is Greek. 



318 RUFUS B. RICHARDSON 

to the west of the middle. The gradual approach of the Byzan- 
tine and the Roman levels may be seen in the high bank bor- 
dering the excavation area on the south. That the levelling-up 
in front of the front wall of the fountain chamber was done in 
Greek times, and not later, is shown by the character of the 
filling in front of the wall which closes the fountain room at 
the front. A few centimetres below the bottom of the tri- 
glyphon, just around the southeast corner, was found the handle 
of a vase with I^YKAI^ scratched upon it in letters of rather 
archaic appearance, especially the slanting epsilons. Another 
vase fragment found along the east front at a slightly lower 
level a piece of a red-figured cylix showing a discobolus in 
the act of hurling his discus cannot be later than the fourth 
century, and is probably earlier. These indications that the 
filling dates from Greek times are not confronted by any rebut- 
tal in the other scanty finds therein. 

That the Roman level was at the top of the triglyphon is 
shown by the level of the line of bases coming toward it from 
the east, the last one of which is cut into it. But this proof 
receives two interesting corroborations : first, in the fact that 
the triglyphon is so worn away at the top, especially at the 
north of the door, and, secondly, in the fact that the triangular 
base with truncated ends protruded in Roman times above the 
earth so much that some one found an occasion to cut in it the 
Latin letters NER. 

If now, waiving any argument from the h -formed clamp as 
to an earlier date, we stand upon the proofs that the triglyphon 
was as early as the times of Lysippus, the much greater depth 
of the facade with the lions' heads seems to imply a much 
earlier date. One can hardly think of the interval between the 
two which had brought about such a change of level as less 
than a century ; and this would put the fountain itself back 
well into the fifth century B.C. It probably does go back to the 
very beginning of that century, and perhaps into the beginning 
of the sixth. Professor Furtwangler, in a casual view of the 
lions' heads, judged them from their style to belong to the 



FOUNTAIN IN AGORA AT CORINTH 



319 



beginning of the fifth century or the end of the sixth. They 
are somewhat corroded and battered, and it has been difficult 
to procure good photographs of them from the original, owing 
to the defective light. But that given in Fig. 5, taken from a 
cast, conveys some idea of their rather archaic style, which 
enables us, without striving to find an ancient date for them, 
still to regard them, and with them the whole fountain, as a 
monument of the times before the Persian War. 1 

It is a wonderful chance that has preserved this ancient 
Greek fountain intact down to our day. It is, be it remem- 
bered, the only case of the 
kind. Pirene has been Ro- 
manized ; Glauce has been 
destroyed; and one fate or 
the other has overtaken all 
other Greek fountains. It is 
difficult to explain how this 
came to be spared. Even 
the building up of the tri- 
glyphon around it seems to 
imply a practical abandon- 
ment of it in Greek times, 
inasmuch as it seems impos- 
sible for the water to have 
found an outflow when the 
level around the fountain was raised; yet it was somehow 
spared. 2 During the period of a hundred years, when the city 

1 They appear to vary more from each other than they really do, from the 
fact that one is thrust much farther into the wall than the other. The main 
difference is that one has larger eyes than the other. The size of both is about 
the same, if we take the distance from the roots of the mane to the tip of the 
lower jaw as a criterion. This measures in both 0.15 in. 

2 The lowest stone of the wall which crosses the northern channel of the floor 
of the fountain room does not quite prevent the escape of water ; the southern 
one we have not been able to investigate. It is interesting to note that the 
accumulation of a lime deposit on the wall under the lions' mouths indicates 
that at some time the water ceased to come out with force, and only trickled 
down. 




FIGURE 5. LION'S HEAD FROM THE 
ANCIENT FOUNTAIN. 



320 RUFUS B. EICIIAEDSON 

is said to have lain waste, the earth would naturally accumu- 
late as high as the top of the triglyphon. But when the 
Romans rebuilt the city and placed the bases before men- 
tioned, it seems incredible that they should not have found 
the opening into the lower level. Apparently it was the 
feet of that generation that wore away so much of the top of 
the coping near the door. The slightest inquisitiveness would 
have led them to find the staircase. We found it closed by 
a row of poros blocks about 0.15 m. thick, laid across the 
whole opening and level with the top step. A natural explana- 
tion of their presence is that the Romans placed them there to 
stop up the hole ; and if they did so, it is a wonder that they 
let the lions' heads remain in the darkness of midnight rather 
than transport them to the Roman market or apply them to 
some new fountain. They were surely worth cutting out ; but 
they remain. 

When the later plunderers, barbarians of whatever race they 
might be, and when the Byzantines of the generation that 
thought to improve the Roman facade of Pirene, came upon 
the stage, this fountain was already deep under ground and 
safe from everybody except the modern archaeologist. 

RUFUS B. RICHARDSON. 

ATHENS, 
June 11, 1901. 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES VOL. VI (1902) PLATE XI 




PIRENE IN 1901 : GROUND PLAN OF QUADRANGULAR BASIN 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES VOL. VI (1902) PLATE XII 




American School 
of Classical Studies 
at 



THE TIIAIOPOS KPHNH OF PIRENE 



[PLATES XI, XII] 



THE following article is intended as a supplement to the two 
which appeared in this Journal in 1900, Vol. IV, pp. 20 ff., 
and is evoked by the fact that in the spring of 1901 further 
excavations were made in the quadrangle in front of the facade 
of Pirene. 

At the time of the publication of the above-mentioned articles 
there was a round basin in the middle of the quadrangle. But 
it had always appeared unlikely that this was the basin referred 
to by Pausanias as an open-air basin into which the water 
flowed. Water could hardly be said to flow into it, inasmuch as 
it was simply a depression about 1 m. deep in a mass of solid 
masonry covered with a marble floor. Water did somehow 
find its way into it through an irregular break in the bottom of 
the surrounding masonry, as well as through a gutter cut in 
the floor. But still it remained doubtful whether Pausanias 
would apply the word flow (/Set) to such an oozing through as 
this. The straight gutter which appeared near the western 
edge of the basin and passed right through it, seemed to belong 
not to it, but to some previous arrangement. It was this 
gutter, then, which led us to break up the pavement around 
the round basin, in the hope of finding an older quadrangular 
basin. 

We began in front of the Byzantine columns, and immedi- 
ately found the same sort of a gutter running at right angles 
to the other one, close to a wall running east and west, about 
1 m. high, and faced with marble. Proceeding westward along 

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 321- 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. VI (1902), No. 3. 



322 KITUS B. RICHARDSON 

this face, we soon found the southwest corner where the gutter 
made its rectangular turn. At this point we had proof enough 
of the existence of the rectangular basin. But we proceeded to 
draw out all the filling between the walls of the square basin 
and the round basin, a process by which, of course, the latter 
disappeared. It was a most laborious process ; the filling was 
composed of architectural pieces, among which were many frag- 
ments of Doric columns, bonded by a cement much harder and 
tougher than the blocks of stone. The mass gave way only 
under the constant application of dynamite. 

The form of the basin which came out is shown on the new 
plan drawn by Mr. B. Powell (PLATE XI). 1 The accompa- 
nying scale (in metres) makes it unnecessary to give many 
measurements in figures. PLATE XII supplements the plan. 

At the southern end water was discharged into this basin 
through two round holes near the top, placed symmetrically in 
front of the middle of each of the two middle chambers of 
Pirene. The water, in passing from these chambers into the 
basin, traverses another very shallow and rather narrow basin 
stretched out in front of these two chambers. The two holes 
are pierced in the thin wall which separates the two basins. 
The outflow was through an orifice at the bottom of the basin, 
on the north side near the northeast corner. The gutter which 
runs all around the basin is broken at this point by a side branch 
which runs into the orifice. 2 The flow was no doubt into the 
broad and deep conduit running east and west about 2 m. north 
of the basin, and partly excavated in 1898. We have, then, a 
complete and intelligible system of supply and discharge. 

1 This plan has made some slight corrections of the old one, Am. J. Arch. IV 
(1000), p. 228, notably at the west end of the system of chambers. It is also 
made to include a little of the court of a Koman building north of Pirene. 

2 On either side of the side branch, and running across the main line, were 
two moulded marble blocks with the moulded sides turned outward (see PLATE 
XII). These probably belonged to the discharge system of the round basin. 
Traces were found of a roughly cut gutter, partly in the marble floor and partly 
in the filling above it, which ran from below a rude hole, between the two 
already mentioned, in the front wall of the shallow basin through the round 
basin to this orifice. 



THE THAiePOS KPHNH OF PIEENE 323 

The basin is floored with marble, with the exception of the 
blocks in which the gutter was cut, which are of white lime- 
stone. The sides also had marble coating ; and since the floor 
of the quadrangle, the fagade of Pirene, and the walls of the 
apex were all covered with marble, the Avhole quadrangle was 
one marble magnificence suited to please even Herodes Atticus, 
to whom it quite probably owed its existence. 1 A flight of 
four marble-covered steps led down from the quadrangle into 
the basin on its north side. 

The most striking feature of the basin is its lack of sym- 
metry in itself and in its location in the quadrangle. For 
example, its breadth at the north end is 0.50 m. greater than 
at the south end, and the length of the west side exceeds 
that of the east side by nearly as much. The flight of steps, 
too, comes nearer the east side than the west side by 0.30 m. 
These seem tokens of an intended asymmetry. The basin is 
not square with the fountain fagade, as one would expect it to 
be. The only side of it which is practically parallel to the side 
of the quadrangle next to it is the east side. It was just this 
side which gave such a lack of symmetry to the quadrangle 
itself (Am. J. Arch. IV [1900], p. 229). 2 

The question might still be raised whether this is the basin 
referred to by Pausanias, inasmuch as we have another basin, 
already mentioned, running along the fagade. This question 
can hardly be answered without first settling a preliminary 
question, viz., whether this sunken square with which we are 
dealing was really a tank, intended to be filled with water. 

Two considerations seem to indicate that it was not filled. 
In the first place, the floor, especially along the gutter at the 
foot of the steps, is much worn away as if by feet ; secondly, 
the same wearing appears under the holes through which water 
flowed into it. These two considerations, however, would only 

1 Am. J. Arch. IV (1900), p. 236. 

2 The round basin also, curiously enough, was not symmetrically placed in 
the square one ; its centre was so much to west of the axis of the latter that the 
eastern gutter did not appear at all before the round basin was broken up. 



324 RUFUS B. EICHARDSON 

show that it was sometimes empty, and would fall short of 
proving that it was never filled. 

It was always easy to fill it by stopping up the orifice in the 
northeast corner; and if it were not meant to be filled, why 
should it exist ? It would seen more rational in that case to 
have the whole quadrangle at the lower level, to facilitate the 
movement of the crowds. Is it not more likely that it was 
sometimes filled and sometimes empty ? 

Now if this was the case, the basin seems to meet in a rather 
striking way the requirements of the description of Pausanias, 
who says : " The water flows out of the covered chambers into 
an open-air basin. It is pleasant to drink ; and they say that 
the Corinthian bronze, when it is red hot, is dipped in this 
water." l Pausanias is clearly speaking of two uses of the 
water after it flowed into the basin. 

It may seem a little difficult to reconcile these two uses. 
One would naturally prefer to have the blacksmith's work done 
in a different tank from that out of which one gets his drink- 
ing water. To reconcile the contradiction, it is here put forth 
as a hypothesis which may not seem unreasonable, that the tank 
was filled when the water was used for dipping bronze, and that 
it was emptied when it was not so needed, that the pitchers 
might be brought to the spouts and be filled. There might be 
some difficulty in adjusting the hours. But if the Corinthians 
really found that this water had an almost marvellous property 
which gave ordinary bronze, when dipped in it, a quality which 
stamped it throughout the world as Corinthian bronze, the 
women might well be given to understand that at certain times 
they must go elsewhere to fill their pitchers. The chambers, 
near at hand, were in all probability in their original use reser- 
voirs out of which water was drawn, and must always have 
been available for that purpose. Even if Pausanias was en- 
tirely wrong about the property of the water, he must have 
seen a body of water in which dipping would be possible. The 



1 Paus. II, 3, 3 : & $>v rb vdup ^s Kp^vrjv vtraidpov pe?, iritiv re ^Stf, Kal rb 
Koplvdiov x a ^ K ^ v Sidirvpov Kal depftbv 6vra vwb vdaros TOI/TOU a 



THE TIIAiePOS KPHNH OF PIRENE 325 

use of the upper, shallow tank for this purpose, while pitchers 
were being filled at the spouts issuing from it, is not likely to 
occur to anybody. 

On the east and west walls of the tank in the marble facing, 
near the top, are two pairs of round holes, one about 0.15 m. 
above the other, of the same size as those in the south wall. 
Those on the east wall are 1.45 m., and those on the west wall 
2.08 m. distant from the south end of the basin. I incline to 
regard the bottom holes as overflow apertures, introduced that 
the water might not rise over the level of the delivery pipes or 
overflow the floor of the quadrangle when the orifice in the 
northeast corner was stopped up. The top holes, being at the 
same level as the other delivery openings, were probably also 
made for the same purpose, although there are no traces of 
pipes near them which could have served to bring or carry off 
water. 1 

That the quadrangular basin is Roman, and not Byzantine, 
is sufficiently attested by the recurrence of the semicylindrical 
gutter cut in blocks of the same white limestone which we have 
both in the pavement of the street leading out of the Agora 
toward Lechaeum and in a court of Roman times just north of 
Pirene, which appears on our plan (PLATE XI). 

The round basin, however, probably dates from Byzantine 
times. Possibly a round form was thought to harmonize better 
with the semicircular apses on three sides of it. 

In conclusion, this is the fitting place to note that the stucco 
of very fine grain which covers the lower part of the side walls 
of the chambers of Pirene has considerable paint preserved 
upon it. The surface is painted blue; but about halfway 
between the top and bottom a stripe of red 0.04 m. broad runs 

1 It is possible that the shallow basin once extended along the whole front 
of Pirene, and that pipes did carry water from its eastern and western parts 
to these upper holes. At present only two small shallow basins are seen at 
the west end in the floor of the diminutive Byzantine church which occupied 
the southwest corner of the quadrangle. Investigation near the east end of the 
facade is made difficult by the present arrangement for conducting water to the 
village square. 



326 EUFUS B. EICHAEDSON 

along the sides. In the corners another red stripe runs up and 
down. 

One also sees at just the level of the top of the front parapet 
a raised band along the side walls, made by the accretion de- 
posited by the water upon the stucco. By the slight variations 
in the height of the water, the band, which is about 0.03 m. in 
width, is divided into six or seven little bands. 

RUFUS B. RICHARDSON. 

ATHENS, 
June 27, 1901. 



American Sctjool 
of Classical Studies 
at 



THE ORIGIN OF THE RED-FIGURED TECHNIQUE 
IN ATTIC VASES 1 



THE Museum of Palermo possesses a cylix of peculiar value 
aside from the fact that it bears the signature of Andocides ; for 
among all the Greek vases which have as yet been found, it is 
unique in this respect, that it combines the black-figured with the 
red-figured technique on the outside of the same cylix, whereas it is 
usual among cylixes that show the mixed technique to have the in- 
terior in the black- and the exterior in the red-figured technique. 2 

1 I wish to acknowledge my indebtedness to Dr. Hoppin, Lecturer on Vases at 
the American School at Athens in 1897-98, for kind assistance. 

2 The first list of cylixes which show both techniques was made by Otto von 
Jahn (Vasensammlung zu Munich, 1854, Einleitung, Anm. 1186). Afterward 
this list was greatly increased by Klein (Euphronios 2 , p. 291). The following 
list adds five cylixes to those mentioned in Klein's list. All references to Klein 
are to the list as given in his Euphronios 2 ; pp. 291 ff., unless otherwise specified. 
I indicates the inside ; A and B the designs on the outside. 

CYLIXES WHICH HAVE THE MIXED TECHNIQUE WITH 
A. Interior black-figured and exterior red-figured. [Except No. 21, eye-cylixes.] 

1. Brit. Mus. E 3. Klein, No. 8. Hischylos and Epiktetos. 

I. Youth mounted. 

A. Silenus. B. A Silenus similar to A. 

2. Brit. Mus. E 4. Klein, No. 3. Typheidides. 

I. Doe. 6 TTCUS /caX6s. 

A and B. Anthemion design between the eyes. 

3. Munich 1021. Klein, No. 20. Memnon vase. 

I. Bearded satyr running. ME ME MNON KaA.O. 
A. Mule. B. Nose. 

4. Munich 1023. Klein, No. 15. 

I. Youth wreathed and wearing a chlainys. 
A. Wounded man crouching. B. Stag. 

5. Munich 1232. Klein, No. 5. 

I. Minotaur. 

A. Armed warrior. xaXds 6 TTCUS. 

B. Man, bearded and wreathed, with a coil of rope in left hand. 

American Journal of A rchaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 327 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. VI (1902), No. 3. 



328 MAT LOUISE NICHOLS 

It is well known that Andocides was a master of both styles 
and that he was fond of combining them, especially on vases 

6. Munich 1240. Klein, No. 19. 

I. Bearded satyr with wine-skin. 
A. Armed youth. B. Nose. 

7. Munich 111. Klein, No. 9. Memnon vase. 

I. Mounted youth. 

A. A youth. M N K A . B. Nose. 

8. Paris, Cabinet des me'dailles. Klein, No. 18. Chelis. 

I. Satyr with rhyton. 

A. Youth with staff. B. Conventionalized plant. 

9. Wiirzburg III, 358. Klein, No. 10. Epiktetos and Nikosthenes. 

I. Youth with skyphos. 
A. Satyr. B. Horse. 

10. Louvre. Klein, No. 17. Nikosthenes. 

I. Bearded man. . . KO^OEN E EPOI . . 
A. Youth. B. Ram. 

11. Orvieto, Sainmlung Faina. Klein, No. 2. Hischylos and Epik- 

tetos. 
I. Stag. 
A. Youth running. B. Wanting. 

12. Copenhagen, Miiller, Mus. Thorwaldsen 93. Klein, No. 4. 

I. Doe. 

A and B. Nose. 

13. ? Klein, No. 6. Pamphaios. 

I. Armed warrior. 

A. Minotaur. B. Vase with high foot. 

14. Cat. Campana, Ser. VI-VII, 113. Klein, No. 7. 

I. Archer. 

A and B. A discobolus. 

15. Rome, Museo Gregoriano. Klein, No. 11. Pamphaios (?). 

I. A youth. 6 TTCUS Ka\6s. 

A. A youth with staff. B. A youth stooping. 

16. Petersburg, Sammlung der Akademie. Klein, No. 12. Hischylos and 

Epiktetos. 
I. Youth. 
A. Bearded man. B. Mule. 

17. Copenhagen, Mus. Thorwaldsen 92. Klein, No. 13. 

I. Youth with drinking-horn in each hand. 

A. A youth with two staves. B. A warrior stooping. 

18. Bull delV Inst. 1881, p. 246. Klein, No. 14. 

I. A youth running. 

A. Youth crowned, with taenia. B. Youth extending left hand. 

19. Wiirzburg III, 357. Klein, No. 16. Hischylos. 

I. Youth with chlamys. 

A. Man raising helmet from the ground. 6 7ra(?)5 /ra\6s. 

B. Youth with discus in his hand. /caXds 6 ?ra(t)s. 



OEIGIN OF THE RED-FIGURED TECHNIQUE 329 

of his favorite shape, the amphora ; 1 but unlike most vase- 
painters who had both styles at their command, he seems to 

20. Coll. N. Desverger 102. Klein, No.- 21. Memnon vase. 

I. Poseidon with trident and fish. 
A and B. A stork. 

21. Cat. Campana, Ser. VI-VII, 625. Klein, No. 22. 

I. Poseidon with trident. 

A. Herakles and Nemean lion. 

B. One Silenus holding a horse by his tail while a second places a 

wine-skin upon the horse. 

22. ? Klein, No. 1. Hischylos. 

I. A stag. 

A. A youth with leaping-weights. 

B. An object resembling a stump. 

23. [Klein, Die griechischen Vasen mit Lieblingsinschrifteri 2 , p. 55, No. 5.] 

Memnon vase. 
I. Warrior running. 
A. Discobolus. B. A youth (partly broken). 

24. Rome, Kunsthandel (Luchetti). [Klein, op. cit. p. 55, No. 6.] Mem- 

non vase. 
I. A warrior. 

25. Brit. Mus. [Klein, op. cit. p. 54, No. 2.] Memnon vase. 

I. Armed slinger. 
A. Mule. B. Leaf. 

B. Interior red-figured and exterior black-figured. 

1. Palermo, Nat. Mus. [Hartwig, Meisterschalen, p. 88.] 

I. A Silenus. aX6s /cos, which is restored /ca\6s 'EiriXvKos. 

A and B. A flying Nike. 

2. Louvre. Klein, p. 296. Epilykos. 

I. A youth balancing a huge amphora. 
A. Herakles. B. Cycnus (?). 

3. Bull. 1879, p. 154, "aus Suessela." Klein, p. 296. 

I. In fully developed red-figured technique. A and B. The exte- 
rior has a Silenus under each handle. 

C. Exterior partly Uack-figured and partly red-figured. No interior decoration. 

1. Palermo. Andocides cylix. Klein, p. 296. 

[Described fully below, in the text, pp. 330-332.] 

D. Interior partly black-figured and partly red-figured. Exterior red-figured. 

1. Brit. Mus. E 2. 

I. Within a thin red circle, a youth in red-figured technique, 
wreathed and wearing a chlamys. Around this circle, in 
black-figured technique, a frieze of four galleys sailing to the 
left on waves. 

A. Two youths. B. Two youths. 

1 Hoppin, Euthymides, p. 15. The first list of amphorae that show the mixed 
technique was made by Otto von Jahn (Vasensammlung zu Munich, Einleitung, 



330 MAY LOUISE NICHOLS 

have been as fond of one as of the other, so that in his work 
the black-figured is not, as in other cases, made subordinate 
to the newer style. 1 In view of this fact, it need not seem 
strange that Andocides, who was a vase-painter possessed of 
some originality in his ideas, should have devised this means 
of giving each style equal prominence on this cylix. 

This vase was found in Chiusi and was first published by 
Braun in 1838, and again by Schneider in 1889. 2 It is an eye- 
cylix of considerable size and depth, with a high foot, from 
which extends a circle of alternate red and black rays ; one pair 
of eyes is black on a red ground; the other, red on black. 
Between the eyes on the black-figured side is a group, and 
between those on the red-figured side is a single figure ; at each 
handle is a group of three figures, partly red-figured, partly 
black, the dividing line coming in the centre of the handle, so 
that each technique finds illustration on exactly one-half the 

Anm. 494). Afterwards this list was increased by Klein (Euphronios*, p. 36), 
and later by Schneider (Jb. d. Arch. Inst. 1889, p. 196, note 15), whose list is as 
follows : 

A. Andokides vase, s.f . dionysisch. r.f. Artemis, Apollon, Leto, Ares. Klein e. 

B. Miinchen373. s.f. Heraklesabenteuer. r.f. dionysisch. HIPOKPATE^ 

KAIO*. Klein a. 

C. Brit. Mus. 608. s.f. losende Helden. r.f. Heraklesabenteuer. Klein g. 
P. Miinchen 388. s.f. Heraklesabenteuer. r.f. dionysisch. Klein c. 

[Furtwangler assigns this vase to Andocides. See Furtwangler und 
Reichhold, Grriechischen Vasenmalerei, I, p. 15.] 

E. Miinchen 375. s.f. losende Helden. r.f. dionysisch. Klein b. 

F. Bourguignon. s.f. losende Helden. r.f. losende Helden. 

G. Bologna Mus. Civ. s.f. Heraklesabenteuer. r.f. dionysisch. Brizio S. 44. 
H. Louvre, s.f. dionysisch. r.f. Heraklesabenteuer. Klein f. 
I. Louvre, s.f. Brautzug. r.f. Cheiron, Achill. 

K. ? s.f. Herakles mit dem Stier. r.f. dasselbe. Klein d. 

[This vase is now in the Boston Art Museum. For the subject, see 
Cecil Smith, The Forman Collection, Cat. of Sale, London, 1899, 
No. 305, with plate, and E. Robinson, Twenty-fourth Annual Report 
of the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston for 1899, p. 81, No. 36. Also, 
for a different interpretation of the vase, see Furtwangler und Reichhold, 
op. cit. I, p. 16 and note 2.] 

L. Wurzburg, III, 51. s.f. Kainpfscene. r.f. dionysisch. Klein h. 

1 Richard Norton, 'Andocides,' Am. J. Arch , First Series, XI (1896), p. 1 ; 
but for a different view, see Furtwangler und Reichhold, op. cit. I, p. 17. 

2 Bull. d. Inst. 1838, pp. 83 ff. ; Jb. d. Arch. Inst. 1889, pi. iv. 



ORIGIN OF THE RED-FIGURED TECHNIQUE 331 

surface of the cylix. The vase shows well the characteristics 
of Andocides's style; the composition of the groups is good, the 
action rather free. The Greek love of symmetry is prominent 
here, w T hile there is sufficient variety of detail to avoid monotony. 
This may be seen in the groups at the handles, which are, in 
their general composition, the same. Yet when we study the 
figures separately we find many differences in detail. The 
subject in each is the contest of two warriors over the body of a 
wounded hero; in each group one of the combatants and the 
fallen man show the black-figured technique with a wealth of 
detail brought out by incised lines, while on chlamys, cuirass, 
and crested helm, scabbard and shield, there is applied color in 
dark red, a common feature in Andocides's vases; l but the shield 
of the fallen warrior and the entire figure of the second com- 
batant are red with details in black, or black with some red 
applied. As the fallen man is placed so that all except his left 
arm bearing the shield is in black-figured technique, while the 
shield is in the red-figured, the shield forms, whether intention- 
ally or not, a transition between the two sides of the exterior ; 
for while it is itself red on a black background, it serves as 
the background for a black-figured emblem, a tripod on one, a 
snake and balls on the other. 

The same love of symmetry which we observe in these groups, 
we notice also in the group between the eyes on the black- 
figured side of the cylix; here two Scythian bowmen face each 
other, one on either side of a tree; each holds his bow in the left 
hand and his arrow in the right ; one wears a quiver, the other 
has none; both have pointed beards; both are dressed in the 
usual Scythian costume with pointed cap and close-fitting long- 
sleeved garment reaching to the ankles; the pipings and orna- 
ments are worked in incised lines. On the other side of the 
exterior, instead of a group, we have only a single figure with 
the Scythian dress, but beardless, wearing his bow and quiver 
at his side, and holding his trumpet to his lips with both hands; 
the action of the figure is rather striking in its naturalness, and 

1 Norton, op. cit. p. 9. 



382 MAY LOUISE NICHOLS 

the drawing shows great delicacy. In dress this figure resem- 
bles the others, except that he wears no cap. 

The artist's signature, which is written retrograde and is not 
wholly preserved, appears above one of the eyes on the black- 
figured side of the cylix. 1 

This cylix shows in such a unique way the union of the two 
techniques, and, although it exhibits the red-figured style in a 
highly developed state, still preserves so clearly a reminiscence 
of the older style in the use of extra color in places and in the 
use of incised lines, that it suggests with peculiar force the 
problem as to the origin of the red-figured technique in Attic 
vases. 

It may never be possible to find out just the year when this 
new method was introduced to the world, or the particular vase- 
painter who invented it, 2 but we may at least note some of the 
tendencies of the times which led to the conception of the idea, 
and trace some steps in the history of vase-painting and sculp- 
ture which may have suggested it to the mind of the artist. 

It has been well said 3 that the red-figured technique probably 
never had any development in the true sense of the term, but 
all at once flashed upon the mind of the artist as a fully 
developed idea. Yet an idea does not spring into being with- 
out some previous influences which have led to its birth; there 
must have been a process of growth, though perhaps unconscious, 
a period of struggle and experiment to obtain a certain effect. 
In the theories hitherto proposed as to its development, there 
has been a tendency to narrow the origin to one phase of art, and 
to pay too little attention to the interaction which must always 

1 This signature is over the eye to the left of the side that shows the black- 
figured technique, and reads thus : 

13 3 * 3 A I yloA 

(Scale is 3:1) 

2 The inventor of the red-figured technique may have been Andocides, as 
Furtwangler suggests (Furtwangler und Reichhold, op. cit. I, p. 17), or Epicte- 
tus, as Hartwig claims (Hartwig, Griechische Meisterschalen, p. 12). 

8 Norton, op. cit. p. 35 ; Schneider, op. cit. p. 203. 



ORIGIN OF THE RED-FIGURED TECHNIQUE 333 

have existed between ceramics and sculpture; 1 this influence 
may have been somewhat unconscious, but was none the less 
potent in its results. If then we grant, as I think we must, this 
interaction between the two branches of art, we cannot seek for 
that which suggested the idea of the red-figured technique in 
either class of monuments to the exclusion of the other, nor 
can we accept any theory which does not consider all the 
methods of art expression that may have given rise to this 
technique. 

In the first place, let us consider what the tendency of Greek 
art was in the sixth century B.C., and wherein lay the advan- 
tage of the new method over the old. 

There was at this time a singularly strong tendency toward 
naturalism, and it undoubtedly had its effect on the vase- 
painters. It was also an age of experiment, of inventions, of 
steady progress toward the most effective use of color. .Now 
it is nearer to nature to represent figures light in the masses 
with only details dark, standing out boldly from a dark back- 
ground, than to represent them by a silhouette ; the best 
method of obtaining this effect w r as the goal toward which the 
vase-painters were consciously or unconsciously striving. As 
in sculpture the order of development was from low relief to 
high relief, the background being gradually cut away deeper 
and deeper, until the figures stood out boldly from the field, so 
in vase-painting we find flat, dark figures on a light ground fol- 
lowed by light figures, all the modelling of which stands out 
distinctly from a dark ground. 

On the red-figured side of the Palermo cylix we find, as I 
have said, a reminiscence of the older technique in the applica- 
tion of extra color in parts. This seems to be a trace of the 
so-called "polychrome technique," the principle of which may 
be traced back even beyond the Mycenaean period, as is clearly 
shown by certain vase-fragments found in Melos during the re- 
cent excavations there; it appears during the Mycenaean age in 

1 This connection has been treated suggestively by Brownson in an article 
published in the Am. J. Arch., First Series, VIII (1893), pp. 28-41. 



334 MAY LOUISE NICHOLS 

one class of vases and also on a grave stele ; 1 we find it in the 
early Cretan 2 and Argive vases, while those from Naucratis 3 
and a series from Rhodes 4 show a marked tendency to poly- 
chrome decoration. It becomes a marked feature in the earlier 
black-figured vases, and continues more or less prominent in 
vase-painting until it finds its highest expression in the beauti- 
ful white lecythi of Athens during the second half of the fifth 
century and later. 5 

In one series of " polychrome " vases Six 6 thinks he has found 
the true origin of the red-figured technique. It is a series of 
vases which show a dark ground with figures painted over it in 
white, reddish brown, cream-white, and occasionally some yel- 
low; in two fragments among those found on the Acropolis the 
ground is dark brown with figures in gray. He assigns the 
whole class to a school at Athens, and shows that the earlier 
ones belong to a period before the red-figured vases originated. 
Furtwangler 7 classifies them all as red-figured. It is well known 
that in many of the Attic black-figured vases the artist used 
white and red over the black of the figures to such an extent 
that sometimes this extra color almost concealed the black, and 
produced a very different effect from the monochrome black- 
figured vases; such figures were so much gayer and lighter in 
their total effect as to be of nearly the same value as the clay 
background, so that there was no contrast. 

During the later period of black-figured vases the whole vase 
was covered with a glaze except on the two small panels ; that, 
in itself, was a preparation for the next step, which was a most 
natural one, namely, to bring the black glaze up to the picture 

1 Tsountas and Manatt, Mycenaean Age, p. 395 ; Eph. Arch. 1896, pis. i and ii. 

2 Monumenti Antichi, VI, pis. ix, x. 

3 Naukratis, Egypt Explor. Fund, p. 49. 

4 J.H.S. VI (1885), p. 188, note 2. 

5 Am. J. Arch., First Series, II (1886), p. 406. 

6 Six, 'Vases Polychromes sur Fond Noir,' Gaz. Arch. 1888, pp. 193 ff. and 
281 ff. 

7 Furtwangler, Vasensammlung im Antiquarium (Berlin), Nos. 2239-2244 
and 4038 ; while he classifies them all as red-figured, he says of No. 2239 that its 
style is nearer the black- than the red-figured technique. 



ORIGIN OF THE RED-FIGURED TECHNIQUE 335 

to serve as a background for the light figures. We find a 
similar effort to express the contrast on even earlier monu- 
ments, as in the frequent recurrence on black-figured vases of a 
white emblem adorning a black shield, or in the grave stelae 
such as that of Lyseas, showing a light figure against a dark 
ground. It is here that Loeschcke 1 sees the origin of the red- 
figured technique. 

Hoppin finds the origin of the "polychrome" technique in 
the technique of certain fragments, 2 found in the excavations 
at the Heraeum, to which he has applied the term u Dorian"; 
those most striking in this connection show a cream- white design 
on a dark red ground and may well be considered the proto- 
type of the later " polychrome " fragments found on the Acro- 
polis. There is little doubt that in the seventh century the 
influence of this " Dorian technique " was spread throughout 
Greece and Asia Minor pretty widely, and it seems probable that 
it should have suggested the use of color as we find it on such 
stelae as that of Lyseas and on the Clazomenae sarcophagi ; but 
while the influence may at first have been from ceramics to 
terra-cotta and sculpture, in later times the trend of influence 
may have been in the opposite direction, so that these works 
may, in their turn, have influenced the later vase-painters. 

No treatment of this subject would be at all complete which 
did not mention Klein's theory 3 that the origin of the red- 
figured technique is to be found in the Gorgoneion on the 
inside of cylixes. The Gorgoneion surely affords a most 
striking variety of methods in the use of color; from its shape 
it lends itself easily to a round space, such as that of a shield, 
or the inside of a plate or cylix. We find it in pure black- 
figured technique on red ground, or with details picked out in 
color ; we find it in white on a black shield, or in black on a 
white shield ; in some black-figured plates and cylixes we find 

1 Athen. Mitth. IV, p. 36. 

2 These will be published by Dr. Hoppin in the forthcoming publication of 
the vases found at the Argive Heraeum. 

3 Klein, Euphronios, pp. 32 ff. 



336 MAY LOUISE NICHOLS 

the face left the color of the clay, with the details and outlines 
incised and extra color used; finally, we find it in pure red- 
figured technique with no extra color or incised lines. The 
Gorgoneion serves, then, as an excellent illustration of the 
truth of the statement that the sixth century was an age of ex- 
periment seeking for the most effective use of color ; but, so 
far as I can find, it shows nothing that has not its parallel 
elsewhere. 

One of the most interesting combinations of different tech- 
niques is found on a sarcophagus from Clazomenae in the 
museum at Berlin. 1 The decoration of the lower part is in the 
black-figured technique ; that of the upper part in a technique 
resembling the red-figured, but differing from it in having a 
preliminary white slip upon which the picture was drawn. As 
a subordinate decoration are two heads in this same technique, 
and also two outline heads. 2 This is one of the latest of the sar- 
cophagi, belonging, according to Zahn, to a period not earlier 
than the middle of the sixth century. He thinks that the 
origin of both black- and red-figured vases is to be sought in 
Clazomenae. But even if we had much clearer evidence than 
we have at present of the direct influence of Clazomenae upon 
Attic ceramic art, it would seem unnecessary to seek there what 
may be found much nearer. 

From all the examples given, it will be clearly seen that in 
the Greek art of the sixth century there was a growing ten- 
dency in terra-cottas, sculpture, and vase-painting toward the 
use of a light color for the figures and some dark color for the 
background. We have found the "polychrome" technique, 
whose origin we need no longer seek in the Orient but in the 

1 Mentioned by Dr. Zahn in a paper read by him before the German Insti- 
tute at Athens, February 16, 1898 (see Athen. Mitth. XXIII, 1898, p. 38), and 
published in the Antike Denkmaler, II, pi. 25. 

2 It has been suggested that drawing in outline may have formed an inter- 
mediate step between the black-figured and red-figured techniques. This may 
have had some influence in suggesting the red-figured technique, but since it can 
be traced back to Mycenaean influence (Joubin, B.C.H. 1895, pp. 69 ff.) and 
is found on vases of various periods and localities, it can hardly be said to have 
been the intermediate step which led to the origin of red-figured technique. 



ORIGIN OF THE RED-FIGURED TECHNIQUE 337 

old Argive pottery of the so-called " Dorian technique," preva- 
lent in vases of the period previous to those of the red-figured 
technique at Athens ; we have found a certain class of these 
which seem to have been the work of an Athenian school, show- 
ing the vase entirely covered with a dark slip and the figures 
painted over it in light colors. We have found the same rela- 
tive arrangement of color in grave stelae and terra-cotta 
sarcophagi. But that in any one of these exclusively is to be 
found the origin of the red-figured technique in vases seems a 
most inadequate theory ; rather do they all express the same 
tendency. But on the other hand, with all these works about 
him to suggest the idea consciously or unconsciously, what 
would be more natural than that some ingenious vase-painter 
should conceive the idea that it would be much simpler to paint 
around the outline of the picture in black, leaving the figures the 
color of the clay, and then fill in the background with black, 
instead of pursuing the older method ? At first not realizing 
that all the details could be brought out most richly and simply 
in black, he would cling to the old tradition of " extra color " 
for certain parts ; but gradually even that reminiscence of the 
old technique would vanish, his tools would be perfected, his 
hand become more skilled, and there would be established the 
fully developed red-figured technique in all its severe simplicity. 

MAY LOUISE NICHOLS. 



American School 
of dental Ecsearrfj 
in Palestine 



REMAINS OF A MEDIAEVAL CHRISTIAN CHURCH 

AT ZERlN 



[PLATE XIII] 

THE village of Zer'm stands upon the site of the ancient city 
of Jezreel, a favorite residence of the Israelite kings of the 
dynasty of Omri. In the fourth century of our era it was " a 
fine village." It is mentioned more than once by the crusad- 
ing historians under the name " parvum Gerinum," but hitherto 
no Christian remains have been observed there. Recently, 
however, the ruins of a church were discovered among the 
hovels of the village by Dr. G. Schumacher, who examined 
them at the instance of the Director of the School in Jerusa- 
lem, and made the following report with the accompanying 
plan (PLATE XIII) : 1 

" In March, 1902, I was informed by a native of Jenin that 
the villagers had been digging in Zer'in, and had discovered 
ancient remains in a hut on the northwest of the village not 
very far from the water cistern. On the 26th of April I pro- 
ceeded to the spot, and found the remains to be those of a 
large Christian church. A native hut is built into the apse 
and the adjoining nave ; the yard occupies the western half of 
the nave, and is closed by a door built into the old portal fac- 
ing west. The apse of the church has not been much injured; 
it has a width of about 18 ft. 7 in., with two niches in the vault, 
each measuring 3 ft. 2 in. in width and about 6 ft. in height. 
Both niches have been filled with native mud masonry. The 

1 In PLATE XIII the foundation lines of the church are in black ; additions 
of later date are indicated by the lighter shading. 

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 338 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. VI (1902), No. 3. 



AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY, SECOND SERIES VOL. VI (1902) PLATE XIII 




A MEDIAEVAL CHURCH AT ZER'IN (JEZREEL) 



A MEDIAEVAL CHURCH AT ZEB'IN 339 

main axis of the church runs nearly due east. The width of 
the nave is 24 ft. 4 in. ; the length of the whole building, from 
the exterior wall of the apse to the western face wall of the 
portal, is 87 ft. 3 in. This length has apparently at one time 
been divided into two parts by a transverse wall, traces of 
which and of pillars are still visible. The present hut extends 
to this division. The area outside (west) of this division wall 
is 40 ft. 3 in. long, and halfway to the gate there are traces of 
masonry by which the width of 24 ft. 4 in. was divided into 
three compartments. The ancient portal has a width of 7 ft. 
3 in. between the jamb stones; a bay 3 ft. 9 in. deep and about 
9 ft. 6 in. wide, with signs of an arch, leads from the portal into 
the church. The face of the entrance, the ancient portions, was 
also arched, and projects 1 ft. 5 in. beyond the actual face of the 
portal. 

" On the outside of the church is found on the north of the 
portal an ancient cistern, and on the south, in the stable of a 
villager, the stump of a column 2 ft. in diameter. Other 
prostrate shafts are found in the same neighborhood, covered 
by straw and debris. 

" The walls of the church are still standing, to the height of 
8 or 10 ft. The courses of masonry are 2 ft. to 2 ft. 2 in. in 
height ; some of the stones near the portal are 3 ft. to 3 ft. 10 in. 
long. The stones are carefully dressed, without bosses, and, to 
judge from the chisel marks, of crusading origin ; the founda- 
tions of the apse may be early Christian. The material is the 
local hard limestone of Jebel Fuku'a. 

G. SCHUMACHER." 



Institute 
of America 



"INVESTIGATIONS AT ASSOS" 1 



IT gives the Editors of this Journal great satisfaction to 
announce the appearance of Part I of Investigations at Assos. 
This publication is quite distinct from the Reports previously 
brought out ; it is of large folio size, fourteen by twenty-one 
inches, and aims to present to the eye the exact results of the 
discoveries made by the expedition to Assos. This book of 
plates has been under the editorial charge of Francis H. Bacon, 
one of the members of the expedition, who has accomplished a 
difficult task in a most praiseworthy manner. In the preface 
he informs us that the entire material of the expedition was 
left in the hands of Mr. Clarke for arrangement and publi- 
cation; owing to various hindrances, Mr. Clarke could not do 
the work, so that it ultimately devolved on the present edi- 
tor. He has had the valuable assistance of Robert Koldewey. 
Despite the lapse of years, owing to the extreme care with 
which the plans, drawings, and photographs were executed, 
we seem to be looking at the product of a very recent exca- 
vation. 

A brief history of Assos is given, largely taken from the 
previous Reports; there follows a summary of the descrip- 
tions of various travellers who have visited Assos in modern 
days, with an account of the experiences of the American 

1 Investigations at Assos : Drawings and Photographs of the Buildings and 
Objects discovered during the Excavations of 1881-1882-1883. By Joseph T. 
Clarke, Francis H. Bacon, Robert Koldewey. Edited with Explanatory Notes 
by Francis H. Bacon. Cambridge, Mass. : Archaeological Institute of America. 
London: Bernard Quaritch, and Henry Sotheran & Co. Leipzig: Karl W. 
Hiersemann. 

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 340 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. VI (1902), No. 3. 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE OF AMERICA 341 

excavators. All this, however, is but by way of preface to 
the illustrations which follow. The present Part includes the 
Agora, the Stoa, the Bouleuterion, and the Inscriptions and 
Bases from the Agora, with necessary maps, of which that 
made in Germany is not up to the standard of the book. 
Many photographs are very successfully reproduced by helio- 
types, which have all the accuracy of the camera with an 
artistic element added; smaller objects are done in half-tones. 
The part .of the book which will appeal most to archaeolo- 
gists and architects is the drawings and restorations of Messrs. 
Bacon and Koldewey, which make clear every inch of the 
ground. Mr. Bacon already enjo}^s a well-deserved reputation 
as a draughtsman ; that reputation this book will enhance. 

The Inscriptions will appear in their appropriate places. 
Those from the Agora appear in this Part. They are trans- 
lated and annotated by Professor J. R. S. Sterrett; they are 
followed by the local block of measures and the tile-standard. 

The pages are issued loose, for handy use. A portfolio to 
contain all will be delivered with the last Part. The typog- 
raphy, paper, and the various processes by which the illus- 
trations are produced are all admirable. Future Parts - 
four in number will contain the Baths and Heroon, Mosaic 
Pavements, ancient and Byzantine, Theatre, Greek Bridge and 
Roman Atrium, Temple and Sculptures, Fortification Walls 
and Gateways, Gymnasium, Mausoleums and Tombs, with the 
objects found in them, Figurini, Coins (treated by Professor 
Percy Gardner), Vases, and the Turkish Mosque. 

It is interesting to note that an enterprising architect has 
already employed in an American building some of the peculiar 
features of the work of his confreres of Assos in the Troad. 

The Archaeological Institute of America, when hardly three 
years old, signalled her entrance upon the field of research in 
classic lands by the excavations at Assos. The School at Athens, 
founded in 1881, the year in which this work opened, followed 
the example set by her mother, the Institute, and began almost 



342 "INVESTIGATIONS AT ASSOS" 

immediately upon her foundation to conduct explorations and 
investigations at various sites in Greece. The most extensive 
and significant of these at least of such as have been com- 
pleted, and probably of all were those carried on between 
1892 and 1895, under the direction of Professor Charles Wald- 
stein, at the seat of the ancient sanctuary of Hera near Argos. 
As the present number of the Journal is going to press, the first 
volume of The Arrive Heraeum, in which the results of these 
excavations are worthily set forth, is issued to the public; it 
is to be followed by the second and concluding volume in a 
few months. This beautiful and important publication of 
which a notice will appear in a later number of the Journal 
is appropriately dedicated to Professor Charles Eliot Norton, 
the first president of the Institute, to whose initiative and 
support are due, more than to any other man's, not only the 
prosecution of the work at Assos, but also the adequate pub- 
lication of it in the Investigations at Assos. 



1902 
January June 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS 1 

NOTES ON RECENT EXCAVATIONS AND 
DISCOVERIES; OTHER NEWS 

HAROLD N. FOWLER, Editor 

49, Cornell Street, Cleveland, Ohio 



GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 

ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS OF ST. AUGUSTINE'S CIVI- 

TAS DEI. The Societe des Bibliophiles, of Paris (31, Rue Cambon), 
founded in 1820, proposes to issue a publication relating to a family of 
manuscripts of the Civitas Dei of St. Augustine, illuminated by artists of 
the middle and end of the fifteenth century. Many reproductions from 
manuscripts in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris and the libraries of the 
Hague, Mantes, Macon, etc., will enrich this important work. Several of 
these are already finished, and there is every reason to hope that the volume 
will appear before the end of the current year. 

INTERNATIONAL BULLETIN OF NUMISMATICS. A new 
numismatical periodical, the Bulletin International de Numismatique, to con- 
tain news of discoveries, of meetings of numismatic societies, and museums, 
in addition to bibliography and necrology, is published under the auspices 
of the Societe Francaise de Numismatique and edited by Adrien Blanchet 
(Paris, Leroux). Volume I, 1902, No. 1, contains little or nothing of espe- 
cial interest. 

INTERNATIONAL BIBLIOGRAPHY OF ART. The first num- 
ber of an Internationale Bibliograpliie der Kunstwissenschaft, issued by A. J. 
Jellinck, of Berlin, has appeared. There are to be six parts every year. 
(Athen. May 5, 1902.) 

CONVENTIONAL SIGNS FOR ANCIENT REMAINS. A table 
of thirty or more signs to be used on maps and plans of Roman and prehis- 
toric remains is given in Arch. Anz. 1902, p. 21. 

1 The departments of Archaeological News and Discussions and of Bibliography of 
Archaeological Books are conducted by Professor FOWLER, Editor-in-charge, assisted 
by Miss MARY H. BUCKINGHAM, Professor HARRY E. BURTON, Professor JAMES C. 
EGBERT, JR., Professor ELMER T. MERRILL, Dr. GEORGE N. OLCOTT, Professor 
JAMES M. PATON, and the Editors, especially Professor MARQUAND. 

No attempt is made to include in the present number of the JOURNAL material 
published after June 30, 1902. 

For an explanation of the abbreviations, see pp. 99, 100. 

343 



344 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

WORK OF THE GERMAN ARCHAEOLOGICAL INSTITUTE 
FOR 1901-02. No issues have been made of the serial publications sup- 
ported by the Institute other than the usual Jakrbuch and A nzeiger and the 
Athenische and Romische Mittheilungen, though important work has been 
done, especially on the Antike Sarkophage. The study of Roman and pre- 
Roman Germany, in cooperation with local and provincial societies, has 
become a regular part of the work of the Institute. The most important 
point at present is Haltern, in Westphalia. The island of Cos, explored by 
R. Herzog, is a new field. At Pergamon, where the work is now in charge 
of Dr. Ddrpfeld, the main street of the town has been found and explored. 
Both the Athenian and the Roman branches have carried on the usual 
lectures and excursions. Both libraries have been improved and have 
received substantial gifts of money from K. Baedeker. The first volume 
of an illustrated catalogue of the Vatican antiquities, by Amelung, has 
been issued. Further study of the water supply systems of Athens and 
of Megara is going on ; also P. Wolters' work on the vase-fragments of 
the Acropolis. (Arch. Anz. 1902, pp. 37-41.) 

DALMATIA. Latin Inscriptions. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. V, 1902, 
Beiblatt, coll. 1-8, HANS LIEBL publishes three epitaphs and an inscrip- 
tion with the titles of Claudius, now in Knin, three inscriptions from 
Pridraga, and a fragment of a law engraved on a bronze tablet bought 
at Prague. 

TUMULI AND POTTERY IN GEORGIA. In R. Arch. XL, 1902, 
pp. 62-78 (10 figs.), G. SEURES, under the general heading 'Notes on Rus- 
sian Archaeology,' describes tumuli and vases with geometrical ornamenta- 
tion in the region of Elisabethpol, in Georgia. The article is an abridgment 
of a treatise by E. ROSLER, in the Verhandlungen der Berliner Gesellschaft 
fur Anthropologie, Ethnologic, und Urgeschichte, 1901 (February 16), pp. 78- 
150 (67 figs.). Rosler's excavations showed that the people who dwelt in 
this region in the bronze age buried their dead in a squatting posture, and 
had pottery adorned with geometrical patterns and with animals and human 
beings rudely represented. The date of the tumuli cannot as yet be fixed, 
but their poverty and rudeness do not prove great antiquity. The civiliza- 
tion of the people buried here is related to that of Scythia, Thrace, Bosnia, 
and Hungary. 

SOUTHERN RUSSIA. Various Antiquities. The most impor- 
tant object found here in 1901-02 is a sixth century (B.C.) gold sword 
sheath, from near the Don, which is a mixture of Greek and Siberian 
elements. Further, there are a third century bronze dish inlaid with 
silver, and small articles from the sixth century to Roman times, among 
them a large gold knob with a Chinese look, from the Kuban, north of 
the Caucasus; a quantity of bucchero ware with white-filled incised geo- 
metric ornament, and bronzes which point to Asia Minor, from south of 
the Caucasus; very ancient bright red pottery painted in geometric pat- 
terns, from the confines of Persia; red-figured vases and small Roman 
objects of the second century, from Chersonnesus ; archaic Ionian pottery 
and a large, late amphora, inferior to contemporary Italian work, from Ol- 
bia; gold harness of peculiar design, at least as old as the fifth century B.C., 
from the basin of the Dnieper. (G. v. KIESERITZKY, Arch. Anz. 1902, 
pp. 44-46 ; cut.) 



EGYPT] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 345 

NECROLOGY. Franz Xaver Kraus. The death of Franz Xaver 
Kraus, Professor of History and Christian Archaeology at Strassburg, took 
place at San Remo, December 28, 1901. He was born at Treves in 1840. 
Among his numerous works his four volumes on the Art. and Antiquities of 
Alsace and Lorraine and his History of Christian Art deserve especial mention. 
Jacques Gabriel Bulliot. The death of Jacques Gabriel Bulliot, cor- 
responding member of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, took 
place at Autun, January 13, 1902. He conducted the excavations at Beu- 
vray, the ancient Bibracte, and was the author of numerous books, among 
them La Cite Gauloise and La Mission de Saint Martin dans le Centre de la 
France. (C. R. Acad. Insc. 1902, p. 11.) 

Ernst Zimmermann. The death of Professor Ernst Zimmermann is 
reported from Munich. (Chron. d. Arts, 1902, p. 32.) 

Adam Flasch. The well-known archaeologist, Professor Adam Flasch, 
died at Erlangen, January 11, 1902. (Chron. d. Arts, 1902, p. 80.) 

Karl Zangemeister. The death is announced of Karl Zangemeister, 
the chief librarian of the University of Heidelberg, in his sixty-fifth year. 
Under his care the library became known as one of the best managed in 
Germany, and he was always ready to help and advise those who made use 
of it. He was one of the foremost writers on subjects connected with epig- 
raphy and palaeography. His works on Pompeian wall inscriptions and on 
Roman inscriptions found in the Rhine provinces are the best of his numer- 
ous writings. Zangemeister, who was a pupil and friend of Momnisen, was 
a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences, and president of the " Limes- 
Kommission." (Athen. June 21, 1902.) 

Jules-Jacques Van Ysendyck. Jules-Jacques Van Ysendyck, the 
architect, died at Brussels, March 17, 1901. Although known in Belgium 
as the architect of a number of splendid buildings, Van Ysendyck is better 
known to archaeologists through his publication, Documents classes de Vart 
dans les Pays-Bas du X 6 au X VIII 6 siecle, which is likely to remain for some 
time to come the best repository of information on the architecture and 
sculpture of Belgium. (Bull. Com. Roy. 1901, pp. 65-69.) 

Mgr. Pietro Crostarosa. In Athen. April 5, 1902, Lanciani records the 
death of Mgr. Pietro Crostarosa. He was secretary to the Commissione di 
Archeplogia Sacra, in which capacity he was able to discover the historic 
crypt of Peter and Marcellinus, to open to students the cemetery of Nico- 
medes, and a new section of Priscilla's and Domitilla's, and to make of the 
Church of St. Cecilia one of the leading monuments for the study of early 
Italian art. 

EGYPT 

AMERICAN EXCAVATIONS. G. A. Reisner, commissioned by 
Mrs. Hearst to conduct excavations for the University of California, has 
explored four sites in upper Egypt. The first was an extensive necropolis 
of the pre-dynastic period, on the eastern shore of the Nile, opposite the 
present Menshiye, near the village of El-Akhaiwa. In opposition to 
Petrie, who assumed that the graves of this period served for a second 
burial after decomposition of the body had taken place, and that at this 
burial the bones were carefully laid in order, Reisner has demonstrated 
that the latter is nowhere found to be the case. The bodies were placed 
in the tomb in a sitting posture. The dismembering of the skeleton was in 



346 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

every case done by the grave robbers who rifled the tombs. Reisner found 
only one intact grave containing dismembered remains. Here, beyond ques- 
tion, a second burial had taken place ; but in this case the grave had prob- 
ably been ransacked soon after burial, the robbery had been discovered, and 
the relatives had reverently given the remains another burial. At Akhaiwa, 
Reisner also explored a necropolis of the later period (twentieth to thirtieth 
dynasties). 

The exploration of the very ancient cemeteries of Ballas. in which Petrie 
likewise made excavations during the winter of 1894-95, has led to the same 
results regarding burial as those just stated. The third necropolis explored 
by Reisuer, that of Naga-Dgr, opposite Girge, is of somewhat more recent 
date. Here, alongside of graves of the earliest period, are also found some 
dating from the old and middle kingdoms ; and in these many interesting 
finds were made among other things, beautiful gold jewellery. 

At Dr-el-Ballas, on the western shore of the Nile, nearly opposite Quft, 
Reisner also carefully explored the ruins of a city with houses and palaces 
dating from the time of the middle and new kingdoms, and made important 
disclosures regarding the location of the houses, which were built of unburnt 
tile. From this ruined city also comes a large and well preserved papyrus, 
containing a medical handbook. It is similar to the well-known papyrus of 
Ebers, but contains much that is new. It probably dates from the beginning 
of the new kingdom, about 1600 B.C. (G. STEINDORFF, S. S. Times, Feb- 
ruary 8, 1902.) 

GREEK AND ROMAN ANTIQUITIES FOUND IN EGYPT IN 
1901-02. A treasure of silver table ware, including pieces of great beauty 
or of unusual shapes, and some thousand gold coins of Septimius Severus 
and his successors, among them several rareties, were found near the Temple 
of Am mon at Karnak. A considerable hoard of gold coins of the third 
century emperors, together with eighteen bars of gold, of which only four 
were rescued from the melting pot, were found near Alexandria. The 
inflow of water into the three-story tomb-building at Alexandria has risen 
to the floor of the second story, but measures are being taken to check it. 
Several groups of tombs, cut in the rock, with square chambers, vaulted 
ceilings, paintings, and triclinia for the funeral banquet, have been discov- 
ered on the island of Pharos. At ancient Hermopolis were found important 
papyri, and a Ptolemaic Egyptian temple in which were some marble heads 
with traces of painted stucco hair ; in the Fayum, a Greek temple with 
wall-paintings and a large inscription ; at Theadelphia, a house with fres- 
coes; at Abusir (Busiris), near Memphis, by the Deutsche Orient Gesell- 
schaft, Greek graves, of which the earlier ones have the bodies enclosed in 
cylindrical jars laid in pairs, mouth to mouth, and the others, of the fourth 
century B.C., use painted wooden coffins. Among these is the owner of the 
Timotheus papyrus. (O. RUBENSOHN, Arch. Anz. 1902, pp. 46-49 ; 2 cuts.) 

ABUSIR. The Discoveries of the Germans. In BerL Phil. W. 
April 19, 1902, is an enthusiastic account (from No. 10 of the Mittheilungen 
of the Orient Gesellschaft) of the discoveries of the Germans at Abusir, 
especially in the spot called Abu Gurab. Some of these discoveries have 
been mentioned in this JOURNAL (1901, p. 330; 1902, p. 58). Among the 
objects discovered, the reliefs of the temple of Ra are of especial impor- 
tance. These, the temple itself, the basalt lion, and the buildings and 



EGYPT] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 347 

obelisks connected with the temple, make the art of the time of the fifth 
dynasty the time when Egyptian art was at its height better known 
than ever before. The Orient Gesellschaft is to continue the excavations, 
and there is every reason to believe that the results will be most valuable. 
In S. S. Times, July 5, 1902, G. STEINDORFF mentions the stone causeway 
leading up to the sanctuary, a colonnaded court, various rooms, and numer- 
ous tombs containing statues and reliefs. Tombs of the Middle Empire 
were also found, some of which contained various objects besides the sar- 
cophagi. These tombs belong to a family of priests whose duty it was to 
pray for the soul of King Ne-woser-Re. His memory is thus seen to have 
been honored many centuries after his death. In a tomb of the Greek 
period was a papyrus of the close of the fourth century B.C., containing a 
dithyramb by Timotheus of Miletus, who lived from 447 to 357 B.C. 

ABYDOS. Petrie's Excavations. Professor W. M. Flinders Petrie 
is again at work on the site of the ancient sacred city of Abydos. After hav- 
ing, during the past two years, examined the royal tombs of the prehistoric 
period and of the first two dynasties, he is now excavating in the ruins of 
the ancient city itself, which was only hastily explored by Mariette. Here, 
near the village of El-Kherbe, is found the sanctuary of Osiris, the god of 
the dead, unfortunately in a very imperfect condition, but in which impor- 
tant inscriptions from the sixth and twelfth dynasties, as well as from the 
beginning of the new T empire (about 1600 B.C.), have already been brought 
to light. (STEINDORFF, S. S. Times, May 17, 1902.) 

CAIRO. Greek and Roman Sculpture in the Museum. A list of 
Greek and Roman sculpture in the Cairo Museum is published by F. VON 
BISSING in Arch. Anz. 1901, pp. 199-209 (11 cuts). Among the thirty-two 
pieces, which include heads, statues, reliefs, stelae, sarcophagi, etc., from 
archaic to imperial times, there is a stele with the dream-oracle of Apis 
painted on the sunken ground, and two examples, busts of Osiris and Isis, 
of sculpture in stone coated with stucco, dating possibly from the time of 
Hadrian. 

REQ AQNAH. Early Tombs. In Biblia, June, 1902, pp. 72-74, is a 
brief account, by JOHN GARSTANG, of excavations at Reqaqnah, in Upper 
Egypt, reprinted from Man. Many tombs of the third and fourth dynasties 
were excavated. 

THEBES. The Palace of Amenophis III. The palace of Ameno- 
phis III at Malgata, discovered by Grebaut nearly twenty years ago and 
exposed to pillage since that time, is being systematically excavated by 
Newberry and Titus. The plan of the palace seems to have been quite 
similar to that of the palace which Amenophis IY erected for himself in 
Tel el-Amarna, and which was several years ago explored by Petrie. In the 
palace of Amenophis III the rooms were likewise adorned by beautifully 
decorated stucco floors, and the roofs were supported by columns. The walls 
were embellished with stucco work, the representations in part setting forth 
every-day life. In addition to state rooms, working rooms, the kitchen, with 
its storage closets, and a faience factory, in which the different amulets and 
ornaments were made, can also be distinguished. Not far from the palace 
was found an altar, built of tile, and at one time probably wainscoted with 
slabs of stone. It was quite similar to the one in the temple of Der el-Bahri, 
and this one was certainly dedicated to the sun-god. As the altars of ancient 



348 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

Israel most likely also had a similar form, these remains of the old Egyptian 
cultus have an especial biblical interest. (G. STEINDORFF, S. S. Times, May 
17, 1902.) 

The Pharaoh of the Exodus. The American Egyptologist, Groff, has 
demonstrated that the mummy regarded by Loret as that of Amenophis IV 
is really that of Meremptah, the Pharaoh of the Exodus. The mummy was 
found, with others, at Thebes in 1898. Its discovery proves that the Pharaoh 
was not lost with his troops in the Red Sea. (G. STEINDORFF, S. S. Times, 
February 8, 1902.) 

BABYLONIA 

BABYLON. The German Discoveries. In Harper's Monthly Maga- 
zine, April, 1902, pp. 809-814 (1 pi. ; 6 figs.), MORRIS JASTROW, JR., describes 
the discoveries of the Germans in the Kasr (the palace of Nebuchadnezzar) 
and the temple of Nebo (Esagila) at Babylon. A colored plate reproduces 
the famous lion of glazed tiles. The discoveries have been mentioned in pre- 
vious numbers of this JOURNAL. A popular account of these discoveries is 
contained in Biblia, February, 1902, pp. 341-347. In Berl. Phil. W. April 26, 
1902, is a summary (from the Vossische Zeitung) of an address delivered by 
Professor DELITZSCH at a meeting of the Deutsche Orient Gesellschaft. In 
this he lays especial stress upon the points of contact between the Baby- 
lonian religion and the Bible, as shown by the recent discoveries. In S. S. 
Times, May 17, 1902, HILPRECHT states that the Germans are to excavate 
the mounds of Abu Hatab and Fara, in southern Babylonia, besides con- 
tinuing the work at Babylon. A brief account of the German discoveries 
at Babylon, with special reference to the inscribed tablets, is given by Hil- 
precht, ibid. July 5, 1902. 

SYRIA AND PALESTINE 

ABOU-GOSCH. The Tenth Legion Fretensis. In C. R. Acad. 
Insc. 1901, pp. 692-696, A. Heron de Villefosse publishes, with some com- 
ments, a letter from Pere BERNHARD DROUBIN, announcing the discovery 
in the crypt of the church of St. Jeremiah at Abou-Gosch (better called 
Kyriat) of an inscription mentioning the presence of a detachment of the 
tenth legion Fretensis. The church is built in the walls of a Roman fort. 
Kyriat seems to be the site of the Emmaus of St. Luke. 

" BAALBEK. Excavations of 1900-01. The work at Baalbek under 
the patronage of the German Emperor has already almost completely eluci- 
dated the plan and architectural details of the great Temple of the Sun, 
with its two courts, great altar, and lustral basins, as well as of the Byzantine 
basilica and the Arabic fortress which were constructed in the great court 
with the material of the temple. Arabic inscriptions give the history of this 
fortress. Among the few Greek and Roman inscriptions are some earlier 
than the date of the temple, the reign of Antoninus Pius. Some important 
corrections have been made upon Wood's studies of the temple (1757), espe- 
cially in the magnificent scheme of wall-decoration ; and work upon the 
Round Temple, the Temple of Jupiter, and some temples in the neighbor- 
ing village of Nicha, has added to our knowledge of Romano-Syrian art. 
(O. PUCHSTEIN et al., Jb. Arch. I. XVI, 1901, pp. 133-160; 4 pis.; 9 cuts.) 

In Biblia, March, 1902, pp. 387-393, is a brief report of the German exca- 
vations. The centre of the whole group of buildings is a great rock altar, 



SYRIA AND PALESTINE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 349 

once cut smooth and pieced out with masonry to make its shape regular. 
This the Romans surrounded by a series of walls, making a terrace or plat- 
form level with the base of the altar. On the east, north, and south sides 
these walls constituted passages and chambers under the general level of the 
platform, and on the west side the great temple filled up the space on a huge 
artificial mound of earth. On the walls of the substructure surrounding the 
great court of the rock-hewn altar was erected a magnificent colonnade with 
square and semicircular chambers. This has been discovered by the present 
excavators. It stood on three steps leading down to the great atrium. At 
each side of the altar was a basin formed of a low wall, with sculptured 
panels on the outside filled with winged genii, etc., and festoons of flowers. 
This decoration was never completed. On the west side of the atrium stood 
the great temple, which has not yet been excavated. In the centre of the great 
atrium are the remains of an early Christian basilica. The entire site is cov- 
ered with Byzantine and Arab ruins. (See also Berl. Phil. W. April 26, 1902.) 

GEZER. Excavations Proposed. The new site selected for exca- 
vations by the Palestine Exploration Fund of London is the biblical Gezer, 
which had a continuous history from pre-Israelite times to the period of the 
Crusades. Mr. Stuart Macalister, well known from previous excavations 
which he conducted with Dr. Bliss in behalf of the Fund, will be in charge 
of the digging. The firman, for which he went personally to Constanti- 
nople last fall, may have been granted before this, so that excavations could 
begin before the season was too far advanced for work in the field. In view 
of the fact that Clermont-Ganneau discovered the bilingual inscriptions 
(Hebrew and Greek) at Gezer which define the limits of the ancient city, 
the natural expectation prevails that other important monuments will be 
discovered in the course of the exploration. (S. S. Times, July 5, 1902.) 

SEND S CHERLI. The Expedition of the Orientkomitee. The 
Orientkornitee has sent an expedition to Sendscherli to renew the exca- 
vations under the direction of Professor v. Luschan. Work began January 
3, 1902. The third number of Mittheilungen aus den orientalischen Samm- 
lungen der koniglichen Museen is to contain articles on the reliefs of the 
southern city gate and the outer citadel gate, as well as the lions of 
the middle citadel gate. (Berl. Phil. W. April 26, 1902.) 

TORTOS A. Ancient Moulds. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1900, pp. 317- 
323, A. HERON DE VILLEFOSSE describes thirty-six steatite moulds found 
about 1894 at Tortosa, in Syria, and now in the Louvre. They were made 
to be used in casting various domestic utensils. Two other steatite moulds, 
found in Egypt, are published (cuts) by the same scholar, ibid. 1901, pp. 
244-249. 

TYRE. Roman Officials in Egypt. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1901, 
pp. 228-231, A. HERON DE VILLEFOSSE publishes the following inscription, 
found at Tyre: T(6Twi) <I>oupoi OuiKTtopeu/wt, eTrap^wi AiyvTrrov, 



KOL eTTirpOTTO? Trpoo-dSwv 'A Aea [vSpeta?] . T. Furius Victorinus is the prae- 
torian prefect of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, who was killed in 
167 A.D. That he was prefect of Egypt is now learned for- the first time. 
The title architabularius Aegypti, of the Fortunatus who dedicated the 
inscription, is new. Ibid. pp. 322 f., the reading iSepibu is corrected to 
2e/8aoTot). Fortunatus was then a freedrnan of the emperor Antoninus. 



350 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

ARABIA 

PHILADELPHIA. Greek and Latin Inscriptions. In B.C.H. 
XXIV, 1900, pp. 575-581, V. CHAPOT publishes twelve Roman milestones 
from the road leading north from Philadelphia (Amuran). Three of 
these were previously unpublished. Most of them show the names of 
Severus or Caracalla; one, the titles of Hadrian; another, the name 
of Pertinax ; and a third, in Greek, the name of Julian. Chapot also 
publishes three Greek inscriptions, two sepulchral, and the third record- 
ing the erection of 17 di^is rov ^u.i<r<eptov, apparently the wall enclosing 
the choir of a church. 

ASIA MINOR 

DR. BELCK S EXPEDITION. On the way to Comana, Cappadocia, 
Belck found at Ekvek a Hittite inscription never before seen by any Euro- 
pean, though its existence was known. This is the third new Hittite inscrip- 
tion he has found. At Schahr the ancient ruins, most important amon^ 
which are a well-preserved temple and an amphitheatre, were examined. 
Comana (Schahr) was found to be, not a Hittite foundation, but probably 
a foundation of the Indo-European Cimmerians, therefore not more than 
about twenty-six hundred years old. On the way back to Azizieh seven 
Roman milestones and five rock-cut Greek sepulchral inscriptions were found. 
At Giiriin the two Hittite inscriptions cut in the rock were copied, and better 
readings were obtained. At Palanga the Hittite inscription already known 
was collated, and here also better readings resulted. Further to the south- 
west, the two lions at Arslan Tasch were visited. They do not mark the 
entrance to a Hittite palace, but are boundary stones of a Hittite kingdom, 
probably that of Tyana. Thence the route passed through Siwas and Tokat 
to Amasia and Sarnsun. Excavations are to be undertaken. (Berl. Phil. W. 
April 26, 1902. On the previous discoveries of this expedition, see Am. J. 
Arch. 1902, p. 63.) Belck's discoveries are briefly described by HILPRECHT, 
in S. S. Times, May 17, 1902, where a photograph of the inscribed Hittite 
stele found at Boghche, near Kaisariye, is published. 

BITHYNIA. Inscriptions. In B.C.H. XXIV, 1900, pp. 361-426, 
G. MENDEL begins the publication of ' Inscriptions de Bithynie.' The arti- 
cle is divided into eleven sections: I. Broussa, Nos. 1-11. II. Broussa to 
Cius, Nos. 12-21. III. Cius, Nos. 22-26. IV. North Bank of the Lake of 
Isnik, Nos. 27-43. V. Isnik and Its Neighborhood, Nos. 44-62. VI. The 
Sakkaria between Lefke and Geive', Nos. 63-72. VII. The Region of Goel- 
bazar, Nos. 73-100. VIII. Left Bank of the Sakkaria between Dere-keui 
and In-hissar, Nos. 101-105. IX. From the Sakkaria to Tarakly and Boli, 
Nos. 106-118. X. The Plain of .Boli, Nos. 119-134. XL From Boli to 
Viran-chehir, Nos. 135-143. The journeys, on which these inscriptions were 
collected, were taken in the summers of 1899 and 1900. There is little 
description or discussion, but it is suggested that Basilinopolis is to be 
sought near Bazar-keui. Most of the inscriptions are of the usual Asia Minor 
types, and many of them fragmentary. Nos. 5, 12, 49, 50, 61, and 62 are 
in Latin, Nos. 12, 61, and 62 being bilingual epitaphs in Greek and Latin. 
Nos. 7, 9, 27, 76, 105, 117, 121, 136, and possibly 20, are metrical. No. 27 
contains two epitaphs, each of four elegiac couplets, separated by "AAAo, like 
the epigrams in the Anthology, in honor of a certain Menas who fell in the 



ASIA MINOR] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 351 

battle of Coroupediurn in 281 B.C. No. Ill, a sepulchral fragment, seems to 
have contained a provision for the po8tcr/xo5. 

The publication is continued in XXV, 1901, pp. 5-92 : XII. The Plain 
of Viran-chehir, Nos. 144-159. The inscriptions show that Kiepert and 
Perrot were right in seeking here the site of Hadrianopolis. The acropolis 
and necropolis can be identified, but there are few traces of the ancient city. 
Tne full name in the second century seems to have been Caesarea Hadri- 
anopolis, which may indicate that it was rebuilt by Hadrian. The scanty 
information as to the history of the city is collected and discussed. In* the 
second century it belonged to the province of Galatia, as is shown by an 
inscription in honor of Julius Scapula, who was legate of that province in 
138 A.D. Of the other inscriptions, four are in honor of emperors, and the 
rest sepulchral. Nos. 149, 154, 157, and 158 are metrical. XIII. From 
Viran-chehir to Zafaramboli, Nos. 160-172. These include dedications to 
Zeus Ki/Ai(TT>7i/os, 'ETT^KOO?, and 'ETriKapTrios, and @eo? vif/io-ros. The others 
are sepulchral, Nos. 160, 164, 165, 166, and 169 being metrical. At Achaga- 
keui are many ancient remains, including some reliefs. XIV. Zafaramboli, 
Nos. 173-174. XV. From Zafaramboli to Bartin, Nos. 175-176. XVI. Bar- 
tin and Amasra, Nos. 177-184. One of these is in honor of Septimius Seve- 
rus, Caracalla, and Geta, another is a dedication to Au fjLeydX.it) ^SaAetr^. 
Bartin is probably the site of the ancient Parthenia. XVII. The neighbor- 
hood of the Filios, Nos. 185-190. The ruins of the ancient Tieion have 
been accurately described by von Diest, except in two points, his theatre 
seems to have been a temple or a bouleuterion, and the walls of the acropolis 
are a reconstruction of the fourteenth or fifteenth century. In the plain 
near by are four large arches which seem to be remains of an aqueduct. 
Nos. 188 and 189 are in Latin, on milestones of Vespasian and Titus, 
and Constantine. Their relation to the roads of the region is discussed. 
XVIII. From the Filios-tchai to Heraclea, Nos. 191-192. A metrical epi- 
taph and a dedication to M. Aurelius. XIX. Heraclea Pontica, Nos. 
192 (fas)-195. XX. Aktche-chehir, Nos. 196-199. The inscriptions con- 
firm the identification of this place with the ancient Dia or Diospolis. 
XXL From Aktche-chehir to Ada-bazar, Nos. 200-205, of which one is a 
dedication to v Ai/yioris. XXI (fa's). Uskub-kassaba (Prusias ad Hypium), 
Nos. 206-225. Some of these inscriptions show that there were two councils 
in Prusias, one of archons and the other of phylarchs, and it is probable 
that the word 6/x,di/oia, the occurrence of which in these inscriptions has 
caused some discussion, refers to the concurrent action of these two bodies. 
Mendel discusses the importance of the route from Nicomedia to Amasis 
through the valley of the Hypius, with special reference to the campaign of 
88 B.C. XXII. The Region about the Lake of Sabandja, Nos. 226-233. 
At the Armenian convent of Armacha is a relief of the Dioscuri and three 
sepulchral monuments. 

CARIA. Inscriptions. In B.C.H. XXIV, 1900, pp. 329-347, G. 
COUSIN continues and concludes his ' Voyage en Carie.' He publishes eight 
fragmentary inscriptions found between Bouyouk-Ala-Fahraddin and Ter- 
messus. The route from Termessns to Aidin is briefly given, and eighteen 
inscriptions published, of which eleven are from Oenoanda. Most of these are 
dedicatory, sepulchral, or, at Oenoanda, honorary. Pages 346-347 and 616-617 
contain corrections of an earlier article. (See Am. J. Arch. V, 1901, p. 335.) 



352 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VJ, 1902 



CILICIA. Archaeological Notes. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. V, 
1902, pp. 106-111 (7 figs.; map), F. SCHAFFER briefly describes remains 
of ancient roads, buildings, and rock -cut graves seen in Cilicia in 1900 
and 1901. Two late inscriptions are published. Views of the temple 
of Zeus and other remains at Olba are given. 

CYZICUS. An Inscribed Base. 
An inscribed base, sculptured with 
marine figures, has been for the first 
time cleared and completely copied. 
It records the restoration of the har- 
bors and channels of Cyzicus, in the 
reign of Caligula, by Queen Try- 
phaena, a great-granddaughter of Mark 
Antony, whose history and connections 
are known from various other inscrip- 
tions. (F. W. HASLUCK, J.H.S. XXII, 
1902, pp. 126-134.) 

Inscriptions. Among the fourteen 
inscriptions from Cyzicus published by 
C. SMITH and R. DE RUSTAFJAELL in 
J.H.S. XXII, 1902, pp. 190-207, is a 
fragmentary sculptured slab showing 
a local form of the Mother of the 
Gods, Andeiris, already known by the 
name Andeirene, as a chthonian deity 
allied to Persephone. The most impor- 
tant inscription, which recounts the 
gifts conferred upon Cyzicus by Phile- 
taerus, founder of the Pergamene 
dynasty, and gives his father's name 
as Attains, makes the earliest, indeed 
a contemporary, mention of the Gala- 
tian invasion of 278 B.C. Another, 
an epitaph, contains the unusual form. 




EPHESUS. The Austrian Exca- 
vations. The Austrian excavations in 
Ephesus, after being stopped for some 
time, are shortly to be recommenced. 
Dr. Heberdey, who is to preside over 
the work, will employ about a hun- 
dred laborers in the harbor quarter of 
the Hellenic city, upon the site which 
was bought for the purpose a few 

years ago by Professor O. Benndorf. The Vienna Archaeological Semi- 
nary has in preparation a work upon the great theatre of the Lysimachian 
period, which underwent extensive alterations during the Roman period. 
(A then. July 12, 1902.) Among the objects found in the excavations, the 
most remarkable is the fine bronze statue, of the fourth century B.C., 
representing a youth (Figs. 1 and 2). 



FIGURE 1. BRONZE STATUE 
FROM EPHESUS. 



ASIA MINOR] 



ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 



353 



LESBOS. Inscriptions. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. V, 1902, pp. 139- 
147, P. KKETSCHMER publishes a fragmentary inscription from Eresus, Les- 
bos, containing rules for the entrance to a temple or sanctuary. The forms 
of the letters indicate a date in the second or early part of the first cen- 
tury B.C. Three inscriptions on gravestones from Moria, near Mytilene, 
are also published. 

MILETUS. The Excavations in 1899 and 1900. Two seasons' 
work at Miletus (1899-1900) is briefly reported by T. WIEGAND in Arch. 
Anz. 1901, pp. 191-199 (6 cuts). Among the important discoveries are 
the Hellenistic city wall, enclosing a larger territory than was supposed; 
the Bouleuterion, of the third century B.C., a theatre-like building similar 
to that at Priene, with altar-court, sculptures, and inscriptions ; the Sacred 
Way, leading to Didyma, built by 
Trajan in 100 A.D. ; and the fortifi- 
cation wall hastily erected against 
the invading Goths in 265 A.D. 
(See Am. J. Arch. 1902, p. 64.) 

The Roman Fountain. In 
BerL Phil. W. April 26, 1902, is a 
description, from the Kolnische Zei- 
tung, of the great Roman fountain 
in the market place at Miletus. 
This was adorned with 150 stat 
ues, 12 of which have been put to- 
gether from the fragments found. 
The building had two stories, and 
was 19 m. in length. A large 
basin received the water, which 
then passed into a narrower basin, 
from which the people took it for 
their daily use. This is a struct- 
ure such as the Romans called 
a septizonium or a nymphaeum. 
Other known structures of the 
kind are either not excavated or 
are destroyed. 

PISIDIA, LYCAONIA, 
AND PAMPHYLIA. In- 
scriptions. The inscriptions copied by W. M. RAMSAY and his assistants, 
on a recent tour in Pisidia and Lycaonia, are published by H. S. CRONIN 
in J.H.S. XXII, 1902, pp. 94-125. They run in date from Augustus to 
Caracalla or later, and show the attention paid to this region by various 
emperors. 

RHODES. A Danish Expedition. In A then. March 29 and April 12, 
1902, it is announced that a Danish expedition under the leadership of Dr, 
Blinkenberg is to excavate at Lindus, on the island of Rhodes. The expenses 
are to be defrayed by the Carlsberger Fund. 

Three Inscriptions. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. IV, 1901, pp. 159-168 
(2 cuts), F. HILLER VON GARTRiNGEN publishes four inscriptions three 
from Rhodes, and one from Tenos. The first Rhodian inscription confirms 




FIGURE 2. HEAD OF BRONZE STATUE 
FROM EPHESUS. 



354 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

the fact, otherwise attested, that the Boule and Prytanes of the Rhodians 
were reorganized every half-year. The ship called EuavSpux is mentioned. 
The second Rhodian inscription is sepulchral, and includes three frag- 
ments. The names mentioned show that foreigners found a ready wel- 
come at Rhodes. The third Rhodian inscription, described by C. T. 
Newton (Travels and Discoveries, I, 1865, p. 167), is published from a 
copy in the Museo Civico at Venice. The inscription records honors con- 
ferred by the Rhodians on Anaxibius, son of Phidianax. On the inscrip- 
tion from Tenos, see below. 

SYME. Inscriptions. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. 7. V, 1902, pp. 13-20, 
E. HULA publishes, from the manuscript of D. CHAVIARAS, six inscriptions 
from Syme. Four are from gravestones. One of these consists of four 
elegiac distichs. Two are parts of honorary decrees of the second cen- 
tury B.C. In both the Heracleia are mentioned. 

YORTAN. Excavations in the Necropolis. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 
1901, pp. 810-817 (2 pis.), M. COLLIGNON gives a brief report of excavations 
by Paul Gaudin in the prehistoric necropolis at Yortan, near the upper valley 
of the Caicus, in Mysia. The bodies were buried in large jars, placed nearly 
horizontally, with the opening toward the east. Besides remains of bones, 
the jars contained a few gold ornaments, bronze bracelets, pins, and utensils, 
and arrow heads and spear heads similar to those found in Cyprus, stone 
whorls, utensils, and idols, the latter resembling those from Hissarlik and 
the Cyclades, and vases of various technique. Some of the vases were rude, 
hand-made ware, others of more advanced workmanship; some of red ware, 
others of black, like Italian bucchero. Many of the forms resemble those 
found in Cyprus. The decoration is chiefly geometrical and incised, but 
geometrical painted decoration is also found, as well as decoration in relief. 
The presence of bucchero is important, showing that this kind of ware was 
native in Asia Minor. The date of the necropolis is probably between 2000 
and 1500 B.C. Whether the people whose dead were buried here were Mysi- 
ans is uncertain. 

THRACE AND SCYTHIA 

RUMELIA. Latin Inscriptions. In B.C.H. XXIV, 1900, pp. 542- 
552, P. PERDRIZET publishes ' Trois Inscriptions Latines de Roumelie.' 
I. An epitaph erected by Fl. Gemellus in memory of his two nieces, who 
had come from farthest Gaul to Macedonia to visit him, but died on their 
way home. The inscription throws light on the favorable conditions for 
travelling, under the Empire, since it was possible for two young girls to 
take so long a journey, and is marked by a tone of tender affection. II. A 
corrected text and notes on the epitaph of a young slave, already published 
by Cumont in his ' Inscriptions de Macedoine ' (72. de I'instr. publ. en Bel- 
gique, 1898, and separately). III. Part of the inscription on a milestone 
near the village of Kovatchevitza. It comes from a region as yet unex- 
plored, and indicates the existence of a hitherto unknown Roman road, 
which connected Philippopolis with the Egnatian road, by way of Rhodope, 
Nicopolis ad Nestum, and the Boz-Dag. The probable course of this road 
is briefly discussed. 

CONSTANTINOPLE. A Roman Soldier. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. 
IV, 1901, pp. 207-208 (1 half-tone ; 1 cut), FRANZ FREIHERR VON CALICE 
publishes a sepulchral monument now in the garden of the British Embassy 



GREECE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 355 

at Constantinople. The person commemorated was one Nigrinus, a soldier 
of Cohort XI urbana. The date is probably the reign of Trajan. 

SERVIA. Inscriptions. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. IV, 1901, Beiblatt, 
pp. 72-162 (10 half-tones; 74 facsimiles of inscriptions), FRIEDRICH LADEK, 
A. v. PREMERSTEIX, and NIKOLA VULIC continue the report of journeys in 
Servia from Jahreshefte, III, Beiblatt, pp. 105-178. The inscriptions, some of 
which here given in facsimile have been less adequately published elsewhere, 
are chiefly sepulchral and votive, and many of them are of value for the his- 
tory of the Roman legionaries. Of especial interest is the long one, pp. 83 if., 
which gives the names of veterani from the Legio VII Claudia. This supple- 
ments the discussion in Jahreshefte, III, Beiblatt, pp. 115 f. A few notes 
from the southern part of Servia (pp. 162-168; 4 figs.), which include three 
sepulchral inscriptions and an inscribed tile of late date, are added by 
TIHOMIR R. GJORGJEVIC. 

GREECE 

AEGINA. A Votive Relief. In 'E<. 'Apx- 1901, pp. 113-120 (pi. vi), 
SAM WIDE publishes a relief found at IlaAcua Xwpa, Aegina, July 19, 1901. 
It represents an offering to Artemis. At the left stands an altar on four 
steps. The top of the altar rises in the form of horns. Close to the altar a 
man holds a bird (goose or duck) in his hands, while a second man pours 
a libation. Four fully draped female figures, of different sizes, follow the 
men. One of them leads a stag. The figure of Artemis, holding two 
torches, is cut in very low relief close beside the altar, and is partly, as it 
were, hidden by the men. The work belongs to the latter part of the fifth 
century B.C., and shows the influence of the sculptures of the Parthenon. 

AMPHISSA. Two Decrees of Proxeny. In B.C.H. XXV, 1901, 
pp. 221-240, W. VOLLGRAFF publishes two decrees of proxeny from Am- 
phissa, which are engraved on the same stone. Of the first, only the last 
three lines are preserved, but these contain the name of the boularch Lysi- 
pinos, who is known from Delphian inscriptions, which can be dated in the 
early part of the second century. The office of boularch is known in Stratos, 
in Acarnania, Ozolian Locris, the region about Mt. Oeta, Dyme in Achaia, 
and Daulis in Phocis. From a study of all the documents, the conclusion 
is reached that this was not a municipal office, but the presidency of the 
district council under either the Etolian or Achaean league. A brief account 
of the use of this title in Asia Minor is added. The second decree is in 
honor of the physician Menophantos, and is preceded by a letter of the 
Amphissians to the Scarphians, sending them a copy of the decree, at the 
request of Menophantos. As the decrees in honor of physicians have not 
been collected, Vollgraff adds a list of those known to him. 

ATHENS. Restoration of the Erechtheum. It has been decided 
by the Director-General of Antiquities and the Minister for Ecclesiastical 
Affairs and Education, Dr. Antonio Monferrato, to undertake the restoration 
of the Erechtheum. The following official order has been issued : 

(a) (In the north portico) in the third column from the east, the third 
drum, which is partly destroyed, will be replaced to a height of 0.60 m. ; 
also the fourth drum will be replaced to the extent of half its diameter and 
about the same height. 

(b) In the northwest corner column the fifth drum will be partly replaced, 
and a new sixth drum will be added. For this purpose, use will be made of 



356 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

the blocks lying near the Erechtheum, which were prepared for this purpose 
during the previous restoration (about the middle of last century). 

(c) In the west column the missing portion of the fourth drum will be 
inserted, and the damaged portions of the fifth and sixth replaced. 

(d) The marble beams of the roof (of the north portico) will be replaced 
in their original position, supported by iron girders extending under their 
whole length ; these iron girders will be concealed by marble slabs, 3 cm. to 
4 cm. thick, placed beneath them. 

(e) All the other architectural members of the same portion will be 
replaced in position, and fixed with iron cramps and rivets. Any missing 
panels of the roof will be replaced. by thin slabs of plain marble. 

(/") As the weight of the beam above the door might be too heavy for 
the broken lintel to support, an iron girder must be placed on the top of the 
wall, immediately under the beam. 

(g) The west fa9ade of the temple shall be partly restored by replacing 
in position the extant columns and capitals concerned, and completing them, 
where necessary, by new pieces of marble. 

This work will be entrusted to the Greek architect, N. Balanos, who will 
consult the Director-General of Antiquities on all archaeological matters. 

The work on the Erechtheum will soon begin ; meanwhile, Balanos is to 
be sent to report on the project for strengthening and partly restoring the 
temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae, near Phigalia. This isolated temple 
is much damaged, and requires immediate attention. 

The approval which Balanos's work on the Parthenon has received from 
the Directors of the foreign Archaeological Schools, and also from Mr. Pen- 
rose, is a guarantee of the success of his similar undertaking in the case of 
the Erechtheum and the temple at Bassae. (Letter of S. P. LAMBROS to the 
Athen.) 

The restorations proposed for the Erechtheum are not in themselves a 
serious matter. In part they are probably, like the restorations now going 
on at the Parthenon, necessary for the stability of the building. The rebuild- 
ing of the north porch and west fa9ade is a new departure, so far as the 
new regime is concerned. It is, however, a continuation of the rebuilding of 
the Erechtheum which took place between 1840 and 1850, and the columns 
on the west fa9ade were blown down by a storm subsequent to that restora- 
tion. Where so much has already been done to the building in recent times, 
a little more or less may not matter very much ; but it is to be hoped that 
this project is not the beginning of a scheme for rebuilding other Greek 
buildings, such as the Parthenon itself, from a mixture of ancient and 
modern materials. (Athen. May 24, 1902.) 

Lead Medals. In 'E<. 'Ap X - 1901, pp. 119-122 (pi. vii), K. D. MYLONAS 
describes and publishes fourteen Attic lead medals (symbola) found in the 
excavations of the stoa of Attalus, in May, 1898. The types are various, 
most of them representing deities. All are of imperial Roman times, and 
all are cast. 

Meetings of the French School. The following papers were presented 
at the Institut de Correspondance Hellenique, during the winter of 1900 : 
January 3. Demargne : ' Discoveries in Crete : Itanos.' Homolle : l The 
Fountain of Castalia.' January 17. Mendel : 'Archaic Relief from Thasos, 
representing Aphrodite.' Homolle : ' Inscriptions of Delphi containing 



GREECE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 357 

Liturgical Regulations.' January 31. Demargne : 'Discoveries in Crete: 
The Acropolis of Goulas.' Homolle : ' Topography of Delphi ; from the 
Treasuries to the Great Altar.' February 21. Mendel: 'A Relief on an 
Ancient Gate of Thasos.' Homolle : ' Topography of Delphi ; from the 
Great Altar to the Lesche and the Theatre.' March 7. Clon Stephanos: 
* On the Ethnology of Greece.' Homolle : ' Some Specimens of Archaic 
Ionian Architecture found at Delphi.' March 21. Homolle: * Lysippus 
and the ex-voto of Daochos at Delphi.' April 4. Seure : 'Reconstruction 
of a Chariot found at Philippopolis.' Homolle : ' The Dancing Caryatides 
of Delphi.' Most of these papers have appeared, or will appear, in the 
B.C.H. (B.C.H. XXIV, 1900, p. 616.) 

CRETE. Ancient Theatres. In Biblia, February, 1902, pp. 351-353, 
is a short article on ' Ancient Theatres in Crete,' in which the Builder (Lon- 
don, December 7, 1901) is quoted as giving extracts from old letters and 
plans, now in the Ambrosian library at Milan, which date from the time of 
the Venetian occupation of Crete. Some of the plans represent theatres. 
With the letters are copies of inscriptions. 

THE WESTERN PROVINCES OF CRETE. Volume XI, Part 2, of 
Mon. Antichi, pp. 285-550 (with index; 7 pis.; 161 cuts, and many fac- 
similes of inscriptions), records the results of a new exploration, without 
excavation, of western and southwestern Crete, by L. SAVIGNONI and G. DE 
SANCTIS. Among the places visited are Aptera, the Dictynnaeum, the almost 
inaccessible Polyrhenion and its no less difficult port of Phalasarna. The 
sites of Lyttus and of Calamyde are discussed. Owing to the isolated situ- 
ation of the southern coast of this end of the island, and its backward civili- 
zation, it is difficult to set dates. Some positions are certainly Mycenaean ; 
others, with primitive polygonal masonry, have Hellenistic or Roman remains. 
Some Attic vases, of the early part of the fifth century B.C., show at least one 
definite point of contact with the world. Chamber-tombs, trench-graves, and 
burial in horizontal earthen jars occur. Beside the necropolis of Phalasarna 
stands a huge throne, cut in the native rock and with a column carved on the 
back, which is certainly one link in the chain connecting the Amyclaean 
Apollo with the primitive religion of the Mediterranean. 

CNOSSUS (CRETE). Excavations in 1901. In the Annual of the 
British School at Athens, No. VII, session 1900-01, pp. 1-120 (2 pis.; 38 figs.), 
is the report of A. J. EVANS on his excavations at the palace of Cnossus in 
1901. The palace was nearly square, and the arrangement of its many 
apartments shows great skill on the part of the architect. Many apart- 
ments were excavated during this year, and parts of the building excavated 
in 1900 were more thoroughly explored. Parts of the palace were at least 
three stories high. The western court outside the palace walls must have 
formed the gathering-place, or agora, for the citizens of Mycenaean Cnossus. 
Many clay vases were found, some of good Kamares ware, others of inferior 
workmanship continuing the traditions of Kamares ware in the Mycenaean 
period, and others of Mycenaean style. On one vase of the inferior late 
Kamares ware was a graffito inscription in linear characters like the ordinary 
linear script of the Mycenaean period. Many fragmentary frescoes and col- 
ored stucco reliefs were found, some of them of remarkably fine workman- 
ship. One series represented men and also women in contest with bulls. 
The costumes indicate that the contests were held in the arena. Such 



358 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

combats may have been fought by captives for the pleasure of the Cnos- 
sians, and the story of the sacrifice of Athenian youths and maidens to the 
Minotaur may have had some foundation in fact. Other fragments belong, 
apparently, to a picture of a boxing match. Other colored reliefs seem to have 
represented processions, and others were purely architectonic. The pattern 
of one of these resembles that of the frieze at Tiryns containing blue glass. 



GROUND PLAN OF THE PALACE 
SHEWING ITS EXTENT AS EXCAVATED IN 




FIGURE 3. PLAN OF THE PALACE AT CNOSSUS. 



Some of the frescoes represented scenery in a realistic manner. Many clay 
impressions of seals were found, several of which represent a man with a 
bull's head. There are many proofs that various trades were carried on in 
the palace ; so in one room a stone vase was found unfinished, and beside it 
a large stone amphora, adorned with spiral designs, which had evidently 
never been removed from the workshop. In another room various unfin- 
ished objects were found. Many fragments of impressions from a signet- 



GREECE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 359 

ring show that the seal represented a goddess, standing on a mountain, 
guarded by two lions. The goddess holds a bow. Before her is a male 
worshipper, behind her an altar with horns. Other seals were also of a 
religious character. A clay matrix of one seal was found, evidently a coun- 
terfeit of a gold signet. Some deep walled pits were probably the palace 
dungeons. In one of the galleries a small gold lion was found, the limbs 
and body of which were finely modelled. It may be compared with the 
finest Etruscan jewellery. Two baths similar to that in the " throne room " 
were found, one of which was much larger and deeper than the other. An 
alabaster lid with the cartouche of the Hyksos king, Khyan, shows some 
connection with Egypt about 1800 B.C. An interesting object is a gaming 
board of ivory, incrusted with gold, and inlaid with crystals backed alter- 
nately with silver and blue glass paste (kyanos). The border is formed by 
a series of daisies, and in the upper part of the board were beautiful nautilus 
reliefs. Ten disks evidently serve to fix the moves of the game. Parts of a 
stone bull carved in the round, and of bone plaques inscribed with signs 
resembling those of the Greek alphabet and also signs found in Egypt, were 
discovered in a conduit. A very great number of inscribed tablets came to 
light in the palace. The inscriptions seem to have to do with accounts of 
some kind. This report is still provisional, but is the most exhaustive yet 
published. The importance of the palace at Cnossus is made more and 
more evident. 

Further Excavations. In Biblia, July, 1902, pp. 109-114, A. J. EVANS 
gives a brief account of discoveries in the palace at Cnossus in the current 
year. An impression of a Babylonian cylinder shows direct connection with 
the East. Many rooms were cleared, and parts of the palace excavated in 
1901 were more carefully explored. A shrine in the southern part of the 
palace throws some light on the local cult. " On a small dais, beside a 
tripod of offerings, and with a miniature votive double axe of steatite before 
her, rose a painted terra-cotta figure of a goddess, pillar-shaped below accord- 
ing to the old religious tradition, and with a dove on her head, while in front 
of her stood a male votary holding out another dove." The association of 
the goddess and the double axe is also evident from a gem on which the 
goddess holds the double axe in her hand. A mosaic which represented 
scenery arranged in zones was found. Among the scenes is an attack upon 
a city, the houses of which are three stories high and have windows with 
divided sashes, indicating the use of some substitute for glass. An account 
of the excavations of 1901-02 is also given by Louis DYER in the Nation, 
June 5, 1902, and a brief account, taken from the Journal des Debats, is 
printed in Chron. d. Arts, May 24. At a meeting of the Hellenic Society, 
July 1, A. J. EVANS gave an account of his season's work, a summary of 
which is in Athen. July 5, 1902. In addition to objects referred to above, 
Mr. Evans mentioned remains of ivory figurines carved in the round. The 
limbs were jointed together, and the figures seem to have represented youths 
in the act of springing. The hair was indicated by spiral bronze wires, and 
the quantity of gold foil found with them indicates that they were, in part 
at least, gilded. In the Nation, July 3, 1902, is a summary of a paper by 
Mr. Evans, in the course of which he exhibited the types for printing the 
prehistoric script found in Crete and explained the progress made toward 
deciphering the inscriptions. 



360 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

GORTYN (CRETE). Italian Excavations in 1900. In Rend. Ace. 
Lincei, 1901, pp. 291-306, is a report by F. HALBHERR on the work of the 
Italian archaeologists in Crete during the summer of 1900. At Gortyn, 
trenches were opened covering about one-third of the agora. A large rec- 
tangular building of Hellenic or Hellenistic period was discovered ; this was 
partly destroyed by the later theatre. Some of the stone blocks are inscribed 
with laws. Near the theatre, statues of Asclepius and Aphrodite were found. 
In the theatre a system of drains was discovered, but the excavation was soon 
flooded, and further work was impossible. The Roman pavement of the 
agora was laid bare. Remains of a large stoa were found, and inscriptions 
came to light that attest the existence of a temple of Asclepius. 

At Labsna, the port of Gortyn, the temple and precinct of Asclepius were 
excavated. Besides the cella of the temple, a stoa, a nymphaeum, and the 
temple treasury were brought to light. The temple is of the imperial period, 
the stoa and treasury earlier. The walls of the temple were inscribed with 
regulations and with the cures effected by the god. 

PALAE OK ASTRO (CRETE). Excavations. At a meeting of the 
Hellenic Society held July 1, R. C. BOSANQUET gave an account of his exca- 
vations at Palaeokastro, near Sitia, in eastern Crete. Interesting remains of 
Mycenaean houses had been discovered, and numerous tombs investigated, 
with some very interesting results in painted vases. (Athen. July 5, 1902.) 

ZAKRO (CRETE). Excavations in 1901. In the Annual of the 
British School at Athens, No. VII, Session 1900-01, pp. 121-149 (3 pis.; 20 
figs.), D. G. HOGARTH describes his excavations at Zakro, in eastern Crete. 
The chief discoveries were at Kato Zakro, on two spurs of the hills, near 
the sea. Here were remains of houses, and in two pits were many vases, 
lamps, and other clay objects, a few stone vessels, a few fragments of bronze 
pins and blades, arid three obsidian flakes, but no trace of iron. The houses 
contained several rooms, one as many as eighteen. In the houses were vases, 
seals, and bronze implements. In one house was an object, probably an 
altar. In the pits the pottery was late Kamares ware and Mycenaean ware 
mingled. No Kamares ware was found above the floors of the houses. The 
seal impressions are Mycenaean of the best period, for the most part, though 
some are late Mycenaean. Some of the types have intimate relations with 
the Acropolis graves at Mycenae and still more intimate relations with types 
found at Cnossus. The settlement at Kato Zakro was probably made by 
Cnossian colonists for the purpose of trade with Libya. It ceased to exist 
before the beginning of the Iron Age. At various points about Epano 
Zakro, higher up among the hills, remains of very early buildings were 
found. Graves were found in caves, and the objects found with the remains 
of corpses indicate that the persons buried here belonged to an indigenous 
race somewhat affected by the Kamares culture and the Mycenaean civiliza- 
tion. The ornamentation of some of the vases differed from that of Kamares 
ware, though the burials to which these vases belong must be assigned to 
the early part of the Kamares period. Skulls from these cave burials are 
discussed by W. BOYD DAWKINS, pp. 150-155 (1 pi.), who thinks that they 
"belong to the small dark Mediterranean people, the oldest, if not the only, 
ethnical element in the Pelasgians of Crete." 

DELPHI. A Signature of Cephisodotus. Among the inscriptions 
found in the circular temple at the Marmaria in Delphi is a base containing 



GREECE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 361 

a dedication to Athena Pronaia, and below a fragmentary signature, which 
is restored by TH. H(OMOLLE) as [Krj^io-] O&OTOS 'A[6r)V(uos eTrdryo-ei/] . The 
character of the writing and the date of the important works in this sanctu- 
ary make it probable that the elder Cephisodotus is meant. (B.C.H. XXV, 
1901, p. 104.) 

A Decree passed under Euboulidas. B. C.H. XXIV, 1900, p. 541, con- 
tains a Delphian decree from the archonship of Euboulidas. T. H(OMOLLE) 
points out that the names of the bouleutae are common in the fourth cen- 
tury, and that Pomtow's date (310 B.C.) for this archon is probably near the 
truth. 

The Worship of Pan. In B.C.H. XXIV, 1900, p. 581, TH. HOMOLLE 
publishes a fragment of a dedication by the Prytanes of Delphi to Pan. 
The god appears on some Delphic coins and his cult has been connected with 
the repulse of the Gauls. 

ERETRIA. A Golden Diadem. A tomb lately opened near Eretria 
belonging to the third century B.C. contained the usual gifts to the dead, 
such as painted vases, personal ornaments, etc. The most important is a 
diadem which encircled the hair of the dead. It consists of a narrow band 
of gold, bearing in its centre a head of Melpomene in relief. The relief had 
been fastened to the diadem with four nails, and was found to conceal the 
earlier and original ornament of the diadem, a head of Pan. It may be 
assumed, therefore, that in that epoch such ornaments were not invariably 
made for the dead, and that in this case the kinsfolk had bought and utilized 
a second-hand diadem, but, regarding Pan as unfit for their purpose, had 
substituted Melpomene in his stead. (Athen. June 28, 1902.) 

PARNASSUS. A Cicada. In Athen. June 28, 1902, it is stated, on 
the authority of the Vpssische Zeitung, that Skias has found, in excavations 
on Parnassus, the first golden cicada as yet discovered in Greece. This is 
regarded as a proof that the early Athenians wore golden cicadae in their 
hair as stated by Thucydides. 

TEGEA. Excavations. The excavations commenced in 1879 by 
Dorpfeld and Milchhofer upon the site of the temple of Athena Alea at Tegea, 
in Arcadia, are now being continued by the French School in Athens, under 
the direction of Dr. Mendel. Fragments have come to light of the sculptured 
boar-hunt ascribed by Pausanias to Scopas. The torso of a woman with a 
short chiton is assumed by Dr. Mendel to have belonged to the Atalanta ; a 
head terribly damaged is a remnant of the Heracles ; and a part of one of 
the hounds has been discovered. A beautiful head, excellently preserved, is 
attributed to the statue of Hygieia, which, according to Pausanias, was next 
to that of Athena. A few small bronzes, similar to those found at the Ger- 
man excavations in Olympia and the American in the Heraeum of Argos, 
have also been unearthed. The excavations of the French School are to be 
continued during the winter, and will probably be extended towards the 
Stadium and the temple of Athena Polias. (Athen. Jan. 25, 1902.) 

TENDS. Bilingual Inscription. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. V, 1902, 
pp. 149-151, O. HIRSCHFELD publishes the following inscription from 
Tenos : C. Julius Naso \ praef(ectus) tesserar(iarum} \ in Asia nav(ium).\ 
Fai'os 'IouA.io? Na|<rwi/ 6 7ri Tcov T(r\(Ta.papL(i)v fv 'A<ria | TrAoiW. The tessera- 
riae naves were probably despatch-boats, which we now learn were organized 
under a prefect. The date is the time of Augustus. 



362 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

The Quaestor Varus. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. IV, 1901, pp. 159-168, F. 
HILLER v. GAERTRINGEN publishes with three Rhodian inscriptions (see 
above), an inscription from Tenos mentioning P. Quinctilius Varus as Quaes- 
tor (ra/xtas), no doubt of Asia. 

INSCRIPTIONS FROM VARIOUS PLACES. In R. fit. Gr. XV, 
1902, pp. 132-142, A. E. CONTOLEON publishes six inscriptions from Ithaca, 
two from Amphissa, nineteen from Phocis, ten from Attica, three from 
Aegina, one from Sparta, two from Kalamata. three from Leninos, one from 
Tenos, and one from Berhoea, in Macedonia. One of the Ithacan inscriptions, 
of Roman date, mentions the name of the island. Two of the inscriptions 
from Lemnos mention archons, who appear to be Lemnian, not Athenian. 
The inscription from Berhoea is in honor of Lucia Aureliana Alexandra, 
who was priestess of Artemis Agrotera in 169 A.D. The worship of this 
goddess at Berhoea is here attested for the first time. The other inscriptions 
are very brief and for the most part fragmentary. Two inscriptions, from 
Aenus and Trajanopolis, in Thrace, are added, pp. 142-143. Neither seems 
to be important. 

ITALY 

DISCOVERIES IN ITALY IN 1901-1902. Nothing of exceptional 
interest has come to light in Italy during the past year. Old Greek and Sicu- 
lan tombs have been examined at Gela, Caltagirone, Syracuse and elsewhere 
in Sicily. Among the objects found in the former are a large terra-cotta sar- 
cophagus with Ionic columns at the corners inside, and a bust of Diana of a 
form usually attributed to the time of the Antoriines in a grave with coins 
of Hiero II. Further evidence continues to come in, but nothing revolu- 
tionary, as to the distribution of chamber-tombs and of cremation and inhu- 
mation. Cremation of the oldest period occurs in southern Italy, while in 
many parts of central Italy very ancient inhumation alone occurs. The 
necropolis at Este, with its four or more periods of old Venetian civiliza- 
tion, shows cremation in the oldest stratum. At Norba, where the attempt 
to ascertain the age of the fortified places of middle Italy is being especially 
pushed, a third temple, that of Diana, has been unearthed on the greater 
acropolis, and the circuit wall is found to be not older than the Roman colony 
of 262 B.C., but evidence as to a cemetery is still lacking. At Civita Castel- 
lana is a building with elaborate terra-cotta trimmings, probably a dwelling 
house. From Pompeii come a fifth century Greek votive relief, an Italian 
Doric column of the same epoch, a half-size bronze Mercury of the same 
school as last year's Ephebus, and among the wall paintings, a Toilette of 
Venus of a new type, where the goddess, seated and attended by Psyche, 
recalls the Venus of Capua. A row of shops on the Sarno, a kilometre 
from Pompeii, contains skeletons and all kinds of merchandise. In the 
Roman Forum the construction of Sta. Maria Antiqua and the excavation 
of the temple of Augustus go on. The lava pavement leading from the 
temple of Romulus is seen to be older than the temple of Venus and Rome 
and the Arch of Titus. There is the usual harvest of coins, sculpture, 
and remains of Roman buildings, at various points throughout the country. 
(E. PETERSEN, Arch. Anz. 1902, pp. 49-52.) 

ALFEDENA. A Building and Tombs. In Not. Scavi, October, 
1901, pp. 442-451 (2 figs.), L. MARIANI gives a general account of excava- 
tions at Alfedena in August, 1901. The most important discovery was a 



ITALY] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 363 

large building on the acropolis, that must have existed as early as the fifth 
century B.C. In the same number of Not. Scavi, pp. 452-462, V. DE AMICIS 
describes in detail the tombs excavated during the same campaign, and the 
numerous implements and ornaments found in them. 

ATENA LUC ANA. Investigations in 1898. In Not. Scavi, 1901, 
pp. 498-505 (15 figs.), G. PATRONI gives the result of investigations at Atena 
Lucana in the summer of 1898. A well-constructed road and a piece of the 
acropolis wall were discovered. Several tombs were opened, containing 
vases ; other vases, previously found, were secured for the Naples Museum. 

ATRI. Piscinae. At Atri the piscina under the cathedral has been 
recently investigated. It is a quadrangular room with walls of heavy stone, 
built evidently in the republican period, and vault and columns of brick of 
the second century after Christ. The piscina under the palace, formerly 
belonging to the Duke of Atri, has also been studied. It consists of several 
rooms all of brick. At Porta Cappuccina there are several rooms connected 
with the water supply system, and in the same locality several ancient wells. 
(E. BRIZIO, Not. Scavi, 1902, pp. 4-13 ; 6 figs.) 

BENE VAGIENNA. A Gate and a Building. Recent excavations 
at Bene Vagienna have brought to light a gate of the ancient town, and, in 
the neighborhood of the gate, remains of buildings with decorated rooms, 
a large drain with smaller ones leading into it, and the pavement of the 
road that passed through the gate. (G. ASSANDRIA and G. VACCHETTA, 
Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 413-416 ; plan.) 

CASTELLUCCIO DI PIENZA. Etruscan Tombs. Etruscan 
tombs have been recently opened at Castelluccio di Pienza, near Siena. 
The greater number are single rectangular chambers, approached by a 
corridor. The vases included a Villanova ossuary. (G. PINZA, B. Paletn. 
It. 1902, pp. 44-51 ; fig.) 

ESTE. Early Tombs. In Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 467-474 (5 figs.), 
A. ALFONSI describes a number of tombs recently excavated at Canevedo, 
a suburb of Este. Below one group of tombs was a deposit of vase frag- 
ments, and other remains of human habitation. G. GHIRARDINI, in a con- 
tinuation of this article (pp. 474-480), calls attention to the importance of 
this discovery. These remains represent the first period of the civilization 
of Este, while the tombs above are of the third. The arrangement of these 
tombs, moreover, confirms the fact that this period was a long one, an 
uninterrupted development from the latter part of the sixth to the beginning 
of the fourth century B.C. 

GIRGENTI. Contents of Sicel Tombs. In B. Paletn. It. 1901, 
pp. 259-264 (4 figs.), P. ORSI describes various objects an amulet in the 
form of a small hatchet, well-preserved vases, and a necklace found in 
Sicel tombs of the first and third periods, near Girgenti. 

NORB A. Excavations in 1901. In Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 514-559 
(plan; 32 figs.), L. SAVIGNONT and R. MENGARELLI describe excavations 
conducted at Norba during the summer of 1901. There was a careful but 
unsuccessful search for the necropolis. Attention was then given to the 
interior of the town, and first to the larger acropolis. The temple was dedi- 
cated to Diana, as is proved by a votive inscription. The plan of the temple 
was determined, and architectural fragments were found, including traver- 
tine columns and capitals, and pieces of terra-cotta ornamentation. It was 



364 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

evidently a Roman building of the imperial period, but there are traces of 
an earlier temple of republican period, probably destroyed by Sulla's army. 
Many votive offerings of terra-cotta came to light, and other objects, of iron 
and bronze, including a bronze statuette, of fine workmanship, ascribed to 
the fourth century B.C. Adjoining the temple was a large building, of 
unknown use. 

On the smaller acropolis the larger temple was first studied. Here two 
terra-cotta heads were found, dating, perhaps, from the sixth century B.C. 
Nothing earlier than this was found in the excavations. Fragments of the 
terra-cotta decoration of the temple were found in a neighboring well. In 
the smaller temple mediaeval tombs came to light, and it became evident 
that in the eighth and ninth centuries a part of the temple was used as a 
church and another part as a cemetery. 

In the open space near the large eastern gate a Roman reservoir was 
excavated. The town wall was studied, and from vase fragments contained 
within it evidence was obtained that it is not so early as has been commonly 
thought. Northwest of Norba, remains of a contemporary settlement were 
studied, and other polygonal walls were examined near Sermoneta ; connected 
with the latter settlement was a necropolis of the first iron age, where various 
objects have been found from time to time. 

PADULA. An Ancient Building. In the summer of 1899, excava- 
tion at Padula, near the Certosa of San Lorenzo, brought to light columns 
and capitals of a large edifice. The fragments were not on the site of the 
building, and this could not be discovered. It was probably a sanctuary out- 
side the walls of Consilinum, and the nature of the decoration suggests that it 
was a temple of Dionysus. (G. PATRONI, Not. Scavi, 1902, pp. 26-3*2 ; 5 figs.) 

POMPEII. 'The Murder of Neoptolemus.' Among the newly dis- 
covered wall-paintings of Pompeii is one of the murder of Neoptolemus, at 
Delphi, which goes back to the same original as a vase-painting in Ruvo. 
(R. ENGELMANN, Arch. Anz. 1902, p. 13.) 

POMPEII (TORRE ANNUNZI AT A) . Results of Excavations. 
The result of the excavations of Gennaro Matrone at Torre Annimziata is 
given by A. SOGLIANO in Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 423-440 (plan). The work, 
begun in July, 1899, was continued, with interruptions, till February, 1901, 
and brought to light a portion of that suburb of Pompeii which was situated 
on the seashore. A row of shops was cleared, opening upon a portico. On 
the pilasters of the portico are various inscriptions. One shop, the only one 
containing wall paintings, evidently a thermopolium, is decorated with a picture 
of the god of the Sarno. In and near the shops were many skeletons, and a 
very large number of small objects was found, gold bracelets and rings of 
fine workmanship, silver vases, bronze statuettes, many coins of gold, silver, 
and bronze, and other objects of various material in great abundance. 

POZZUOLI. Statue of a Priestess. In Gaz. B.-A. 1902, pp. 348- 
351 (fig.), S. DI GIACOMO describes his discovery at Pozzuoli, in 1901, of a 
marble statue of a draped woman, apparently a priestess. The statue is 
good work, of the imperial period. At the same place was found a tomb 
containing two skeletons, one of which was a woman's. Both crumbled 
into dust on exposure to the air. With them were found a mirror, two 
spoons, and some lesser objects. The woman's skeleton was doubtless that 
of the priestess. 



ITALY] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 365 

ROME. Excavations in the Forum. In Cl. R. 1902, pp. 94-96, 
THOMAS ASHBY, JR., gives a brief account of excavations in the Forum 
from June to December, 1901. On the southeast side of the temple of 
Saturn, foundations of opus quadratum may have belonged to an earlier 
form of the temple. A series of underground passages has been found 
below the area of the Forum. Investigations have been continued at the 
Basilica Aemilia, the temple of Castor, the Augusteum, Sta. Maria Antiqua, 
and the Sacra Via. On the Volcanal, see above, p. 78. 

The account is continued in CL R. 1902, pp. 284-286, and brought down, 
apparently, to some time in May. Remains of what appears to be a tri- 
umphal arch, of late date, have been discovered at the south corner of the 
Basilica Julia, spanning the road that ran along its northwest side and the 
back of the temple of Castor and Pollux. That temple is found to have 
been peripteral. A wall of opus quadratum, at the west corner of the Augus- 
teum, belongs, probably, to a taberna on the southeast side of the Vicus 
Tuscus. A drain, built in part of opus quadratum, runs diagonally across 
the Augusteum, from the middle of the southeast side, and joins the cloaca 
of the Vicus Tuscus. In the Atrium Vestae are two piscinae, one at the north- 
west end of the court, the other at the southeast end. The first is the smaller 
of the two. Under its cement floor a pavement belonging to the earlier 
house has been found. Other traces of the earlier house have appeared. 
In late times the colonnade of the Atrium was superseded by a wall with 
arches, remains of which are traceable. The cipollino columns were sawn 
into strips, and used for pavements and wall-facings. Various rooms have 
been cleared. In one is an oven ; and in another a plate and an amphora 
are set in the mosaic floor so as to drain into a larger amphora below. At 
the west corner of the house three flights of stairs lead to the upper floor. 
In front of the temple of Antoninus and Faustina, foundations of earlier 
buildings have been found, together with additional fragments (a part of 
the head and a piece of drapery) of the statue of Faustina, which stood on a 
pedestal in the middle of the facade. Near the south angle of the temple, 
about 12 feet below the level of the Sacra Via, a tomb of the earliest Vil- 
lanova period was found early in April. It contained a large dolium with 
a conical lid of tufa. Within this was an urn with a lid in the shape of a 
roof, with the rafters in relief. There were also several other pots. Within 
the urn were ashes and splinters of bones. This is the earliest monument 
yet found in the Forum, and must belong to a time before the amalgamation 
of the different settlements into one city. It is exactly like tombs found on 
the Esquiline, the Quirinal, the Viminal, and in the Alban cemeteries. [See 
LANCIANI, in A then. May 17, 1902.] On the northeast side of the Sacra Via, 
between the temple of Antoninus and Faustina and the temple of Romulus, 
remains of a building consisting of a corridor with cells on each side have 
been found. It may have been a prison. Paving stones have been found 
in situ under the steps of the temple of Venus and Rome, about 10 yards 
northeast of the Arch of Titus. The course of the Sacra Via before the 
time of Hadrian is thus determined, but it is not necessary to assume that 
Hadrian moved the Arch of Titus. [See LANCIANI, A then. 1902, p. 441.] 

A New Athenian Sculptor. Recent excavations in the garden of 
the Palazzo Barberini at Rome, in connection with building operations, 
have brought to light some twenty fragments of sculptured marble, among 



366 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

them one small piece with the inscription <t>IAOIENO^E A0HNAI02E 
E fl H I IE E N (sic) in three lines on a rounded surface. This adds a 
twelfth to the list of known names of new-Attic sculptors. But it is 
impossible to tell to what sort of a work the fragment belonged, or to 
connect it with any of the other fragments thus far discovered in the same 
vicinity. (P. HARTWIG, Rom. Mitth. 1901, pp. 366-371 ; 2 figs.) 

The Baths of Caracalla. Excavations in the baths of Caracalla throw 
much light on the system of drainage and heating and on the arrangement 
of underground passages by which the attendants passed from point to point. 
(T. ASHBY, JR., Cl. R. 1902, p. 286.) 

Various Discoveries. On the new Via Mecenate, between Via Meru- 
lana and Via Carlo Botta, remains of ancient structures, mosaic floors, 
architectural fragments, and ancient pavement have come to light. In the 
Rospigliosi garden, a room, previously discovered (see Not. Scavi, Septem- 
ber, 1901), has been cleared; the floor is mosaic, and the north wall, with 
the ancient painting, is almost entirely preserved. Between the Piazza di 
Termini and Via Torino, ancient walls on which was constructed the great 
semicircle of the Baths of Diocletian ; under these, two rooms hollowed 
out of the tufa; and a marble slab with a sepulchral inscription, of which 
C.I.L. VI, 9967, is a copy, have been found. At the corner of Via Fiemonte 
and Via Sallustiana, 17 m. below the present level, three small rooms of 
an ancient house have been found. Near the Arch of Janus Quadrifrons, 
the double row of small rooms, recently discovered, has been excavated. 
(G. GATTI, Not. Scavi, October, 1901, pp. 418-423 ; 4 figs., including a plan 
of excavations in the Rospigliosi garden.) 

In the construction of the new Via Mecenate, late brick walls and a 
mosaic floor have been found ; also a mosaic floor probably belonging to 
some building in the Gardens of Maecenas. Ancient pavement has been un- 
covered at the corner of Via della Consulta and Via Parma, and in the Piazza, 
delle Terme. Walls of opus reticulatum have been found on the site of the 
monastery of S. Bernardo. In Via Sicilia, work on the foundations of the 
new public school has brought to light brick walls and mosaic floors belong- 
ing to private houses. In the Velabrum another part of the subterranean 
building, recently discovered, has been exposed ; this also consists of a 
double row of small chambers opening into a corridor ; it is suggested that 
these rooms were used for the performance of religious rites and that this 
is possibly the Doliola. (G. GATTI, Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 480-484; 2 figs.) 
Near the Via Labicana, about 15 km. from the city, remains of a fine impe- 
rial building have come to light. (G. TOMASSETTI, ibid. p. 484.) 

By the Via San Stefano Rotondo, in the grounds of the military hospital, 
walls of brick and opus reticulatum and an ancient drain have been discov- 
ered. Remains of ancient buildings continue to appear in the work on Via 
Mecenate, and also at the corner of Via della Consulta and Via Parma. In 
the tunnel under the Quirinal a house with many sculptured and archi- 
tectural fragments has come to light. [According to Rend. Ace. Lincei, 
1902, p. 82, a marble head found here represents Pericles.] In the Piazza 
delle Terme an ancient wall of brick and travertine and a piece of a large 
granite column have been discovered. Ancient walls have been found in 
Via Sicilia and Via Boncampagni ; and near the Piazza dell' Orca, two 
columns of cipollino. Under Via dei Fienili, on one of the tufa blocks 



ITALY] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 367 

forming the vault of the Cloaca Maxima, a fragmentary republican inscrip- 
tion has been found. (G. GATTI, Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 510-512.) 

In Via San Stefano Rotondo ancient walls of private houses have been 
found. Here, and also in Via Merulana, ancient pavement has been exposed. 
In Via di Sta. Prassede, remains of a private house with decorated walls 
have been found. Two ancient drains have appeared under Via dei Cerchi. 
A large marble sarcophagus has been found under Via Flaminia. On Via 
Salaria, near the new church of the Carmelitani, walls of ancient columbaria 
have come to light, and sixteen sepulchral inscriptions, some complete and 
some fragmentary. (G. GATTI, Not. Scavi, 1902, pp. 15-20.) 

TURIN. A Bronze Head of Tiberius. The Scientific American, 
June 7, 1902, publishes and describes, after the Allgemeine Zeitung, a fine 
bronze head of the Emperor Tiberius found at Turin, August 24, 1901. 
Traces of gilding are still visible. At the same place was found the torso 
of a marble statuette of Cupid. [See above, p. 82.] 

Tombs, Arms, and Ornaments. Near Turin several early tombs have 
been found, and near them various arms and implements of iron, ornaments 
of bronze, etc. (E. FERRERO, Not. Scavi, 1901, pp. 507-510 ; fig.) 

VARIOUS DISCOVERIES IN SOUTHERN ITALY. In Not. 
Scavi, 1902, pp. 33-48 (9 figs.), P. ORSI discusses a collection of bronzes 
found in early tombs at Spezzano Calabro, and now in the possession of 
F. E. Albani, of Cotrone. It includes fibulae, rings, spear-heads, knives, 
etc., and is evidently of Sicel origin. At Gerace, in the territory of the 
ancient Locri Epizephyrii, remains of Roman buildings and a Roman necropo- 
lis have been recently discovered. A large deposit of terra-cotta figures and 
vases, most of them fragmentary, has been found on the slope of the hill 
called Manella, possibly coming from a temple that stood on the summit. 
There is much evidence that this part of Italy, before the arrival of the 
Greeks, was occupied by Sicels. Several early Greek inscriptions have been 
found at Rhegium. Terra-cottas of the fifth century have been recently 
excavated at Rosarno, which is possibly the ancient Medma, a colony of 
Locri ; there are groups of figures, of which Dionysus is usually a member, 
heads of Dionysus, Silenus masks, young men on horseback, etc. 

VARIOUS MINOR DISCOVERIES. Several minor discoveries are 
reported in Not. Scavi. Remains of a Roman house architectural frag- 
ments and a mosaic floor have been found at Canzano (1901, pp. 497-498). 
A marble figure of the god of the Nile, surrounded by seven boys, a croco- 
dile, and a hippopotamus, has been found at St. Maria Capua Vetere (1901, 
p. 560). Recent discoveries in the neighborhood of Castel di Sangro include 
walls of various periods, tombs, and a variety of small objects (1901, pp. 462- 
465). A votive inscription to Juno has been found at Civita Lavinia (1901, 
pp. 512-513). At Frontone a bronze statuette has been found, wearing a 
torques: it is probably the figure of a Gallic divinity (1901, pp. 416-417 ; fig.). 
At Genazzano, remains of a Roman building have been excavated; many 
votive terra-cottas, lamps, etc., were found (1901, pp. 513-514). Near Palom- 
bara Sabina two tombs of the Villanova period have been found, each con- 
taining an ossuary and other smaller vases; in one was a bronze knife (1902, 
pp. 20-25 ; 6 figs.). Remains of Roman baths have been discovered at Todi. 
Among the small objects found was a bronze weight in the form of a pig 
(1902, pp. 13-14; fig.). 



368 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

SPAIN 

BANEZA. Hylas and the Nymphs. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1900, 
pp. 280-284 (1 fig.)> A. HERON DE VILLEFOSSE publishes and describes, 
from a letter of DARIO DA MATA RODRIGUEZ, a mosaic found at Baneza 
(Leon). Hylas, in the act of dipping water from a spring, is caught by 
two nymphs. Other representations of the subject are mentioned. The 
date suggested is the time of Marcus Aurelius. 

CADIZ. An Archaic Bronze Bird. In the Boletin de la Sociedad 
Espanola de Excursiones, X, 1902 (pi.) a curious bronze found in an excava- 
tion at San Fernando (Cadiz) is published. It represents a bird, but from 
the creature's breast a flat vessel projects. On the top of the bird's head is 
a ring. The work is rude, but the side of the vessel is adorned with a 
graceful pattern of curved lines. 

DURANGO. An Iberian Monument. At a place called Miqueldi, 
in the city of Durango, is a rudely carved animal resembling a swine, between 
whose legs is a large disk. On the disk are traces of letters not belonging 
to the Latin alphabet. Many similar rudely carved beasts (called becerros) 
are found in Spain. They are relics of Iberian art, and were intended as 
sepulchral monuments. The Latin inscriptions cut on some of them are 
later than the monuments themselves. (P. PARIS, Revue des Etudes 
Anciennes, IV, 1902, pp. 55-61 ; pi.) 

HUELVA. An Important Shrine. The shrine of the ancient 
Iberian goddess of the Lower World, described by Avienus in his version 
of the Greek Periplus, has been discovered not far from Huelva, in south- 
western Spain. The temple, with two deep cavities beneath, which still 
remain, became a shrine of Proserpine, and in Christian times a convent 
was built about it. It is now S. Maria la Rabida (anciently Erebis), famous 
as the refuge of Columbus in 1485. The lake of Erebis, now Lago di 
Infierno or Invierno, is twenty kilometres eastward. The excavations 
which are planned must yield important results for the history of pre- 
Carthaginian and pre-Roman Spain. (Arch. Anz. 1902, p. 43.) 

SANTIPONCE (SEVILLE). A Mosaic. In the Boletin de la 
Sociedad Espanola de Excursions, X, 1902, pp. 19-22 (pi.), PELAYO Quix- 
TERO publishes a mosaic recently discovered at Santiponce, near Seville. 
The mosaic was in a triclinium. The most important part measures 
3.98 m. by 2.67 m. It is divided into octagonal medallions, which are 
separated by a pattern representing twisted ropes. The spaces between the 
medallions are filled with lozenges. In the medallions are centaurs, satyrs, 
and riders. No medallion contains more than two figures. The work 
appears to be good. 

FRANCE 

SOME RECENT DISCOVERIES IN FRANCE. The Minerva of 
Poitiers, discovered last January, is an archaistic work of the Roman 
period and a mixture of types rather than a pure copy of an original, but 
it is, nevertheless, a most interesting statue. It is somewhat under life- 
size and complete but for the right forearm and the attribute held in the 
left hand. A singular statue of a warrior from Gre"zan shows an unknown 
Greco-Celtic or Greco-Ligurian art. A magnificent bronze statue found 
in fragments in 1897 has just been set up in the Lyons Museum. The 



FRANCE] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 369 

bronze medal of Pergamon, showing the shape of the Great Altar, was 
found at 1'Escale, Basse-Alpes. Two silver plates from Valdonne, 
Bouches du Kh6ne, have monograms resembling others found at Cherchel 
(Algeria), and at Perm (Russia). (E. MICHON, Arch. Anz. 1902, pp. 65-66 ; 
cut.) 

ANTIBES. A Military Monument. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1901, 
pp. 172-178 (pi. ; fig.) A. DE ROCHEMONTEIX publishes a number of blocks 
of stone with reliefs, found at a place called Pagau, between Antibes and 
Cagnes, first mentioned in the April number of the Revue du Touring-Club. 
The reliefs represent breastplates, symbolic animals, javelins, helmets, etc. 
The place may be the scene of the battle between the forces of Otho and 
Vitellius, in 69 A.D., mentioned by Tacitus, Hist. II, 14, 15. The name 
Pagau may be a survival of the Latin Pagus. 

COMBARELLES (DORDOGNE). Prehistoric Reliefs. In C. R. 
Acad. Insc. 1902, pp. 51-56 (2 figs.), Dr. CAPITAN and the Abbe BREUIL 
describe prehistoric reliefs in the cave of Combarelles, near Eyzies (Dor- 
dogne). One hundred and nine animals are represented. These are horses, 
mules, goats, reindeer, and mammoths. Some of the horses have harnesses. 
The animals are evidently drawn from life. These reliefs must therefore 
date from a time at least as far back as the tenth millennium B.C. 

MEAUX. A Bronze of the School of Polyclitus. In the Revue 
des Etudes Anciennes, IV, 1902, pp. 142-144 (pi. iii.), G. GASSIES publishes a 
bronze statuette of a nude standing Hermes, found long ago at Meaux, and 
now in the possession of Mr. Joseph Dassy. The attitude, forms, and style 
are Polyclitan. 

POITIERS. Statue of Athena. In C. R.Acad. Insc. 1902, pp. 30-31, 
is a letter from J. A. HILD, describing a marble statue of Athena, found at 
Poitiers. The right arm is wanting, as is also the left hand, but the shield 
once held by the left hand exists. There are traces of bronze ornaments. 
The type is archaic, but the workmanship (which is fine) shows that the 
statue itself is not of early date. The head was made of a separate piece, 
and whether it is the work of the same hand as the rest of the statue is not 
certain. 

SENS. A Replica of the Diadumenus of Polyclitus. In B. M. 
Soc. Ant. Fr. 1900, pp. 254-258 (2 pis.), A. HERON DE VJLLEFOSSE pub- 
lishes a marble head found about 1863 or 1865 at Yauluisant, near Ville- 
neuve-Archeveque (Yonne), and now in the possession of Dr. R. Lome, at 
Sens. The top of the head was made of a separate piece and is missing. 
The nose is broken, and there are a few slight surface injuries. Otherwise 
the head is well preserved. It belongs to the series of replicas of the 
Diadumenus in which Attic characteristics are evident. It has not the 
" documentary value " of the statue from Vaison. The Diadumenus from 
Delos is now the best replica known. 

TOURNAI. Inscribed Pottery. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1900, 
pp. 126-131 (pi.), F. DE MONNECOVE publishes and describes some pottery 
with curious linear and plant ornamentation found within the city of 
Tournai in 1900. At east and west of the city are two large cemeteries. 
The first belongs to the first and second centuries after Christ, the second 
to the third and fourth centuries. In the first the bodies were burned, in 
the second buried. The pottery found in these cemeteries is of little inter- 



370 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

est. In an excavation within the city the four vases mentioned above were 
found. The inscriptions read : Avete vos ; Da vinum ; Vitula ; Lucrum Fac. 
Other vases with similar inscriptions are mentioned. 

VERT AULT. The Ancient Vertillum. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 
1901, pp. 215-226 (5 figs.), F. DAGUIN reports the excavations in 1900 at 
the site of the ancient Vertillum. Part of a wide street and several build- 
ings were uncovered. The town seemed to have been destroyed by fire. 
Numerous coins were found, the earliest being those of Augustus, the latest 
those of Tetricus, who died in 274 A.D. Many pieces of pottery, fibulae, 
and miscellaneous objects came to light. The most remarkable piece of 
pottery was a vase with griffins and a mounted warrior in relief. 

VIENNE. A Mosaic. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1900, pp. 258-263, is a 
note from Mr. BIZOT, director of the Museums of the city of Vienne (Isere) 
describing a mosaic found at Sainte Colombe. A Bacchic scene is repre- 
sented, in which the persons are divided into three groups. The central 
group is ill preserved. The whole is surrounded by a border, representing 
a vine. The mosaic as yet uncovered seems to be the floor of only a part of 
a large room. 

VILLELAURE. Roman Mosaics. In B. M. Soc. Ant. Fr. 1901, 
pp. 117-122 (pi.), G. LAFAYE describes, from photographs sent by FRANKI 
MOULIN, some Roman mosaics found in 1900 at Villelaure (Vaucluse). 
The most important of these represents the closing scene of the combat of 
Dares and Entellus (Virgil, Aeneid, v, 362 ff.). Entellus has just struck the 
bull its death blow with his fist. A mosaic with the same representation 
was found at Aix, in Provence, in 1790, but was destroyed. The second 
mosaic represents hunting scenes, the third an Egyptian landscape. 

GERMANY 

THE REICHSLIMESKOMMISION IN 1901. The work of the 
last year has been on matters of detail rather than general questions. New 
points are the discovery of an earth-fort period for the Odenwald line and a 
distinct change of route between the earlier Domitian's boundary and 
that of Hadrian's time, in the eastern Wetterau. The only gap existing 
between the Rhine and the Danube, about 9.5 km. in the Taunus, has 
been filled by tracing both lines of towers, those of timber and those of 
stone with palisading. The course of the Odenwald line, from the crest of 
the ridge to its junction with the Main below Worth, has been ascertained. 
In the Rhine section, a peculiarly strong timber structure in the middle 
of an earth-fort and the central buildings, called praetoria, in two other 
earth-forts, have had especial study. At Pfunz, in the Danube section, a 
Roman road leading from the east gate of the camp has been found, and 
also some buildings connected with the iron mining which was carried on 
here in Roman times. The earthwork at Nasenfels proves to be Roman, 
not mediaeval. (E. FABRICIUS, Arch. Anz. 1902, pp. 66-71.) 

THE SOUTH AND WEST GERMAN COLLECTIONS OF ANTIQ- 
UITIES. A large number of objects of Roman or Frankish times and 
of the prehistoric stone and bronze periods are constantly coming to light, 
either through accident or by systematic excavation, and the list of annual 
additions to museums is a long one. In Strassburg, besides fragments of 
Arretine pottery and sculpture, important wall paintings have been found 



GERMANY] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 371 

in digging up the streets. At Hanau a broken group of a horseman and 
giant is of a new type, with a wheel-like shield and the fallen giant turned 
toward the enemy. At Wiesbaden there is new evidence of an early 
Roman settlement destroyed by fire in the first half of the second century 
after Christ. At Dannstadt, district of Speyer, a burial ground was found 
that had been used in both the Hallstatt and the La Tene periods. A new 
phase of neolithic culture appears in some cemeteries in the region of 
Worms, in which the dead were interred in a crouching posture. Digging 
for public works in Mainz shows more clearly the limits of the Roman 
trading section along the river front. The objects found here are chiefly 
pottery of the first half of the first century after Christ. Two bell-shaped 
Arretine bowls, very rare north of the Alps, also come from Mainz. In 
piping the streets of Treves, the street system and other important points 
of the Roman town came to light and some good single objects were found. 
The baths here seem to have had no piscina. The Provincial Museum at 
Bonn is excavating Roman or prehistoric fortified positions at several points 
on the Rhine. (J. JACOBS, Arch. Anz. 1902, pp. 71-79; 3 cuts.) 

BERLIN. The Pergamon Museum. The Pergamon Museum was 
opened December 18, 1901. The monuments of Pergamene art (and the 
monuments from Priene and Magnesia) are now so displayed that the 
beholder can appreciate the effect produced by them in ancient times. 
Many fragments hitherto packed away and inaccessible to the public are 
now exhibited under the most favorable conditions. Never before were 
remains of ancient art exhibited so nearly in their original setting. 
The effect upon the knowledge of ancient art cannot fail to be great. 
(H. WINNEFELD, Arch. Anz. 1902, pp. 1-4; plan. Cf. Berl. Phil. W. 
January 18, 1902.) 

Meetings of the Berlin Archaeological Society. At the November 
(1901) meeting U. von Wilamowitz-Mollendorf presented observations on 
(1) Borghi's publication on the Roman ship in the Lago di Nemi an ob- 
servation barge or float, rather than a ship; (2) Keil's inferences as to the 
architectural history of the Acropolis at Athens, from a papyrus at Strass- 
burg; (3) some of the Amherst Papyri of Grenfell and Hunt, especially 
one of the sixth or seventh century, showing certain modern Greek words 
in established use. Zahn discussed a group of sculpture, chiefly from Crete, 
which lies between the Mycenaean and classic Greek periods. 

At the December meeting there were shown plans of the excavations and 
reconstructions of buildings at Miletus, plates from Wiegand's forthcoming 
work on the primitive architecture of the Acropolis at Athens, and Kekule 
von Stradonitz's pamphlet on a portrait of Pericles in the Royal Museum 
at Berlin. Dahm spoke of the excavations at Haltern which have recently 
proved beyond question that the Roman settlement and fortress of Aliso 
were here. Various stages of the occupation of the site and two conflagra- 
tions are related to definite recorded events. Only a systematic investiga- 
tion of the remains in this part of Germany is needed to establish the site of 
the Defeat of Varus and to clear up other mysteries of the Roman invasion 
of this region. (Arch. Anz. 1901, pp. 220-222.) 

FRANKFORT. A Roman Cemetery. A very large Roman ceme- 
tery has been discovered near Frankfort. One hundred and fifty graves 
have already been uncovered. (Athen. January 25, 1902.) 



372 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

FREIBURG. Meeting of Associated Archaeological Societies. 

The second meeting of the new Verband West- und Siiddeutscher Vereine 
fiir Romisch-Germanische Altertumsforschung was held at Freiburg, Sep- 
tember 23-25, 1901. A list of the subjects discussed is given in Arch. Anz. 
1901, p. 218. 

HALTERN. The Roman Aliso. The results of the excavations 
near Haltern on the Lippe in Westphalia, now recognized as the Roman 
Aliso, with mountain-stronghold, great camp on the plain, and civilian settle- 
ment, are sketched by A. CONZE in Arch. Anz. 1902, pp. 4-7 ; plan. 

STRASSBURG-. Archaeological Meeting. A brief account of the 
archaeological section of the Philological meeting at Strassburg, October 1-4, 
1901, with abstracts of some of the papers, is given in Arch. Anz. 1901, pp. 
213-218. Among the subjects presented were the Sieglin excavations at 
Alexandria (Sarapion, water-works, architecture of many successive epochs, 
and sculpture of unexpected excellence) with a special paper on the great 
Roman three-story underground tomb-complex ; the work of the German 
Limeskommission (details of the history of the limes in relation to that of 
the Empire); excavations at the Celtic Taradunum near Freiburg; the 
Mediomatrici (Metz) in relation to Roman civilization ; the Austrian Limes- 
kommission ; a fable of Aesop on a grave-relief at Florence ; the Ara Pacis 
of Augustus (Petersen) ; the various Athena temples on the Acropolis 
(Michaelis) ; and the Lesche of the Cnidians at Delphi (the paintings of 
Polygnotus being assigned to the ends of the hall, each occupying an end 
wall and adjacent portions of the side walls). A representation of the 
Oresteia of Aeschylus was given, in Wilamowitz-Mollendorf's version. 

GREAT BRITAIN 

ROMAN BRITAIN IN 1901. In Athen. March 15, 1902, F. HAVER- 
FIELD gives a brief summary of discoveries of Roman remains in Britain in 
1901. Little new work was undertaken. [On Caerwent and Silchester see 
below.] Traces of villas were noted at Rothley (near Leicester), at Worth- 
ing (in Sussex), and elsewhere. At Worthing a fragment of a dedication to 
Constantine was found. Work was continued by the Cardiff Naturalist's 
Society, and the fort at Gelligaer was completely uncovered. The rampart 
here was of earth faced with stone. The fort probably belonged to the latter 
part of the first century after Christ. AVork was also continued on Hadrian's 
wall, and the Scottish Society excavated at Inchtuthill (see above, p. 87). 

CAERWENT. Excavations in 1899 and 1900. Excavations at 
Caerwent, Monmouthshire, on the site of the Roman city of Venta Silurum, 
in 1899 and 1900, are described by A. T. MARTIN and THOMAS ASHBY, JR., 
in Archaeologia, LVII, 2 (1901), pp. 295-310 (1 pi. ; 5 figs.). Notes on the 
animal and other remains found are added by ALFRED E. HUDD, pp. 311-316 
(1 fig.). Two houses were completely and one partially excavated. House 
No. 1 was a small building containing two furnaces. House No. 3 was a 
large dwelling, with many rooms arranged about a court. Various traces of 
colored decoration were found. 

Excavations in 1891. The excavations at Caerwent in 1891 were 
described by T. ASHBY, Jr., in a report presented to the Society of Anti- 
quaries, January 16, 1902, a summary of which is in Athen. January 25, 1902. 
Two houses (Nos. 2 and 7) were completely excavated, and found to have 



AFRICA] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 373 

rooms on all four sides of a court, not, as is usual, on three sides only. 
Excavation of the north gate was begun. See also F. HAVERFIELD, Athen. 
March 15, 1902. 

SILCHESTER. Excavations in 1900. In Archaeologia, LVII, 2 
(1901), pp. 229-251 (6 pis. ; 9 figs.), G. E. Fox and W. H. ST. JOHN HOPE 
describe in detail the excavations in insulae XXIII, XXIV, XXV, and 
XXVI, carried on at Silchester in 1900. The houses investigated showed 
some peculiarities of plan and were rich in mosaic floors. One plate is a 
plan of insula XII, excavated in 1894. The small objects found are 
described. Notes on the plant-remains of Roman Silchester are added by 
CLEMENT REID, ibid. pp. 252-256. 

Excavations in 1901. In 1901, two insulae were examined, one of 
which contained foundations of three large houses, with hypocausts and 
mosaics. A tile was found on which was scratch Q^. fecit tubu(m) Clementinus, 
showing that the lower classes at Silchester used Latin. (Report by W. H. 
ST. JOHN HOPE to the Society of Antiquaries May 29, Athen. June 7, 1902 ; 
cf. F. HAVERFIELD, Athen. March 15, 1902.) 

DISCOVERIES AND INVESTIGATIONS IN SCOTLAND. In 
the Proceedings of the Soc: A nt. XVIII, No. 2, pp. 370-386, ROBERT MUNRO 
reports to the Society on discoveries and investigations in Scotland since 
May, 1896. He mentions some isolated finds, and describes the Roman 
camp at Ardoch, the camps and earthworks at Birrenswark, the hill-fort 
near Abernethy (which is pre-Roman), the Hyndford crannog (pre-Roman 
and Roman), the hill-fort of Dunbuie the peculiar objects found in which 
are regarded by Millar as pre-Celtic, though the fort is post-Roman and the 
Dumbuck crannog. 

AFRICA 

RECENT DISCOVERIES IN NORTH AFRICA. In Arch. Anz. 
1902, pp. 52-61 (7 cuts) A. SCHULTEN summarizes the last year's publica- 
tions on work in Tunis and Algeria by Delattre, Gauckler, Carton, Gsell, 
several officers of the French army, and others. The Punic objects include 
triangular stelae which represent the deceased with left hand on the breast 
and right hand raised and turned palm forward, a painted marble sarcopha- 
gus with relief on the cover, from Carthage, slabs from monuments of the 
first or second century after Christ, with animal reliefs and the Punic trinity 
in the form of conical stones with globes in the place of heads. More of 
the genuine African rock-pictures have been found in the mountains of 
the Algerian Sahara. Their lifelike animal scenes give an epitome of the 
native fauna at a time when the country was much less arid than at pres- 
ent. The megalithic monuments in the mountains south of Constantine 
invite comparison with dolmens, cromlechs, nuraghe, pyramids, and all the 
allied monuments of the Mediterranean and western Europe. At Leptis 
Magiia. between the two Syrtes, some monuments similar to the Mausoleum, 
conical buildings on square bases, have disappeared with the rest of the city 
since an account of it was published in a French journal in 1694. So it is 
with all places accessible from the sea, etiam periere ruinae. Specimens 
of burial in large earthen jars, found in both Tunis and Algeria, are pre- 
Roman, but whether Punic or not, is uncertain. At Thugga, the sanctuary 
of the Punic Caelestis has been cleared. The area is semicircular and con- 
tained statues of the countries and cities where the goddess was worshipped. 



374 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

A new excavation at Gigthis, one of the emporia on the Lesser Syrtis, 
shows in the superiority of the architecture the Greek influence which here 
long preceded the Roman occupation of Africa. Study of the Roman 
limes Tripolitanus, a military road along the mountains which protect the 
coast lands, from the Lesser Syrtis to Leptis Magna, shows that its fortified 
points, both those on the road and the advanced posts farther south toward 
the desert, were much smaller than the forts of the German limes, being 
indeed rather block-houses than camps. A quantity of stone and terra- 
cotta projectiles for balistae has been found at Lambaesis. Two Roman 
acqueducts which have been restored to use show the great skill of the 
Roman engineers. The buried Roman villa at El Alia, on the bay of 
Tunis, is preserved in some parts above the first story and has mosaics, 
paintings, marble incrustations and baths, although the main apartments 
have not yet been reached. The name of the owner, Thebanius, is given in 
a mosaic. Similarly a large private house with three open courts, at Timgad, 
is known to have belonged to one Sertius. Among other mosaics, one at 
Carthage has four horses with bodies radiating from a single head which 
belongs to them all. Another, at Thugga, shows a racing chariot and the 
inscription, Eros, omnia per te, addressed to the guiding horse. Enough of 
the Odeum at Carthage can be uncovered to permit a restoration of the 
architectural plan and details. Architectural remains of the basilica at 
Morsott, with figures symbolic of the church, recall the Semitic worship of 
deities in the form of stones and pillars, and the inscription from Thala, 
Saturno baetilum . . . cum columna d. s. fecit. Among the finds of sculpture, 
largely from Cherchel, are a copy of a fifth century Argive statue of a youth, 
which resembles the "Orestes" with "Electra" at Naples; a head of Aescu- 
lapius similar to the Zeus of Otricoli, a new portrait head of Juba II, and one 
of Livia, and a new head belonging to the series of fifth century Athenian 
generals. Smaller fine work is represented by a bronze oenochoe, which has 
a handle formed of the figures of two boys, and two terra-cotta lamps of 
Alexandrian style, one in the form of a Nile boat. 

BOU-GHARA (GIGHTI). Inscriptions. Two Latin inscriptions 
from the forum of the ancient Gighti are published by R. CAGXAT, C. R. 
Acad. Insc. 1902, pp. 37-40. One, a dedication to Antoninus Pius, shows 
that he gave Gighti the rank of municipium : the second is in honor of Ser- 
vilius Draco, who had twice gone to Rome at his own expense to gain the 
Latium mains for the town, and had finally been successful. After this 
time (apparently the second half of the second century after Christ) the 
decurions of Gighti were, then, Roman citizens. 

CARTHAGE. A Marble Sarcophagus. In C. R.Acad. Insc. 1902, 
pp. 56-64 (2 figs.), Father DELATTRE describes a marble sarcophagus, found 
with a number of objects in one of a series of chamber tombs at Carthage. 
On the cover of the sarcophagus is a high relief of excellent workmanship, 
representing a fully draped woman. Her outer garment is drawn up over 
the back part of her head, and is held away from her face by her right hand. 
The thick, waving hair above the forehead is uncovered. The face seems 
to have been intentionally injured. The work belongs apparently to the 
third century B.C. 

Sculptures. The excavations in Carthage, according to a letter from 
Tunis in the Berlin Post, have recently brought to light a number of statues. 



UNITED STATES] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS^ 1902 375 

One represents Hadrian in military costume. A colossal statue of a sitting 
Jupiter, a colossal statue of an empress, and several heads of empresses, 
including one of Faustina, also occur amongst the late discoveries. (Athen. 
January 18, 1902.) 

Baal-Samaim. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1901, pp. 487-489, P. BERGER pub- 
lishes a Punic inscription sent by Father Delattre from Carthage. It men- 
tions Baal the Celestial (Baal-Samaim, or Belsamin), whose worship at 
Carthage was not attested heretofore. It also shows that the office of 
chief priest was hereditary. The office of sano mentioned is as yet unex- 
plained. 

A Potter's Kiln. During his excavations beneath a Roman villa P. 
Gauckler came upon a Punic potter's kiln, which is in so unimpaired a con- 
dition that seemed to bring into view the entire apparatus and process of the 
potter's work. Gauckler promises full information shortly, but says he is 
now convinced that a whole series of the potter's ware, hitherto supposed 
to have been imported, was produced in Carthage itself. (Athen. May 31, 
1902.) 

LAMB AESIS. The Praetorium. In C. R. Acad. Insc. 1902, pp. 
40-46 (plan; 4 figs.), R. CAGNAT reports on the progress of discoveries at 
Lambaesis (see above, p. 90), and publishes a restored plan of the praeto- 
rium, a large court surrounded by porticos and chambers. A large number 
of egg-shaped clay projectiles and a pedestal with a dedication to Septimius 
Severus and his sons were found. 

UNITED STATES 

BOSTON. Acquisitions of the Museum of Fine Arts. The fol- 
lowing summary is taken from the report of Edward Robinson to the Trus- 
tees of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, published in the Annual Report of 
the Trustees for 1901 (Boston, Alfred Mudge & Son). 

The total number of objects added to the collections of original antiqui- 
ties in the Department of Classical Art during the year 1901 was 1173. 
These may be classified as follows : 

Terra-cottas, including fragments 383 

Vases 128 

Fragments of vases 40 

Marble and stone 28 

Bronzes 68 

Gems 77 

Jewellery and ornaments 49 

Glass 27 

Ivory and bone 13 

Coins 235 

Lead and bronze weights 80 

Fay urn textiles 37 

Miscellaneous 8 

1173 

TERRA-COTTAS. Regarded as a whole, these constitute the most 
important acquisition of the year. The 383 added this year have been the 
gradual accumulation of a friend of the Museum. Many of them were for- 



376 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

merly in well-known private collections, and a considerable number have 
been published. They may be classified as follows : 

Statuettes 251 

Heads and masks 56 

Fragments of statuettes not included in above .... 43 

Moulds for parts of statuettes 13 

Reliefs (counting as one number twelve small gilded 
figures in relief, used as decorations of a chest or 

casket, Forman Sale II, 191) 16 

Lamps decorated with reliefs 4 

383 

The types represented in these are numerous and varied. One hundred 
statuettes are of Tanagra types, eighty-one statuettes, masks, etc., of Myrina 
types, sixty-six of Smyrna types, and various places in Greece and Lower 
Italy are well represented. 

Included in this section, because of its material, though it represents a 
much nobler art than the statuettes and reliefs, is a life-sized portrait bust 
of a Roman, of the first century B.C., perfectly preserved in every respect 
except color. The subject, as yet unidentified, is an elderly man, close- 
shaven, with a face which indicates a character combining force, intelligence, 
and refinement. The type is clearly that of an aristocrat and a leader of 
men, whether as soldier or statesman. 

VASES. Of the 128 vases acquired during the year, the most important, 
or at all events the best known, are 25 from the Bourguignon collection in 
Naples, most of which have been published. These are nearly all Attic 
black -figured and red-figured vases; but the acquisitions of vases during 
the year extend from pre-Mycenaean vases found in Egypt to Arretine ware. 
Many of the vases acquired are exceptionally fine. 

MARBLE AND STONE. First in importance among the twenty-eight 
fragments included under this head is a nude male torso, of heroic size, 
which has sufficient resemblance to the Doryphorus to mark it as unques- 
tionably a Polyclitan work. The missing parts are the head, the right arm 
from just below the shoulder, the left arm from the elbow, the right leg from 
the upper half of the thigh, and the left leg from and including the knee. 
It is probably a Roman copy, of rather better than the average quality of 
Roman copies. 

Next is the fragmentary figure of a young woman, of life size and beau- 
tifully draped, which is undoubtedly a Greek work. She stands on the right 
leg, the left leg slightly bent, her left hand lightly clasping the folds of her 
himation, just below her breast, and her right hand, enveloped in the hi- 
mation, hanging at her side. Missing are the head, the left foot and ankle, - 
the right foot and lower part of the leg. 

Besides these large works there are two small torsos of Marsyas; part of 
a statuette (of palombinci) of Aphrodite untying her sandal; a splendid 
Scopaic head of a youth, of Greek workmanship, displaying admirably the 
characteristics of the style of Scopas ; two other fourth century heads one 
of an elderly woman, from an Attic grave monument (type like Athens, 
National Museum No. 966), the other a Hygieia or Apollo (cf. Brunn-Bruck- 
mann, Denkmdler, No. 525) ; portrait heads of Ptolerny IV and Arsinoe III ; 



UNITED STATES] AECHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 377 

a charming head of Aphrodite, of Roman workmanship ; a large head of a 
ram; a double herma of Heracles and Hebe (?) ; four Roman portrait heads, 
including one of an infant ; and eight fragments of reliefs, etc. 

BRONZES. With one exception these are all small. The exception is the 
fragment of a draped male statue, of life size, and apparently standing in an 
attitude like that of the Aeschines in Naples. The fragment includes only 
a part of the drapery of the right half of the figure, from the neck to just 
above the ankle, with the right arm, enveloped in the folds, but not the 
hand. It is Greek, and probably of the fourth century. 

Twenty of the small pieces are statuettes. These include two draped 
Aphrodites of the severe style, as mirror-stands, two discoboli in different 
attitudes, two ey/cptvo/xevot (youths taking oaths), the fine archaic figure of a 
youth striding a horse (horse missing), from the first Form an sale, figures 
of Asclepius, Heracles, Triton, and Atys ; an archaic female dancer, a run- 
ning satyr, a young warrior, a girl with a dove, an archaic man, squatting 
(from the north of Greece), a youth putting a weight, and three other 
youths. 

Among the other bronzes are five Greek (box) mirrors, two Etruscan 
mirrors, two archaic griffins' heads (from the Forrnan collection), three small 
and very fine archaic (repousse) reliefs, two of them representing the Battle 
of the Gods and Giants, the third not yet cleaned sufficiently to disclose the 
subject ; four figures of animals, a fragment of a Corinthian helmet, bearing 
the incised inscription To Aio? OAv/A7rio; an exceptionally beautiful and per- 
fect strigil, with chased decorations and the maker's stamp, ATTOAAO-* ; 
a.caduceus, the head of bronze and the handle of iron (length, 0.39 in.); and 
miscellaneous fragments, handles, ornaments, etc. 

GEMS. The seventy -seven gems include sixty-nine intaglios, six cameos, 
one uncut crystal scaraboid, and one crystal ring, which has a large concave 
bezel. There are several fine Mycenaean gems among them ; and as a whole 
they cover a wide range chronologically, as well as in the variety of types 
and subjects represented. 

JEWELLERY AND ORNAMENTS. The most important of the forty-nine in- 
dividual objects in this section are three trim gold disks, measuring respec- 
tively 0.167 m., 0.075 m., and 0.075 m. in diameter, from a tomb at Neandreia, 
in the Troad. The holes around the edges of each show that they were 
sewn upon draperies of some kind, and the surface of each is covered with 
elaborate repousse decorations in low relief. They are probably late Myce- 
naean or early Ionic. There are also eleven small Mycenaean gold orna- 
ments, eight of which are of basket shape (cf . the mould in Schliemann's 
Mycenae, Fig. 162), and a Mycenaean gold pin ; and among the later objects 
are four pairs of earrings, five single earrings, or parts of earrings, four 
Greek necklaces (two of them of children's size) ; eight rings with intaglio 
designs in the bezels (two of gold, three of silver, three of bronze), one pair 
of gold studs or buttons with filigree decorations, two gold pins with ball- 
heads, and five links of a chain necklace of wrought gold. 

GLASS. Twenty-seven numbers; among them a Phoenician head of 
archaic type, composed of opaque glass of various colors ; a number of Phoe- 
nician glass vases, two specimens of Romano-Egyptian glass mosaic (sections 
cut from rods), a fragment of a cameo glass vase, white on blue, six excel- 
lent specimens of late blown glass, from Phoenicia ; and a pane of window 



378 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

glass, of the Roman period, measuring 35 x 27 cm., said to be from Puteoli 
(Bourguignon collection). 

IVORY AND BONE. The items under this heading are two small heads, 
one of a man, the eyes inserted, the other a charming head of a child, 
with the hair gilded, and eleven dice of various sizes. Two of these are 
quite small, and enclosed in an ivory box, with a compartment for each. 

The weights will have to be submitted to the investigation of a specialist 
in Greek metrology before an intelligent or satisfactory account of them can 
be given. They are all in good condition, and with one or two exceptions 
they bear either inscriptions or devices or both ; they range in weight from 
21.16 to 18,180 grains, and most of them are stated, on good authority, to be 
of Attic provenance. 

The thirty-seven specimens of colored weaving and embroidery from the 
Fayum have been handed over to the Textile Department to increase its col- 
lection of Fayum textiles. 

MISCELLANEOUS ORIGINALS. These are: (1) A small silver statuette 
of a draped goddess (124 mm. high), cast hollow, and of an extremely thin 
shell. (2) A large silver spiral, to be worn as an ornament on the leg. 
(From the second Forman sale, No. 340.) (3) Fragment of a Pompeian 
fresco, 24 x 25 cm., containing a female head, of good style, veiled and 
diademed. From the Bourguignon collection. (4) Head of a child, life 
size, of plaster, Roman. (5) Fragment of a small relief, in plaster, repre- 
senting a youth and hetaera on a couch. From Egypt. The style and 
subject are suggestive of the designs of Tigranes on Arretine pottery, and 
the relief may, perhaps, form a bit of evidence in tracing the origin of such 
designs on that ware. (6-8) Three curious, small objects of rock crystal. 
Two are possibly studs, being shaped like large modern shirt studs, with flat 
front and slightly concave back ; the third might be an eyelet, being a ring 
with thin, concave sides. It has been suggested also that these are stands for 
very small vases. They are carefully finished, and without decoration of 
any kind. 

REPRODUCTIONS. A full-sized copy, in bronze, of the statue of a 
Charioteer found at Delphi in 1896, during the excavations of the French 
School. 

A collection of seventy of the excellent electrotype reproductions of Myce- 
naean metal objects made by the Galvanoplastische Kunstanstalt of Geis- 
lingen-Stein, in Wiirttemberg. 

A bronze copy of the large statuette of Aphrodite in the Lateran. Hel- 
big's Guide (English), No. 699 ; Monumenti dell' Institute, IX, pi. viii. 

A bronze copy, beautifully executed, of the Alexandrian statuette of a 
Negro Boy in the Bibliotheque Rationale, Paris. Babelon and Blanchet's 
Catalogue, No. 1009 ; Rayet's Monuments, II, No. 58. 

Seventy-nine photographs of objects in the Imperial Museum of Constan- 
tinople sent in exchange by his Excellency Hamdy Bey. 

COINS. The collection of coins bought in recent years with the bequest 
of Mrs. Catharine Page Perkins and known as " the Catharine Page Perkins 
Collection of Coins," contains 609 coins, of which 576 are Greek and 33 
Roman. This is a small collection in itself, but of very exceptional value 
from the point of view of numismatics as a fine art, on account of the beauty 
or artistic interest of each of the types represented, and of the remarkable 



CHRISTIAN ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 379 

preservation of all the examples. Some of them are of extreme rarity. 
The Greek coins are from all parts of the Greek world, and of various dates. 
A descriptive list of all the coins is given in the report. 

PHILADELPHIA. Tablets from Nippur. The Sultan has pre- 
sented to Professor H. V. Ililprecht, in addition to numerous other antiqui- 
ties, the larger part of the temple library of Nippur, consisting of clay 
tablets, none of which is later than 2000 B.C. Professor Hilprecht has pre- 
sented the tablets to the University of Pennsylvania, and will proceed to 
decipher and publish them. (HILPRECHT, S.S. Times, May 17, 1902.) 

BYZANTINE, MEDIAEVAL, AND RENAISSANCE ART 

GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUS 

CHRISTIAN ANTIQUITIES IN THE SUDAN. Mr. JOHN WARD, 
F.S. A., writes : " We have all heard of the temples and pyramids at Meroe, 
but few were prepared for the discovery of ruined Christian cities beyond 
Khartum. In the beautiful garden of the palace at Khartum, I saw a huge 
stone Paschal lamb, of evident Roman structure. Father Ohrwalder told 
me that this was brought from the ruins of Soba, on the Blue Nile, twenty- 
five miles beyond Khartum, in Gordon's time, and that he knew the place, 
which abounded with the remains of Christian temples, and was once the 
centre of a civilized kingdom. Colonel Stanton, Governor of Khartum, 
found me a map of the country round Soba, with the ruins laid down. 
Since then he has visited the ruined temples himself, and is preparing to 
have them cleared from the sand, and photographed. About eighty miles 
north of this there are the extensive ruins of another city Naga with 
fine temples of Roman architecture, avenues of lambs, the same as the one 
at Khartum, leading up to them. The inscriptions are in hieroglyphs, while 
the composite capitals of the columns bear the cross, both at Soba and 
Naga. The lamb at Khartum has a long hieroglyph text and the cartouche 
of some ancient king. This inscription had not been observed before I dis- 
covered it on the base under the gravel. So far south, Roman work of 
Christian times with hieroglyphic texts is a novel combination and demands 
further research. Since I left Khartum, Colonel Stanton writes me that he 
learns from the natives that there are many similar ruins spread all over 
the country, and, eighty miles east of Khartum, sculptured rocks and in- 
scriptions, while as far away as Darfur, tidings of ruins of temples reach 
him." (London Times, May, 1902.) 

MAKRONISI. ^ A Byzantine Cistern. In Jh. Oesterr. Arch. I. V, 
1902, Beiblatt, coll. 35-38 (3 figs.), V. v. HOLBACH describes a vaulted 
Byzantine cistern on the island of Makronisi in the Gulf of Smyrna. The 
date is not earlier than the fourth century after Christ, and may be as late 
as the sixth. 

STOCKHOLM. A Painting by Fraiis Hals. The Museum of 
Stockholm has recently acquired a painting by Frans Hals representing a 
violin player. (Chron. d. Arts, 1901, p. 322.) 

NEW 1 YORK. The Metropolitan Museum of Art. -- The cele- 
brated collection of vases belonging to Mr. James H. Garland, has been 
purchased by Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan for about $600,000, and will remain 
for the present on exhibition in the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 



380 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 



ITALY 

AFFORI. The ' Madonna of the Grotto.' There has been dis- 
covered at Affori, near Milan, another painting of the 'Madonna of the 
Grotto,' pronounced by Diego Sant' Ambrogio to be superior to the Louvre 
and London examples. This painting he assigns to Leonardo da Vinci, 
between 1520 and 1540. The new painting has engaged the attention of 
DIEGO SANT' AMBROGIO in the Rassegna d' Arte, 1901, Nos. 6, 7, in Lega 
Lombarda, 1901, July 23 and August 18, in Arte e Storia, 1901, Nos. 18-19. 
It has been seen and admired by G. Schlosser of Vienna, Marcel Reymond 
of Grenoble, and Semper of Innsbruck. Frizzoni, however, has also visited 
Affori and attributes the painting to one of the pupils of Leonardo. 

A Madonna by Bernardino Luini. A little known but charming 
Madonna by Bernardino Luini is published by AMBROGIO ANNONI in 
Rassegna d' Arte, 1901, pp. 156-157. The painting belongs to Cav. Uff. 
Nobile Giovanni Litta-Modignani, and is in his villa at Affori, not far 
from Milan. In this painting, Luini was evidently strongly influenced by 
Leonardo's famous ' Madonna of the Grotto.' 

CASTELNUOVO DI PORTO. A Painting by Perugino. In the 
Church of Santa Maria Assunta at Castelnuovo di Porto, there is an altar- 
piece in the form of a triptych, the central panel of which represents the 
Redeemer. The subsidiary panels portray four saints. A document has 
recently come to light proving that this painting was ordered of Perugino. 
The central panel, which bears the date, 1501, is by the master, while the 
other panels are evidently the work of one of his scholars. (ALESSANDRO 
BELLUCCI, V Arte, 1902, pp. 39-43.) 

CASTIGLIONE D' OLONA. Various Monuments. Castiglione 
d' Olona in Lombardy has become well known from the recently discovered 
frescoes by Masolino. Other noteworthy monuments in the town are 
figured by A. CODARA in his Guida di Varese, published in 1901. An 
illustrated article on the town is published by LUCA BELTRAMI, Rassegna 
d' Arte, 1901, pp. 181-183. 

CODIGORO. Paintings by Dosso Dossi and Garofalo. Two 
paintings, one by Dosso Dossi, and another by Garofalo, which have appar- 
ently escaped the attention of scholars, are in the Cathedral of Codigoro in 
the Emilia. The painting by Dosso Do ( 4 represents the Virgin in Glory 
with St. John the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist in the foreground. 
The painting by Garofalo represents the Madonna enthroned with San 
Martino and Santa Lucia. (V Arte, 1901, pp. 355-356.) 

FAENZA. A Lunette by G. B. Bertucci. The paintings by G. B. 
Bertucci have been identified only in recent years. There are two of them 
in the National Gallery at London, long assigned to the School of Perugia, 
and one in the Museum at Berlin, formerly attributed to Pinturicchio. The 
Gallery at Faenza contains other paintings by this artist. A fine lunette 
representing the Coronation is now offered for sale in Faenza, and FEDERICO 
ARGNANI makes an appeal in Rassegna d' Arte, 1901, p. 173, that this should 
be acquired for the Gallery of Faenza. 

FERRARA. The New Gallery. A new gallery has been established 
at Ferrara. The gifts of il Duca Massari and of Sig. Riccardo Lombardi, 
as well as the purchase of part of the collection of Sig. Alessandro Morelli, 



CHRISTIAN ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 381 

have enriched the gallery of Ferrara by more than two hundred paintings. 
Many of the best old Italian masters are here represented. There is also a 
room devoted to modern paintings and one to tapestries. (Arte e Storia, 

1901, pp. 120-121.) 

FLORENCE. The House of Dante. The Association for the Pres- 
ervation of Old Florence has taken active measures to procure for the city 
of Florence the house of Dante. (Arte e Storia, 1902, p. 35.) 

The Mosaic in the Church of S. Marco. In the Church of 8. Marco, 
Florence, there is a mosaic representing the Madonna. This is of eighth 
century workmanship, and came from St. Peter's, Rome, from a chapel, the 
position of which is occupied to-day by the Porta Santa. Other portions of 
this mosaic are found in the Laterau, in the crypt of St. Peter's, and in the 
sacristy of S. Maria in Cosmedin. The inscription above the mosaic in 
Florence, though correctly referring it to the time of Pope John VII, bears 
the date 1203. Besides this erroneous date, the inscription contains the 
title Pontifex Maximus, whereas this Pope would not have used this title, 
but merely that of Episcopus. (Arte e Storia, 1901, pp. 66-67.) 

The Brancacci Chapel of the Carmine. The Brancacci Chapel, which 
contains the famous frescoes of Masolino, Masaccio, and Filipino Lippi, is 
now receiving the attention of the Ufficio Regionale. An effort will be 
made to remedy the dampness of the building, also to open up an ancient 
window and thus introduce more light into the chapel. (Arte e Storia, 

1902, p. 7.) 

Paintings in Santa Maria Maggiore. In the restorations which have 
taken place in the principal chapel of the Church of Santa Maria Maggiore, 
at Florence, there have come to light some fragments of ancient wall paint- 
ings which, according to the historians, were executed by Spinello Aretino. 
One of these represents King Herod in the Massacre of the Innocents. 
They exhibit skill in chiaroscuro, are well designed, and correspond in style 
to the works of Spinello. (Arte e Storia, 1901, p. 142.) 

LODI. The Exposition of Sacred Art. In September, 1901, an 
exposition of sacred art was opened at Lodi. Perhaps the most important 
object here exhibited is the celebrated silver cross, from the Church of the 
Incoronata at Lodi, made by Bartolomeo and the brothers Brocchi of Milan, 
in the year 1512. A number of paintings, works of sculpture, and minia- 
tures were also placed on exhibitu . (U Arte, 1901, pp. 353-354.) 

MILAN. The Gallery of the Sf orza Castle. A small but interest- 
ing collection of paintings, formerly in the Municipal Museum and recently 
inaccessible, have now been placed in the Sforza Castle, where they are well 
exhibited. The collection contains noteworthy examples of Lombard, Vene- 
tian, and Flemish paintings. They are described by EMIL JACOBSEN in 
L' Arte, 1901, pp. 297-309. Amongst them is the martyrdom of Saint Sebas- 
tian, attributed by Jacobsen to Vincenzo Foppa, a portrait by Antonello da 
Messina, a portrait of a young man by Lorenzo Lotto and a Madonna by 
Correggio. 

An Illuminated Document. In Arte e Storia, 1902, pp. 32-33, 43-44, 
DIEGO SANT' AMBROGIO describes an illuminated document of the year 1479. 
It contains an authorization to the Confratelli della Concezione to elect a 
confessor for the absolution of all offences not especially reserved by the 
papal see. The document is illuminated by the miniature painter, Cristo- 



382 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

foro de Predis, and may be compared with other works by the same minia- 
ture painter in Milan, Turin, London, and elsewhere. It is of exceptional 
interest because the painting of the 'Madonna of the Grotto' was executed 
for the same fraternity by Leonardo da Vinci, assisted by Ambrogio de 
Predis. 

A Large Painting by Cima da Conegliano. A large painting, repre- 
senting the Madonna and Saints, which is signed and dated, and which has 
for a long time been preserved in a little church at Casiglio near Erba, has 
been removed to the Brera at Milan, where it will soon be exposed to view. 
(Rassegna d' Arte, 1901, p. 108.) 

MONTBFIORENTINO. The Cappella Oliva. The Cappella Oliva 
at Montefiorentino contains several important works of art, among which is 
a 'Madonna and Saints' by Giovanni Santi, and a sepulchral monument to 
Count Gianfrancesco Oliva, by Francesco di Simone Florentine. These are 
published by ONOFRIO FATTORI in Rassegna d' Arte, 1902, pp. 6-8. 

PISA. The Church of S. Francesco. The Church of S. Francesco 
at Pisa, which was long used as a military storehouse, has now been 
reopened for religious purposes. The church has been largely restored, 
and the high altar has been reconstituted according to the designs of Tom- 
maso Pisano. The choir seats have also been restored, and the paintings 
above the altars cleaned. (Arte e Storia, 1901, p. 143.) 

RIPATRANSONE. Frescoes by Ascanio Condivi. In the Ras- 
segna BiU. Arte Ital 1901, pp. 1-13, C. GRIGIONI brings to light some frescoes 
by Ascanio Condivi, the follower and biographer of Michelangelo. These 
frescoes are found in the little church of S. Maria del Carmine in the terri- 
tory of Ripatransone. One of them, the most important, represents a Depo- 
sition ; a second, the Adoration of the Magi ; a third, S. Antonio Abate ; and 
a fourth, a Madonna. The influence of Michelangelo is evident in these 
frescoes. They are of importance in showing that Condivi was not only an 
architect and a sculptor, but also a painter. 

ROME. Early Christian Monuments. It is proposed to publish 
hereafter more regular and detailed accounts of excavations in the Roman 
catacombs. As the first in this series of articles, O. MARUCCHI in Not. Scan, 
1901, pp. 484-495 (2 figs.), describes the most recent work in three of the 
ancient cemeteries. In the catacombs of St. Priscilla, on the Via Salaria 
Nuova, an ancient baptistry was cleared, connected with the Basilica of St. 
Silvester ; in the neighboring galleries inscriptions were found, one of which 
shows that they were in use as early as the beginning of the third century. In 
the catacombs of Nicomedes on the Via Nornentana, a long gallery has been 
excavated ; the crypt of Nicomedes was probably a small chapel at the foot 
of the stairs, where numerous fragments of marble decoration have been 
found. There has been recent excavation also under the church of St. 
Agnes on the Via Nomentana. There were found many inscriptions, a 
sarcophagus with a representation of Cupid and Psyche, and an interesting 
marble fragment with pictures of Peter and Paul. A long gallery was exca- 
vated, containing an inscription of the year 349 ; this gallery is obstructed by 
foundations of the present church, which is therefore of later date. Under 
the altar, the sepulchral urn of St. Agnes was found. 

Sale of the Sangiorgi Collection. Among the objects of the San- 
giorgi collection sold in Rome, April, 1902, was an early Botticelli represent- 



CHRISTIAN ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 388 

ing the Madonna and Child. A close relationship in the early works of this 
master to those of Filippo Lippi is well illustrated by comparison of this 
Madonna with a very similar Madonna by Filippo now in the Gallery at 
Munich. The general composition, including the landscape background, 
differs but little in the two paintings. In the same collection was a very 
fine Conversazione by Vincenzo Catena, and two interesting reliefs by 
Alfonso Lombardi, published in L' Arte, 1902, pp. 57-62. 

The Frescoes of S. Maria Antiqua. GERSPACH, who has described 
the frescoes of the S. Maria Antiqua in the R. Art Chret., describes them again 
for the Italian readers in Arte e Storia, 1902, Nos. 1-6. 

The Villa Borghese. When the Borghese Museum and Gallery was 
acquired by the government, it was expected that the collections would have 
to be removed in two years. It is now, however, practically assured that 
these collections will remain in the Villa Borghese, with which they have 
been so long associated. The government will probably sell the gardens to 
the municipality of Rome. The king is to erect a monument to his father 
in the Borghese Gardens, and the government will establish on a portion of 
the land an agricultural college. The gallery contains five or six world- 
famous canvases, together with many paintings of inferior quality. The 
Museum contains an important collection of ancient sculpture. (L' Arte, 
1901, p. 420 ; Am. Arch. 1902, January 4, p. 8.) 

The Castle St. Aiigelo. The Castle St. Angelo is shortly to be turned 
into a national museum. The underground passage leading to the Vatican 
has been found and the accumulated rubbish of ages cleared from it. In the 
old bastions, which correspond to a ground floor, will be collected all that 
refers to the mediaeval history of Rome. The documents and objects which 
refer to the castle itself will be arranged in the two salons called < Clement 
VII,' which open on the great court ; while above, in rooms which were once 
cells for political prisoners, and afterward officers' quarters, will be an Italian 
military engineering section. It will include an exhibit of models, draw- 
ings, and histories of mediaeval and later fortifications, in which Italian 
engineers were masters. To these new interests will be added those already 
there, such as the cells of Beatrice Cenci, Benvenuto Cellini, and other 
famous prisoners, the treasure-room containing the great iron-bound chests, 
the torture-chamber, and the entrance to the passage leading to the Vatican, 
which visitors will not be allowed to penetrate. (Am. Arch. November 9, 
1901, p. 48.) 

S. SEVERING. The Church of S. Rocco. During the fifteenth 
century there flourished at S. Severino a colony of Lombard architects, 
sculptors, and engineers, who left behind them various monuments and 
established the Church of S. Rocco and the building for the fraternity of S. 
Rocco. In Arte e Storia, 1901, pp. 87-91, VITTORIO EMANUELE ALEANDRI 
publishes documents of the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries containing 
the names of these Lombard artists. 

VARESE. Museum at Sacro Monte di Varese. On the Sacro 
Monte di Varese there has been recently established a museum, the contents 
of which are described by LUCA BELTRAMI in Rassegna a" Arte, pp. 8-11. 
On this sacred mountain are found most realistic representations of the 
Passion of Christ, executed partly in sculpture and partly in painting by 
Dionigi Bussola from 1645 to 1687. This series of Capelle stazionali, 



384 AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ARCHAEOLOGY [VOL. VI, 1902 

together with those on the sacred mountains at Varallo and Orta, are cer- 
tainly the most extraordinary representations of the Passion to be found in 
Italian art. 

VENICE. The Scuola di S. Rocco. All the art treasures of the 
Scuola di S. Rocco are carefully studied by G. M. URBANI DE GHELTOF in 
a volume entitled Tesoro delta Scuola Grande di S. Rocco in Venezia, pub- 
lished in Venice, 1901. (Arte e Storia, 1901, p. 144.) 

SPAIN 

A Madonna by Quentin Matsys. In the Boletin de la Sociedad Espa- 
nola de Excursiones, 1902, pp. 1-2, E. S. FATIGATI publishes a Madonna by 
Quentin Matsys, which is in the collection of D. Pablo Bosch at Madrid. 
On the painting are found the letters "M. A.," which seem to be part of the 
signature. 

FRANCE AND BELGIUM 

GHENT. Archaeological Inventory. An archaeological inventory, 
made in an interesting way, has been begun for the town of Ghent. A 
photograph of a monument and its description are printed upon a single 
sheet. These fiches archeologiques may then be classified in any order which 
may be desired, and thus possess the advantages of the card catalogue system 
of an American library. (R. Art Chre't. 1902, p. 259-260.) 

LYONS. An Illuminated Manuscript. In the Chapter House of 
the Cathedral at Lyons is a pontifical of the fourteenth century, important 
not only because it once belonged to the chapel of the popes, but because it 
contains the signature of the miniaturist who inscribed and illuminated it. 
It contains the ceremony for the consecration of a pope, for the coronation 
of an emperor, and for the benediction of an empress. It is signed, Explicit 
liber quern scripsit Rainerius de Florentia, scriptor atque notarius. (Bull. Hist. 
Dioc. Lyon, 1902, pp. 24-28.) 

PARIS. The Gift of Adolphe De Rothschild to the Louvre. 
The magnificent gift of Baron Adolphe de Rothschild, consisting largely of 
goldsmiths' work of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and representing 
the art of France, Italy, Flanders, Germany, and Spain, is described in Gaz. 
B.-A. 1902, pp. 265-279, by P. FRANTZ MARCOU. 

In Les Arts, March, 1902, pp. 8-14, is a finely illustrated article on 
the subject by GASTON MIGEON. A folio of thirty-seven plates has also 
been published by E. MOLINER, entitled, Donation de M. le baron Adolphe 
de Rothschild. Paris, 1902. 

LOUVAIN. The Last Painting of Jan Van Eyck. In the R. Art 
Chret. 1902, pp. 1-6, W. H. JAMES WEALE publishes a fine triptych by Jan 
Van Eyck. The painting was made for the Grey Friars of Ypres for the 
Church of St. Martin, and its history may be traced down to the present 
day. It now belongs to N. G. Helleputte of Louvain. The central panel, 
which represents an abbot worshipping the Madonna and Child, is authen- 
ticated also by drawings now in the Germanic Museum at Nuremberg and 
in the Albertina at Vienna. The painting was not entirely completed when 
Jan Van Eyck died, in 1441. 

GERMANY 

DUSSELDORF. Exhibition of Mediaeval Art. In connection 
with the display of modern German industry and art, an exposition of the 



CHRISTIAN ART] ARCHAEOLOGICAL NEWS, 1902 385 

artistic productions of Rhenish Germany in the Middle Ages, principally in 
the domain of ecclesiastical architecture and sculpture, was opened on the 
first of May. Practically all the great cathedral seats of northwestern Ger- 
many Aix-la-Chapelle, Cologne, Minister, Paderborn, Hildesheim, Osna- 
briick have showered their treasures on this exposition, so that there is 
here offered an unequalled opportunity for studying from the originals 
what mediaeval handicraft produced in ivory, wood, intaglio, bronze, silver, 
and gold work. Large monumental works of German architecture and 
sculpture are represented here by casts. This exposition is especially inter- 
esting in view of the museums of German mediaeval art now being planned 
for Berlin, Munich, and Cambridge, Mass. {New York Evening Post, June 
17, 1902.) 

LTJBECK. Polyptych by Hans Memling. Visitors to Liibeck are 
very apt to overlook an important altarpiece by Memling, in the Cathedral, 
since it is not generally exposed to view. This altarpiece is not unknown 
to writers like Weale and Kaemmerer, and has been made the subject of a 
special monograph published at Liibeck by Noehring, 1901. It forms the 
subject of an interesting article by GEORGES SERVIERES in Gaz.B.-A. 1902, 
pp. 119-132. 

STRASSBURG. A Painting by Filippo Mazzola. In the Museum 
at Strassburg there is a painting of the Resurrection on the back of which 
has recently been discovered the signature: 1497, FILIPVS MAZOLVS. 
This is the third painting by this artist which has recently been brought to 
light. (VENTURI, L' Arte, 1901, p. 417.) 

AUSTRIA 

VIENNA. Three Paintings by Tiepolo. During the rebuilding of 
the house of an old-established firm of art dealers in Vienna a great roll of 
canvas was discovered among a heap of rubbish, which, on closer inspection, 
turned out to be three pictures by Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, who is known 
to have had personal relations with the grandfather of the present head of 
the firm. The pictures, which must have lain hidden for well-nigh thirty 
years, represent ' Hera banishing Selene,' ' The Triumph of Amphitrite,' 
and 'Bacchus and Ariadne' (air, water, and earth), and are said to be 
excellent specimens of the painter's art. The coloring, for which he was 
famous, is well preserved. (Athen. June 7, 1902.) 

ENGLAND 

ROMSEY ABBEY. Remains of Saxon Work. In Archaeologia, 
LVII, 2 (1901), pp. 317-320 (3 pis.), C. R. PEERS describes foundations 
discovered in Romsey Abbey Church in 1900. The round Saxon apse was 
traced. Other suggestions concerning the Saxon building are conjectural. 
Walls of different dates, about 1090, 1120-1160, about 1160, and foundations 
of walls of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries are described. 



Archaeological 
Institute 
of America 



THE STAGE ENTRANCES OF THE SMALL THEATRE 

AT POMPEII 



IN the wall at the rear of the stage of the Small Theatre at 
Pompeii there were five doors. Only the openings remain; 
all traces of the door frames, as well as of the stucco which 
once covered the wall, have disappeared. 

Three of the doors correspond with the stage entrances usual 
in Roman times. That marked a in Fig. 1, distinguished from 
the rest by its size (width of the opening 2.36 m., approximately 
8 Roman feet), according to the description of the stage by 
Vitruvius (V, 7, 8), would be "the double door in the middle 
with ornamentation like that of a palace." The doors next to it 
on either side were somewhat narrower (width of the openings 
1.75 m., approximately 6 Roman feet) ; they are the hospitalia 
of Vitruvius, the entrances designated as " right" and "left" 
in the description of Pollux. 1 The two remaining entrances, 
one near each end (<#, d' , width of the openings, 3 feet 1 inch 
Roman measurement), are so small that they must have been 
closed by a single door. 

At the west end of the stage is a broad doorway ((7'), open- 
ing into the colonnade which led to the left parodos of the 
Large Theatre. It is shown in a plate by Mazois, 2 which is 
reproduced in fig. 98 of the Overbeck-Mau Pompeji ; the 
opening has the same width (2.36 m.) as that of the middle 
door a. There is a similar doorway ((7) at the opposite end, 
opening into a colonnade which was extended along the side 
of the building on Stabian Street. Large double doors were 

1 Onomast. IV, 124. 2 Les mines de Pompei, vol. IV, pi. 27. 

American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series. Journal of the 387 

Archaeological Institute of America, Vol. VI (1902), No. 4. 



388 



FRANCIS W. KELSEY 



likewise placed in the ends of the long and narrow dressing 
room, postscaenium, behind the stage. One (D) opened into 
the colonnade on Stabian Street, the other (/>') into the por- 




FIGURE 1. PLAN OF THE SMALL THEATRE AT POMPEII. 

(After Mazois, Les mines de Pompi, vol. IV, pi. 28, and Overbeck-Mau, 
Pompeji, fig. 97.) 



, 6, c. The ordinary stage entrances. 
d, d'. Small entrances to the stage. 

e,e',f,f'. Rear entrances of the post- 
scaenium. 

A, A'. Entrances to the parodoi, over 

which are the tribunalia, 
5,5. 

B, B', Entrances to passageway 

leading to left parodos of 
the Large Theatre. 



C, C'. Large entrances at the ends of 

the stage. 

D, D'. Large entrances at the ends of 

the postscaenium. 

E, Orchestra. 

F, Portico at entrance of the Theatre 

Colonnade. 

G, G'. Thoroughfare from Stabiau St. 

to the Theatre Colonnade. 
A. Small, low room under the stage. 



tico (JP) of the Theatre Colonnade, which in late times was 
transformed into barracks for gladiators ; l the openings have 
the same width as those at a, (7, and C 1 '. The four doors open- 



See Pompeii: Its Life and Art, second edition, plan 3, and chap. XXIII. 



SMALL THEATRE AT POMPEII 389 

ing at the rear of the postscaenium (<?, e',f)f r ) are narrow and 
all of the same width, 5^- Roman feet. 

The purpose of these many doors is not obvious. It must 
be determined, if at all, by considerations relating to the plan 
and use of the building. The designation of the building is 
not in doubt. On the inscription, preserved in duplicate, which 
gives us the names of the builders {C.I.L. X. 844), it is called 
a " roofed theatre," theatrum tectum. But if the inscription 
had not been preserved, the existence of a roof must have been 
inferred from the shape of the structure. The ends of the 
upper ranges of seats were cut off, not, as Nissen supposes, 1 
because the architect was obliged to fit his building into a lim- 
ited space, but rather in order to adapt it to the requirements 
of a rectangular plan, suitable for the construction of a roof ; 
the depth might have been considerably increased without 
serious encroachment upon the area of the Large Theatre. 
That the roof must have been of wood is evident from the 
comparative thinness of the walls, which are too light to have 
sustained vaulting. The date of erection, which has been 
determined within narrow limits, may safely be placed within 
a couple of decades after the establishment of a Roman colony 
at Pompeii, in 80 B.C. 

In most respects the plan does not differ from that of most 
Roman theatres ; yet the building, with much probability, has 
generally been classed as an Odeum. The close association of 
such a structure with a large theatre has been frequently 
noted, 2 and it may well be that the Small Theatre in this and 
other cases was used for musical as well as dramatic exhibi- 
tions. It is, perhaps, not without significance, in relation to 
the use of the stage for theatrical performances, that a small, 
low room was built under the left end (A) with a separate wall 
at the rear, of the same height as the other walls supporting 
the stage (indicated on the Plan by broken lines), and an 

1 Pompejanische Studien, p. 240. 

2 See the list given by Miiller, Buhnenalterthumer, p. 40, Anm. 3, and his 
characterization of an Odeum as a roofed theatre, p. 66. 



390 



FRANCIS W. KELSEY 



opening into the oblong space under the middle. In ancient 
theatres the machine used for suspending gods and heroes in 
the air was at the left of the stage, 1 and was probably steadied 
by ropes running to pulleys underneath ; in their scenic effects 
the ancients aimed at suggestion rather than illusion. 

The two tribunals (tribunalia, 5, 5), resting on the vaults 
over the parodoi, together with the four rows of seats above 




FIGURE 2. VIEW OF THE SMALL THEATRE AT POMPEII. FROM THE INNER 

END OF THE LEFT PARODOS. 
After Pompeii: Its Life and Art, second edition, fig. 67. 

them, are entirely cut off from the seats of the adjoining cavea 
by a sloping stone parapet ; the parapet on the west side, with 
the tribunal and the vault of the parodos underneath, is shown 
in Fig. 2. Entrance to the tribunals was made possible by 
narrow stone steps on the side of the stage (6, 6), which start 
from the floor of the stage near the front of the vaults over the 
parodoi, and ascend toward the outside wall ; the last three 

1 Poll. IV, 128. 



SMALL THEATRE AT POMPEII 391 

steps, at right angles with the rest, are cut in the side of the 
tribunal itself. 

Our knowledge of the character and requirements of dra- 
matic and musical exhibitions in the Roman period is so inade- 
quate that explanations based upon them must remain purely 
conjectural. It cannot, however, be the result of accident that 
the doors at the ends of the stage ( (7, (7) and of the proscae- 
nium (_Z), D') were made of the same width, and that this 
measurement, again, corresponds with the width of the "palace 
entrance," a. The suggestion that these doors were designed 
for the admission of light to the stage and dressing-room 1 is 
untenable. How the building was lighted we do not know. 
Taking account of its condition at the time of excavation, we 
may suppose that the roof was broken in by the earthquake 
of 63 A.D., and that, while the debris had been cleared away, 
a new roof had not yet been built ; evidence in regard to the 
shape of the roof is therefore entirely lacking. A flat roof, 
however, with a rectangular opening in the middle for light 
and air, like the compluvium of the large atriums, is hardly 
to be thought of. The span, nearly 100 Roman feet, is so 
great that supporting columns would have been needed ; such 
columns in a theatre would not have been tolerated by a 
Roman audience on account of their interference with the 
view, and there is no trace of a foundation of a base among 
the seats of the cavea. It is more likely that the building was 
covered by a low hip-roof supported on simple wooden trusses ; 
but even in this case it is not necessary to assume an opening 
for light in the middle, as in the case of the Odeion of Hero- 
des Atticus, which was about two and a half times as large. 
Gau reports that traces of columns " supporting the roof " were 
still to be seen on the top of the outside walls, and suggests 
that the spaces between them were left open " for the admis- 
sion of light and air." So large a roof, resting entirely on 
columns, would have been insecure. It is more reasonable to 

1 Gau (Mazois, Les mines de Pompei, vol. IV, p. 55) speaks of C' as "1'es- 
pece de fenetre carree qui donne sur le proscenium." 



392 



FRANCIS W. KELSET 



believe that the arrangement for admitting light was similar 
to that of the much older Basilica, as restored by Professor 
Mau (Fig. 3); that is, on the top of the outside wall, at the 
level of the higher portions now standing, sections of wall 
containing windows were built alternating with short rows 
of columns, the intercolumniations of which were left open. 
These were the columns of which traces were seen by Gau. 
When the roof fell in, at the time of the great earthquake, the 
columns and at least portions of the intervening sections of 




FIGURE 3. EXTERIOR OF THE BASILICA AT POMPEII, AS RESTORED BY PRO- 
FESSOR MAU ; AT THE LEFT, THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF THE FORUM. 

After Pompeii : Its Life and Art, fig. 25. 

wall must have been shaken down with it. As the Pompeians 
cleared away the debris and resolved to leave the building 
unroofed, they naturally removed any remaining portions of 
the upper wall that had not been thrown down, so as to leave 
the outside of the building of a uniform height. The use of 
windows in an outside wall above the ranges of seats is well 
illustrated in the small theatre at Anemurion, in Cilicia. 1 We 
are warranted in believing that our building was lighted by 
means of openings in the upper wall ; but in any case the light 

1 The similarity of this theatre to the Small Theatre at Pompeii was first 
recognized by Mazois (vol. IV, pp. 59-60, pi. 28). 



SMALL THEATRE AT POMPEII 393 

furnished to the stage and dressing-room by the doors (7, (7, 
.Z), D' would have been so inadequate that we must assume the 
admission of light from above. 

The probable use of these large doors has been suggested by 
Professor Mau. We may reasonably assume for the Small 
Theatre at Pompeii, at least in the earlier decades, the intro- 
duction of processions at the opening of performances similar 
to those organized to inaugurate public exhibitions elsewhere. 
Such processions, at any rate before the Theatre Colonnade 
had been converted into gladiatorial barracks, probably started 
from the Forum or the court of the temple of Apollo, and after 
passing through the Forum Triangulare proceeded along the 
colonnade at the rear of the stage of the Large Theatre, enter- 
ing the Small Theatre through the door at the west end of the 
stage (") Passing across the stage, they would leave the 
building by the opposite door ((7). Stabian Street afforded 
no suitable place for disbanding ; the colonnade at the side of 
the theatre therefore was so planned that the portion opposite 
the entrances and D should have a greater depth than the 
rest, in order to make it possible for the processions to turn 
without being crowded and pass back through the dressing- 
room and the door D' to some place, apparently at the rear of 
the Large Theatre, where they could be disbanded. Two small 
entrances, one at each end of the stage the itinera versura- 
rum of Vitruvius were required for the use of actors repre- 
sented as coming from the city and from a distance ; in the 
place of these, large entrances were made, as broad as the " pal- 
ace door " at the middle of the stage, in order that the proces- 
sions might be received and dismissed with becoming dignity ; 
and since the processions could not conveniently make their 
way back through the narrow thoroughfare doubtless crowded 
on gala days between Stabian Street and the Theatre Colon- 
nade (6r, (7'), similar doors, needed for no other purpose, were 
placed in the ends of the dressing-room. 

To this explanation needs only to be added that the four 
large doors must ordinarily have been kept closed, whether a 



394 FRANCIS W. KELSEY 

performance was going on or not. If the doors were left open 
while a play or a musical exhibition was in progress, the prep- 
arations in the dressing-room and the performance on the stage 
must have been seriously disturbed by the noise outside and 
the crowding in of idlers; we must not assume that a Pom- 
peian crowd on a holiday was less curious or mobile than an 
Italian crowd at Nola or Taranto on the occasion of a festa. 
If the Theatre was not in use, the doors at and O' must 
have remained shut to prevent ready access to the board floor 
of the stage, which would have been ruined by the running 
across it ; and it is reasonable to suppose that all the entrances 
of the dressing-room were kept closed on account of the stor- 
age of stage properties in it. 

There remain to be considered the two narrow doors at d 
and d 1 '. These were probably designed to give access to the 
two tribunals. There is no good reason for supposing that 
the Small Theatre was remodelled in antiquity 1 or that the 
tribunals, like those of the Large Theatre, 2 were an addition 
not contemplated in the original plan. During the period of 
almost a hundred and fifty years in which the Theatre was in 
use, repairs must have been made, and there has been some 
mending of the walls since excavation ; but there is no evi- 
dence that points to a rebuilding. Unless further excavation 
about the foundations shall prove the contrary, we must believe 
that the vaults over the parodoi, together with the tribunals, and 
the doors d, d', are a part of the structure as at first designed. 

Assuming that the large doors (7', were opened only for 
the entrance and exit of processions and for the occasional use of 
actors, we see that those entitled to the distinction of a seat on 
the tribunals 3 might have reached the foot of the stairs leading 
to them in one of three ways : 

First, by entering from the postscaenium through the doors 

1 Canina, Arch. Antiqua, vol. IX, p. 324. 2 C.I.L., X, 833, 834. 

8 Portable chairs were used on the tribunals, as well as on the broad ledges 
of the ima cavea (Fig. 1, 1). Piranesi (II Teatro d 1 Ercolano, pi. 9) gives 
reproductions of two bronze chairs found on the tribunals of the theatre at 
Herculaneum. 



SMALL THEATRE AT POMPEII 395 

b and c and crossing the stage. It is impossible to believe, 
however, that the consistent usage of antiquity could have 
been so far set aside as to permit the use of these doors by any 
who were not performers ; and in Satyr plays, for example, if 
such were presented here, they must have been entirely con- 
cealed behind the rustic scenery. 

Second, by entering the building at A and A.\ passing 
through the parodoi and mounting the stage by means of 
wooden steps. This would perhaps have involved a less seri- 
ous offence against ancient taste than the use of the ordinary 
stage entrances. The wall at the front of the stage, unlike that 
of the Large Theatre, is straight, and presented an unbroken 
surface, being veneered with marble. If such a means of 
access to the tribunals had been contemplated, recourse would 
not have been had to wooden steps, like those set in place when 
needed for the use of the actors, but inconspicuous permanent 
steps would have been built in the front of the stage, at the 
ends. 

Third, by entering from the postscaenium through the doors 
d and d' , and passing over the stage. The use of the doors in 
this connection obviously harmonizes with the conditions ; be- 
fore accepting it as the correct explanation, however, we must 
inquire whether the doors were probably needed for any other 
purpose. 

Gau thought that these doors had something to do with the 
arrangements of the theatre, but were hidden from the view of 
the audience " by some decoration " ; Wieseler 1 regarded them 
as designed to connect the postscaenium with side- wings, para- 
skenia. At first glance one might be inclined to look upon the 
two transverse supporting walls under the stage (Fig. 1 : 7, 7) as 
foundations of side-wings ; but if partitions, whether temporary 
or permanent, had been erected on these walls, they would have 
interfered with the view of a number of those having seats on 
or above the tribunals, and sufficient room would not have been 
left between them and the entrances b and c for the mounting 

1 Theatergebaude und Denkmaler des Buhnenwesens, p. 14. 



396 



FRANCIS W. KELSET 



of the tr